US4249620A - Method of boring holes which are open at both ends in the ground - Google Patents

Method of boring holes which are open at both ends in the ground Download PDF

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Publication number
US4249620A
US4249620A US06/037,338 US3733879A US4249620A US 4249620 A US4249620 A US 4249620A US 3733879 A US3733879 A US 3733879A US 4249620 A US4249620 A US 4249620A
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United States
Prior art keywords
pilot bore
displacement hammer
hammer
cable
diameter
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US06/037,338
Inventor
Paul Schmidt
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Paul Schmidt
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Publication date
Priority to DE2824915 priority Critical
Priority to DE19782824915 priority patent/DE2824915C2/de
Application filed by Paul Schmidt filed Critical Paul Schmidt
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Publication of US4249620A publication Critical patent/US4249620A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B7/00Special methods or apparatus for drilling
    • E21B7/04Directional drilling
    • E21B7/046Directional drilling horizontal drilling
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B7/00Special methods or apparatus for drilling
    • E21B7/28Enlarging drilled holes, e.g. by counterboring
    • E21B7/30Enlarging drilled holes, e.g. by counterboring without earth removal

Abstract

A method of boring holes in the ground, which holes are open at both ends, includes forming an open-ended pilot bore by means of a first self-propelled displacement hammer of smaller diameter. Next a cable is introduced through the pilot bore and then the diameter of the pilot bore is increased to form the hole by means of a second displacement hammer of greater diameter. The second displacement hammer is guided through the pilot bore by pulling it with the cable which for this purpose is attached to the leading end of the second hammer.

Description

This invention relates to methods of boring holes in the ground by means of a self-propelled displacement hammer, which holes are open at both ends.

Such ground bores, which may extend horizontally, vertically or at an inclination, are used, for example, in the connection of pipes from houses and other buildings to main drainage systems. In comparison with the laying of pipes in open trenches, trenchless laying by means of such bores has the advantage that in gardens, cultivated areas or roads, no expensive replacement or repaving operations are necessary and that such pipes can be laid straight through underneath fences and walls. For this purpose, a self-propelled displacement hammer is accurately aligned and drives itself percussively, being operated by compressed air, automatically through the ground. The pipes are pulled, for example, by a steel cable which is towed behind the hammer into the bore and may be additionally advanced by means of a tackle.

Although such trenchless laying of pipes has proved very satisfactory, difficulties frequently occur in achieving a sufficiently accurately aligned bore. These difficulties are dependent upon the nature of the ground, the type of pipes to be laid and other influences.

The object of the present invention is to provide a method of forming ground bores which extend accurately between two points.

To this end, according to this invention, we provide a method of boring holes in the ground, which holes are open at both ends, by means of a self-propelled displacement hammer, wherein an accurately aligned pilot bore of small diameter is first formed in advance of the displacement hammer, a cable is inserted through the pilot bore, then the diameter of the pilot bore is increased by means of the displacement hammer which is of larger diameter than the pilot bore, the displacement hammer being guided through the pilot bore by being pulled by the cable.

Because initially a pilot bore of small diameter is produced, a very much more accurate path of the final main hole can be achieved and moreover after the construction of the pilot bore it is possible to check whether this is sufficiently accurately aligned and to make corrections if necessary. A pilot bore of small diameter can be constructed with a displacement hammer very much more rapidly than a bore of larger diameter. If, therefore, the pilot bore is not correctly aligned towards the target and a new one has to be constructed, no great expense is required.

The accuracy of the main hole is assured by the fact that firstly the pilot bore extends with the correct alignment and secondly that the displacement hammer of greater diameter is pulled and thus guided by means of the cable introduced through the pilot bore, thus considerably improving the directional stability.

The cable is preferably pulled into the pilot bore by the pilot bore displacement hammer and for this purpose it can be secured either directly to the hammer or to the compressed air hose leading to the hammer. In the latter case the cable is not pulled completely through the pilot bore until the compressed air hose is pulled out from the bore after the bore has been completed.

To increase the directional stability of the pilot bore hammer, a follow-up extension pipe can be fixed to it. Pulling-in of a drainage pipe or underground cable, for example, in the main hole may with advantage be effected by the pipe or cable being attached to the rearward end of the displacement hammer of greater diameter. To damp the vibrations of the displacement hammer in the towed pipe or cable or to reduce these vibrations, the towed pipe or cable is preferably subjected to a compression force in the direction of advance.

