Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Ultrasharp diamond edges and points and method of making

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US4084942A
US4084942A US05608260 US60826075A US4084942A US 4084942 A US4084942 A US 4084942A US 05608260 US05608260 US 05608260 US 60826075 A US60826075 A US 60826075A US 4084942 A US4084942 A US 4084942A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
diamond
powder
mold
ultrafine
particles
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US05608260
Inventor
Humberto Fernandez-Moran Villalobos
Original Assignee
Villalobos Humberto Fernandez
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y10/00Nanotechnology for information processing, storage or transmission, e.g. quantum computing or single electron logic
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2203/00Processes utilising sub- or super atmospheric pressure
    • B01J2203/06High pressure synthesis
    • B01J2203/0605Composition of the material to be processed
    • B01J2203/061Graphite
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2203/00Processes utilising sub- or super atmospheric pressure
    • B01J2203/06High pressure synthesis
    • B01J2203/065Composition of the material produced
    • B01J2203/0655Diamond
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J2201/00Electrodes common to discharge tubes
    • H01J2201/30Cold cathodes
    • H01J2201/304Field emission cathodes
    • H01J2201/30446Field emission cathodes characterised by the emitter material
    • H01J2201/30453Carbon types
    • H01J2201/30457Diamond
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S505/00Superconductor technology: apparatus, material, process
    • Y10S505/825Apparatus per se, device per se, or process of making or operating same
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T83/00Cutting
    • Y10T83/929Tool or tool with support

Abstract

Ultrasharp diamond edges and points which are usable as cutting instruments and as high intensity point sources for the emission of electrons, ions, x-rays, coherent and incoherent light and high frequency electromagnetic radiation are produced by preparing and classifying ultrafine diamond powder having a particle size of 10 to 100 angstroms placing the powder in a diamond mold defining the ultrasharp edge or point to be produced and applying a pressure of the order of 80 to 90 kb while heating the powder to a temperature of the order of 2440° to 2500° K in an ultrahigh vacuum or inert atmosphere after degasing to avoid oxidation of the diamond powder.

Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the production of ultrasharp diamond edges and points which are usable as cutting instruments and as high intensity point sources for the emission of electrons, ions, x-rays, coherent and incoherent light and high frequency electromagnetic radiation.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

As disclosed in my U.S. Pat. No. 3,646,841, ultrasharp diamond edges are highly useful for molecular and submolecular sectioning at ultralow temperatures and as high intensity point sources for the emission of electrons, ions and neutrons. Such ultrasharp diamond edges --commonly referred to as "diamond knives"-- have also found other uses. For example diamond knives are used in surgery particularly in delicate operations such as operations on the eye. It has also been found that metals and other materials can be machined with a diamond knife in such manner as to obtain a perfectly smooth surface which is free of the scratches and other imperfections resulting from usual machining and polishing operations.

When used as point sources, diamond edges and points are coated with a thin film of a suitable material such as tungsten, rhenium, lanthanum, barium, caesium and other related materials of suitable work function and physical properties for electron emission. When thus coated, the diamond tip or edge serves as an effective emitter for electrons, ions, x-rays neutrons and other types of emission.

However, the use of ultrasharp diamond edges and points has been limited by the cost of production and by limitations on the size of diamond edges that could be made. As high quality diamond knives are made from diamonds of gem quality, the cost of such knives has accordingly been high. Moreover, by reason of larger diamonds not being available at an economically acceptable price, the length of the cutting edge of a diamond knife has been limited to less than ten millimeters and is usually in the one to three millimeter range. With respect to the use of diamond points and edges as cathodes or other emission electrodes, the useful life of the electrode has been limited by the dissipation of the metallic coating material. When such material has been depleted, it is necessary to discard or recoat the electrode. As such electrodes are normally hermetically sealed in an appropriate envelope, the removal, recoating, remounting and resealing of the electrodes may not be economically feasible.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the present invention further to extend the use of ultrasharp diamond edges and points by making it possible greatly to reduce the cost of such instruments and also to remove the present limitations on size. Moreover, the invention is directed greatly to extending the useful life of ultrafine diamond edges and points used as cathodes or other emitters.

In accordance with the invention ultrasharp diamond edges and points are produced from ultrafine diamond powder by molding and bonding the powder at high temperatures and pressures in an ultrahigh vacuum or an inert atmosphere such as helium. In this manner an implement of any desired size and shape can be produced. Moreover, when the ultrasharp edge or point is to be used for electron or other emission, low work function or other emissive material in finely powdered form can be mixed with the diamond powder so as to be incorporated in the body of the electrode instead of being applied as a surface coating. The useful life of the electrode can thereby be greatly increased.