A ground bore hole for a branch drain pipe can be constructed either before or after the laying of a main drain to which the branch is to be connected. In either case it is of advantage to construct a starting pit at which one open end of the hole is located using a shoring frame which is pressed into the ground and within which the ground is excavated. The pilot bore hammer is then lowered on a starting carriage into the starting pit and, after a flap in the shoring frame has been opened, the pilot bore is formed. The shoring frame permits simple anchoring of a device for subsequently pushing forward the towed tube and may be of such a size as to permit the displacement hammer to be lowered on a starting carriage with a concrete plinth into the pit. This makes any further anchorage in the ground unnecessary. A shoring frame can be used in a similar way for a target pit at the other open end of the hole.

An example of a method in accordance with this invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying diagrammatic drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a longitudinal section showing the formation of a pilot bore;

FIG. 2 is a similar section showing the pilot bore with a cable pulled through it;

FIG. 3 is a similar section showing the widening of the pilot bore;

FIG. 4 is a sectional perspective view of a shoring frame;

FIG. 5 shows the lowering of a displacement hammer into a pit shored by the frame shown in FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 shows the setting-up of the hammer in the pit for widening a pilot bore, extending from the pit; and,

FIG. 7 shows the pulling and pushing of a pipe into the widened bore.

Referring to FIGS. 1 to 3, a self-propelled, pneumatically operated displacement hammer 2 of relatively small diameter is driven from a starting pit 8 towards a target pit 10 through the ground, thus producing a pilot bore 6. The displacement hammer 2 is driven by compressed air, supplied through a hose 4. A steel cable 12 is attached directly to the displacement hammer 2 or to the hose 4. This cable extends, after the pilot bore 6 has been completed, through the pilot bore 6 in the manner shown in FIG. 2. The cable 12 is attached by a pulling shackle 13 to the nose of a widening-out displacement hammer 14 of greater diameter, which widens the pilot bore 6 out to the diameter of the main bore 16. In order to guide the widening-out hammer 14 accurately through the pilot bore 6, a pull is exerted on the steel cable 12, in this example by means of an excavator arm 15. The actual tunnelling work in the construction of the main bore 16 is, however, performed by the displacement hammer 14.

In very long bore holes it may be of advantage to provide the displacement hammer 2 for the pilot bore 6 with a follow-up extension pipe which is drawn by the hammer through the bore.

The construction of the branch drain pipes leading from individual buildings preferably takes place in advance of the main drain construction. At a point through which the main drain is to be laid later, a shoring frame 18, having sharpened cutting edges at its lower end, is pushed by an excavator arm into the ground and the space within the frame is excavated until it has reached the desired depth. Different depths of the pit can be attained by using add-on sections. After completion of the starting pit 8 or the target pit 10, a flap 20 in the shoring frame is lifted so that the bore can be commenced from this point or the displacement hammer can emerge from the bore hole after completion of the latter.

FIGS. 5 to 7 show the construction of the main bore. For this purpose, a displacement hammer 14 is fixed on a starting carriage 22 with a concrete plinth 24. The concrete plinth 24 together with the starting carriage 22 and the displacement hammer 14 are lowered by a crane into the starting pit 8 and, as shown in FIG. 6, the hammer is set in operation. As soon as the displacement hammer 14 has penetrated sufficiently far into the bore 16, a towed pipe 26 is fixed to its rear end and is subjected to a pushing force. For this purpose, a roller support 32 with a roller 30 is fixed to the rear end of the pipe, a cable 34 which is tensioned by means of a cable winch 28, being conducted around the roller. In this manner the vibrations of the displacement hammer 14 are damped or reduced in the towed pipe 26. The displacement hammer 14 is pulled by means of a cable 12 in the manner shown in FIG. 3, so that it follows accurately the direction of the pilot bore 6.

After the laying of the household branch drain pipes, a trench for the main drain is excavated; the main drain pipes are laid and are connected to the household branches.