In order to obtain an ultrasharp edge having a radius of 10 to 100 angstrom units, the diamond powder from which the implement is molded must have a comparable particle size of 10 to 100 angstroms. Diamond powder of a particle size in this range can be obtained by crushing, grinding, explosion, electric arc or thermal shock followed by ultrahigh speed centrifuging to separate out the finer particles whereupon oversized particles are further processed.

The bonding of the ultrafine diamond particles to form a molded article having an ultrasharp edge or point is achieved either with or without a binder. For example, ultrafine nickel, chromium, titanium, niobium, zirconium molybdenum, tungsten, copper, beryllium metal particles or their oxides, may be mixed with the graded ultrafine diamond powder in appropriate amounts (e.g. 10% to 40% by weight) to serve as bonding and catalytic solvent agents. Alternatively, individual particles of the diamond powder can be coated with a suitable metal such as chromium or nickel which acts as a matrix for the diamond particles when the article is molded. Other suitable bonding agents are LaB4 and LaB6. Alternatively, it is found that by using suitable pressure and temperature in an ultrahigh vacuum or in an inert atmosphere such as helium, bonding of the ultrafine diamond particles can be achieved without the use of additives.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWING

The objects and advantages of the invention will be more fully understood from the following description by way of example of a process for producing ultrafine diamond edges and points and of the resulting product. The single FIGURE of drawings illustrates schematically and in cross section apparatus used for carrying out the described process.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The process in accordance with the present invention comprises preparation of ultrafine diamond powder and the high pressure and high temperature molding of the product with or without additives to form an implement having an ultrasharp edge or point. The term "implement" is herein used in a generic sense to denote a knife, cutting tool, electrode, emitter or other article having an ultrasharp edge or point.

Preparation Of Powder

The ultrafine diamond powder used in the process of the present invention can be prepared from natural or artificial diamonds of any size. Since the size of the implement to be produced is not dependent on the size of the diamonds it is no longer necessary to use large gem quality diamonds. The cost of the starting material is thereby greatly reduced. One type of diamond that is of interest for certain applications is the type IIb semiconductive diamond discovered in 1962. Although diamonds are ordinarily considered to be insulators of high dielectric strength, it has been found that type IIb diamonds are semiconductors. The presence of aluminium and other impurities are apparently related to this unusual property. A relatively plentiful source of this rare type IIb diamond useful for carrying out the process of the present invention is provided by the occurrence of this material in the extensive deposits of natural carbonado and related diamonds found in Venezuela.

The ultrafine diamond powder is suitably prepared from the natural or artificial diamonds by crushing, grinding mechanical shock as by explosives, an electric arc or thermal shock. The powder thus obtained is classified for example by differential and density-gradient ultracentrifugation of an oil or preferably glycerol suspension of the powder, for example at 60,000 to 100,000 x g. By such centrifuging powder of the requisite fineness, for example a particle size of 10 to 100 angstroms is separated out whereupon particles of larger size are reprocessed until the desired size is obtained.

Orientation Of Diamond Particles in Mold

A diamond has a 1-1-1 or tetrahedral face, a 1-0-1 face as viewed edgewise and a 1-0-0 face as viewed from above. The 1-1-1 face is the hardest. Hence, to obtain an ultrasharp edge or point it is desirable to orient the diamond particles in the mold so as to present the 1-1-1 faces at the edge or point of the implement. Such orientation can be effected with a strong magnetic field, a strong electric field or a combination of magnetic and electric fields. This orientation is considerably enhanced when the ultrafine diamond particles or platelets are first coated (by coating with a thin film evaporated in a high vacuum) with nickel, cobalt, iron and other ferromagnetic metals and alloys.

Additives For Bonding

By the use of suitable temperatures, pressures and operative procedures as herein described, the ultrafine diamond particles can be bonded to form a molded implement without the use of an additive as a bonding or binding agent. The diamond particles have the shape of shingles or chips with edges staggered like stairsteps. The chips have a thickness of for example 6 angstrom and a length of 10 to 50 or up to 100 angstroms. When pressed together at high temperature and pressure, these chips or lamina interlock with one another to form a solid body. This is in contrast with graphite particles which slip on one another. Thus, even without the addition of a bonding or binding agent, the ultrafine diamond powder can be effectively bonded.