If the household branches have to be constructed after the laying of the main drain, then at those points where the household branch connection is to be made, the shoring frame is introduced as far downwards as the laid main drain and from this point the boring is started. In this case, the household branch enters the main drain from above through an elbow bend.

Claims (5)

I claim:
1. A method of boring holes, which are open at both ends, in the ground by means of a self-propelled displacement hammer, said method comprising the steps of first forming an accurately aligned pilot bore of relatively small diameter in advance of said displacement hammer, inserting a cable through said pilot bore, connecting one end of said cable to said displacement hammer and then causing said hammer to move through said pilot bore, said displacement hammer being of a greater diameter than said pilot bore whereby said pilot bore is increased in diameter, guiding said displacement hammer through said pilot bore by pulling displacement hammer through said bore by pulling on said cable and attaching a follow-up extension pipe to said displacement hammer of smaller diameter before said displacement hammer of smaller diameter forms said pilot bore.
2. A method of boring holes, which are open at both ends, in the ground by means of a self-propelled displacement hammer, said method comprising the steps of first forming an accurately aligned pilot bore of relatively small diameter in advance of said displacement hammer, inserting a cable through said pilot bore, connecting one end of said cable to said displacement hammer and then causing said hammer to move through said pilot bore, said displacement hammer being of a greater diameter than said pilot bore whereby said pilot bore is increased in diameter, guiding said displacement hammer through said pilot bore by pulling displacement hammer through said bore by pulling on said cable, forming said pilot bore by means of a further displacement hammer of smaller diameter and inserting said cable through said pilot bore by attaching said cable to said displacement hammer of smaller diameter before said pilot bore is formed by said displacement hammer of smaller diameter, whereby said cable is drawn through said pilot bore by said displacement hammer of smaller diameter, and attaching a pipe to said displacement hammer of greater diameter before said hammer of greater diameter is caused to move through said pilot bore and towing said pipe through said pilot bore as said pilot bore is increased in diameter by the passage of said displacement hammer of greater diameter.
3. A method as claimed in claim 2, further comprising the step of pushing said towed pipe in the direction of advance of said hammer of greater diameter through said pilot bore.
4. A method of boring holes, which are open at both ends, in the ground by means of a self-propelled displacement hammer, said method comprising the steps of first forming an accurately aligned pilot bore of relatively small diameter in advance of said displacement hammer, inserting a cable through said pilot bore, connecting one end of said cable to said displacement hammer and then causing said hammer to move through said pilot bore, said displacement hammer being of a greater diameter than said pilot bore whereby said pilot bore is increased in diameter, guiding said displacement hammer through said pilot bore by pulling displacement hammer through said bore by pulling on said cable, forming said pilot bore by means of a further displacement hammer of smaller diameter and inserting said cable through said pilot bore by attaching said cable to said displacement hammer of smaller diameter before said pilot bore is formed by said displacement hammer of smaller diameter, whereby said cable is drawn through said pilot bore by said displacement hammer of smaller diameter, constructing a staring pit at one open end of said hole by the steps of pressing a shoring frame into said ground, excavating said ground within said frame and subsequently lowering said displacement hammer of smaller diameter on a staring carriage into said staring pit, opening a flap in said shoring frame and staring the formation of said pilot bore with said displacement hammer of smaller diameter in ground exposed by the opening of said flap.
5. A method as claimed in claim 4, further comprising forming a target pit by the same steps as those by which said starting pit is formed.
US06/037,338 1978-06-07 1979-05-09 Method of boring holes which are open at both ends in the ground Expired - Lifetime US4249620A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE2824915 1978-06-07
DE19782824915 DE2824915C2 (en) 1978-06-07 1978-06-07

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US4249620A true US4249620A (en) 1981-02-10

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US06/037,338 Expired - Lifetime US4249620A (en) 1978-06-07 1979-05-09 Method of boring holes which are open at both ends in the ground

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US (1) US4249620A (en)
JP (1) JPS54159301A (en)
CH (1) CH638014A5 (en)
DE (1) DE2824915C2 (en)
FR (1) FR2428110B1 (en)
GB (1) GB2022651B (en)
SE (1) SE7904922L (en)

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4448567A (en) * 1980-02-05 1984-05-15 Pipe Master International Ltd. Method for installing lines, pipes or cables underground
US4493379A (en) * 1980-10-14 1985-01-15 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Cable reaming apparatus and method
US4507019A (en) * 1983-02-22 1985-03-26 Expand-A-Line, Incorporated Method and apparatus for replacing buried pipe
US4592432A (en) * 1985-06-03 1986-06-03 Williams Russell R Automatically operated boring head
US4637756A (en) * 1985-01-23 1987-01-20 Boles Flounoy W Apparatus for removing and replacing pipe beneath an earthfill
US5238073A (en) * 1991-04-04 1993-08-24 Rear Ian G Uphole hammer
US5301758A (en) * 1990-12-24 1994-04-12 Terra Ag Fuer Tiefbautechnik Method and apparatus for enlarging a bore hole
US5303783A (en) * 1993-03-01 1994-04-19 Begnaud Rudy J Horizontal earth bore tool
US5467831A (en) * 1994-08-22 1995-11-21 Spektor; Michael B. Monotube differential pneumopercussive reversible self-propelled soil penetrating machine with stabilizers
US5507597A (en) * 1994-05-12 1996-04-16 Mcconnell; W. Harry Underground pipe replacement method
US20070048090A1 (en) * 2005-08-31 2007-03-01 Wentworth Steven W Method and apparatus for installation of underground ducts
US20080286051A1 (en) * 2007-05-17 2008-11-20 Jody Duggan Method of and apparatus for pulling a pipe

Families Citing this family (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2503763B1 (en) * 1981-04-14 1983-11-04 Sade Travaux Hydraulique
JPS6350541Y2 (en) * 1982-12-23 1988-12-26
DE3533995C2 (en) * 1985-09-24 1988-01-14 Tracto-Technik Paul Schmidt Maschinenfabrik Gmbh, 5940 Lennestadt, De
GB8605009D0 (en) * 1986-02-28 1986-04-09 Roxbury Ltd Soil displacement tools
BE1000905A4 (en) * 1987-09-04 1989-05-09 Smet Nic Hilde Walter Method for installing a pipe in the ground.
DE3826513C2 (en) * 1988-08-04 1990-08-16 Schmidt, Paul, Dipl.-Ing., 5940 Lennestadt, De
DE3829628C2 (en) * 1988-09-01 1990-08-16 Schmidt, Paul, Dipl.-Ing., 5940 Lennestadt, De
US9169611B2 (en) 2000-06-15 2015-10-27 Geopier Foundation Company, Inc. Method and apparatus for building support piers from one or more successive lifts formed in a soil matrix
US7226246B2 (en) 2000-06-15 2007-06-05 Geotechnical Reinforcement, Inc. Apparatus and method for building support piers from one or successive lifts formed in a soil matrix
DE102008018574A1 (en) * 2008-04-12 2009-10-15 Kögler, Rüdiger, Dr. Method and devices for laying a pipeline in the ground

Citations (10)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2074003A (en) * 1935-01-21 1937-03-16 Templeton Kenly & Co Ltd Method of culverting embankments
US2349033A (en) * 1940-06-25 1944-05-16 Nathaniel R Elliott Boring head
US2746719A (en) * 1952-05-22 1956-05-22 Alain R Seligman Drilling device for large bores
US2837324A (en) * 1955-04-04 1958-06-03 West Canadian Collieries Ltd Apparatus for drilling large holes between galleries
GB841600A (en) * 1957-02-23 1960-07-20 Eric Gerhard Isbrand Method of and apparatus for laying pipe lines and the like
US3232360A (en) * 1963-11-04 1966-02-01 Mobile Drilling Co Inc Bore positioning method and apparatus
US3396807A (en) * 1966-09-27 1968-08-13 Jack K. Menton Rotary-impact drill
US3486572A (en) * 1967-02-28 1969-12-30 Lawrence Mfg Co Apparatus for forming inclined bores
US3905431A (en) * 1972-10-02 1975-09-16 Boehler & Co Ag Geb Earth boring method and apparatus
US4117895A (en) * 1977-03-30 1978-10-03 Smith International, Inc. Apparatus and method for enlarging underground arcuate bore holes