However, in some instances it is desirable to use additives further to implement bonding. Such additives should have the characteristics of being hard, inert and stable and having a suitable melting or softening temperature so as to assist in bonding the diamond particles during molding. Suitable additives are alumina and lanthanum borate (LaB4 and LaB6). It is also desirable in some instances to coat the individual particles of diamond powder with a metal, for example chromium or nickel. The thickness of the coating should not exceed 100 angstroms and preferably should be of the order of 10 to 50 angstroms. When the ultrafine diamond powder thus coated is molded at the pressures and temperatures and under the conditions described below, the metal coating acts as a matrix and contributes to the bonding of the particles. The coating of the particles is conveniently effected electrolytically or by vaporization of the metal.

Additives For Electrical Properties

When the implement produced in accordance with the present invention is intended for use as an electrode or where electrical conductivity is desired, suitable additives are included to provide the desired electrical properties. Such inclusions may include tungsten, rhenium, lanthanum, barium, caesium and similar materials of suitable work function and physical properties for electron emission. The additive can be in the form of an ultrafine powder which is mixed with the diamond powder or it can be coated on individual particles of the diamond powder as described above with respect to chromium and nickel. In some instances it may be desirable to have the additive only in edge, point or surface portions of the implement. In this event, when the material is being placed in the mold, diamond powder containing the desired additive is positioned at the desired location in the mold while diamond powder without such additive is positioned in other mold locations. If desired, different additives of different properties can be located in different portions of the mold and thus be present in corresponding portions of the molding implement.

Molding Of Implement With Ultrasharp Edge or Point

In order to obtain a bonding of the ultrafine diamond powder in accordance with the present invention, the implement to be produced is molded at high temperature and high pressure. Thus, for example the pressure used is at least 50 kb and preferably of the order of 85 to 90 kb. The temperature used is at least 2000° K and preferably of the order of 2440° to 2500° K. The temperature used may vary somewhat according to the molding time. For example, with a pressure of 85 to 90 kb, a temperature of 2440° K is sufficient when the molding time is 2 minutes whereas it is desirable to use a temperature of 2500° K when the molding time is reduced to one minute.

Moreover, the high temperature high pressure molding must be effected under conditions under which the diamond powder cannot oxidize. Thus, the molding is carried out in an ultrahigh vacuum which avoids oxidation of the diamond powder and also serves as a heat seal. The vacuum should be of the order of 10-8 to 10-9 Torr. Alternatively, the high temperature high pressure molding can be carried out in an inert atmosphere for example helium after the diamond powder and its environment have been thoroughly degassed in order to eliminate the presence of oxygen.

The mold used in the process must be formed of material having the strength, hardness and temperature resistance to withstand the stresses and temperature imposed on it during the molding operation. Moreover, the female mold must have the ability of defining on the molded implement an edge or point having the requisite sharpness, e.g. a radius of 10 to 100 angstroms. In order to meet these requirements, both portions of the mold are preferably formed of diamond which may be either natural diamond when size permits or a molded diamond structure produced in accordance with the present invention. To avoid the molded article sticking to the mold a suitable lubricant or separating material is used. For example, this can be sodium chloride or graphite.

Apparatus For Carrying Out Process Of Molding

In the accompanying drawing there is shown schematically a mold for carrying out the molding operation in accordance with the present invention. The apparatus is shown as comprising a hollow rectangular frame 1 of high strength material, for example high tensile steel. On the base portion of the frame 1 there is positioned a mold holder 2 which may likewise be formed of high tensile steel and is provided with a central cavity to receive a female mold 3 formed of diamond or molded diamond composition. Within the cavity of the mold holder and superposed on the diamond mold, there is provided a collar 4 of hard high strength heat resistant material, for example high tensile steel or tungsten carbide. A second mold holder 5 likewise formed of high tensile steel is provided with a central cavity to receive a male mole 6 likewise formed of natural or molded diamond. The diamond powder 7 which is to be molded is confined in a mold cavity defined by the female mold 3, the retaining collar 4 and the male mold 6.

Means is provided for heating the powder to be molded to the required temperature (2440° to 2500° K) during molding. The heating means is shown schematically in the drawings as comprising an electrical resistance heating element 8 surrounding the mold and mold holders. For example, the heating element may comprise a strip of Kantal, rhenium, tungsten or other suitable resistance material. The electrical resistance heating element 8 can surround the mold, as shown, or can be placed directly within the mold, close to a precision thermocouple connected through a suitable amplifier-recorder-feedback circuit to the heater power supply in order to maintain the requisite temperature during the high pressure cycle. The heating element 8 is shown electrically insulated on both sides by layers 9 and 10 of suitable insulating material such as pyrophyllite or lithographic stone. Heat insulation is provided by a thick layer 11 of suitable thermal insulating material such as, pyrophyllite, asbestor or lithographic stone which surrounds the heating element with its electrical insulation. The heating element and electrical and thermal insulation are assembled within a retaining sleeve 12 formed for example of steel.