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US1596848A (en) * 1923-05-03 1926-08-17 Mangnall Arthur Rivington Earth-boring apparatus
FR1476076A (en) * 1966-04-08 1967-04-07 Zaklady Remontu Masz Budowlany horizontal drilling process through earthen embankments, and device for implementing this method
DE1811421A1 (en) * 1968-11-28 1970-06-18 Jakob Thaler A method of laying cables and pipes in Fahrbahnkoerpern
GB1257285A (en) * 1970-04-02 1971-12-15
JPS4923410A (en) * 1972-06-28 1974-03-01
DE2242605C3 (en) * 1972-08-30 1984-06-07 Paul 5940 Lennestadt De Schmidt
US3894402A (en) * 1974-07-19 1975-07-15 Martin D Cherrington Apparatus and method for emplacing a conduit along an underground arcuate path
JPS5723717B2 (en) * 1974-08-19 1982-05-20
AT338700B (en) * 1975-05-20 1977-09-12 Inst Gornogo Dela Sibirskogo O Apparatus compaction to form of holes in the ground by its

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2074003A (en) * 1935-01-21 1937-03-16 Templeton Kenly & Co Ltd Method of culverting embankments
US2349033A (en) * 1940-06-25 1944-05-16 Nathaniel R Elliott Boring head
US2746719A (en) * 1952-05-22 1956-05-22 Alain R Seligman Drilling device for large bores
US2837324A (en) * 1955-04-04 1958-06-03 West Canadian Collieries Ltd Apparatus for drilling large holes between galleries
GB841600A (en) * 1957-02-23 1960-07-20 Eric Gerhard Isbrand Method of and apparatus for laying pipe lines and the like
US3232360A (en) * 1963-11-04 1966-02-01 Mobile Drilling Co Inc Bore positioning method and apparatus
US3396807A (en) * 1966-09-27 1968-08-13 Jack K. Menton Rotary-impact drill
US3486572A (en) * 1967-02-28 1969-12-30 Lawrence Mfg Co Apparatus for forming inclined bores
US3905431A (en) * 1972-10-02 1975-09-16 Boehler & Co Ag Geb Earth boring method and apparatus
US4117895A (en) * 1977-03-30 1978-10-03 Smith International, Inc. Apparatus and method for enlarging underground arcuate bore holes

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4448567A (en) * 1980-02-05 1984-05-15 Pipe Master International Ltd. Method for installing lines, pipes or cables underground
US4493379A (en) * 1980-10-14 1985-01-15 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Cable reaming apparatus and method
US4507019A (en) * 1983-02-22 1985-03-26 Expand-A-Line, Incorporated Method and apparatus for replacing buried pipe
US4637756A (en) * 1985-01-23 1987-01-20 Boles Flounoy W Apparatus for removing and replacing pipe beneath an earthfill
US4592432A (en) * 1985-06-03 1986-06-03 Williams Russell R Automatically operated boring head
US5301758A (en) * 1990-12-24 1994-04-12 Terra Ag Fuer Tiefbautechnik Method and apparatus for enlarging a bore hole
US5238073A (en) * 1991-04-04 1993-08-24 Rear Ian G Uphole hammer
US5303783A (en) * 1993-03-01 1994-04-19 Begnaud Rudy J Horizontal earth bore tool
US5507597A (en) * 1994-05-12 1996-04-16 Mcconnell; W. Harry Underground pipe replacement method
US5467831A (en) * 1994-08-22 1995-11-21 Spektor; Michael B. Monotube differential pneumopercussive reversible self-propelled soil penetrating machine with stabilizers
US20070048090A1 (en) * 2005-08-31 2007-03-01 Wentworth Steven W Method and apparatus for installation of underground ducts
US20080286051A1 (en) * 2007-05-17 2008-11-20 Jody Duggan Method of and apparatus for pulling a pipe
US7985037B2 (en) 2007-05-17 2011-07-26 Jody Duggan Method of and apparatus for pulling a pipe

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB2022651B (en) 1982-07-14
FR2428110A1 (en) 1980-01-04
DE2824915C2 (en) 1985-01-10
FR2428110B1 (en) 1983-09-16
DE2824915A1 (en) 1979-12-20
CH638014A5 (en) 1983-08-31
JPS54159301A (en) 1979-12-17
SE7904922L (en) 1979-12-08
GB2022651A (en) 1979-12-19

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