Instead of heating conductively as shown, heating to the required temperature may be effected by other means, for example by induction heating, microwave radio frequency heat, a laser beam or an electron beam. The ultrahigh vacuum under which the heating is effected facilitates the use of laser or electron beam heating introduced through diamond windows provided in suitable oriented apertures. Alternatively, a cooled copper target bonded to diamond heat sinks (of type IIa diamond) may be used in conjunction with suitably placed electron beam guns embedded in a heat refractory and insulating matrix close to the mold.

Suitable means is provided for applying the required pressure (85 to 90 kb) during molding. As illustrated by way of example in the drawing, the pressure applying means comprises a superconductive electromagnet comprising a superconductive winding 14 and an armature 15 formed for example of soft iron or other material having suitable magnetic properties. Superconductivity of the winding is achieved through the use of ultralow temperatures. By virtue of the superconductivity of the winding, the forces required to achieve the desired pressure can be achieved. Suitable cryogenic assemblies and suitable superinsulation (not shown) are provided for maintaining the requisite liquid helium temperatures (4.2° K) essential for the superconductive solenoid. Other electromagnetic systems may also be used for producing the ultrahigh pressures required in the process for the present invention.

The molding press as thus described is mounted on a steel base 16 and is enclosed by a bell jar or other envelope 17 which seats on the base with a hermetic seal 18. The bell jar 17 can be made of tempered glass but is preferably made of stainless steel fitted with heat resistant vacuum-tight ports or windows arranged for observing the entire process with light microscopes, scanning electron microscopes, x-ray diffraction and x-ray scattering techniques, thermometry and mass-spectrometry for detection of residual gasses. A high vacuum pump is indicated schematically at 19 for producing an ultrahigh vacuum within the envelope 17. If after evacuation to achieve degasification it is desired to provide in the enclosure an inert atmosphere such as helium, a suitable supply and suitable connections (not shown) are provided. Likewise, suitable electrical connections are provided for the heating element 8 and the superconductive electromagnet winding 14. Preferably one or more suitable thermocouples are provided for sensing the temperature of the mold.

The female mold 3 is formed in such manner as to provide a cavity which defines on the molded implement an edge or point of the required sharpness. One method of achieving this is to form the mold cavity in a natural diamond or in natural Carbonado with a laser beam. Alternatively, a block of molded diamond composition made in accordance with the process of the present invention can be used as a mold body in which the cavity is thus formed. Alternatively, the female mold can be formed by the powdered diamond technique as herein described with the use of a natural or molded diamond knife to produce the mold cavity during the molding operation.

Use of the apparatus shown in the drawings for carrying out the process of the present invention will be readily understood from the foregoing description. The diamond powder to be molded is placed in the cavity of the female mold 3 and the assembled mold is positioned together with the heating element and pressure applying means in the frame 1. The envelope 17 is closed and the space within the envelope is evacuated to achieve an ultrahigh vacuum (10-8 to 10-9 Torr.) and to thoroughly degas the diamond powder and the entire assembly inside the envelope. The required temperature and pressure are thereupon applied to effect a bonding of the powder and molding of the desired implement.

As indicated above, the diamond particles in the mold are preferably oriented to present the 1-1-1 faces at the edge or point of the implement being molded. If it is desired to have certain additives only in certain portions of the implement the powder containing such additives is suitably positioned in the mold. Moreover, a metal insert or a lead for electrical connection can be inserted in the mold as desired.

Implement Produced According To The Invention

As will be understood from the foregoing explanation of the process, an implement formed in accordance with the invention has an ultrasharp edge or point which is defined by the mold in the molding operation. Subsequent finishing or polishing not only is unnecessary but is highly undesirable as it would disrupt the extremely fine edge achieved by the process of the present invention. Such edge has a sharpness defined by a radius which measures only 10 to 100 angstroms and is straight and uniform as in the case of a natural diamond knife as described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,646,841. However, in contrast with the natural diamond knife, a diamond knife made in accordance with the process of the present invention can be of any desired length.

If the implement is to be used for electrical purposes for example for the emission of electrons, ions, neutrons, x-rays, coherent or incoherent light and high frequency electromagnetic radiation, it is provided with inclusions of suitable material for example tungsten, rhenium, lanthanum, barium, caesium etc. as described above. Such inclusion may be throughout the implement or may be limited to local portions for example the edge portion or a surface layer. Likewise, as described above, the molded implement may include bonding media such as alumina and lanthanum borate. When it is desired to make an electrical connection to the molded implement a suitable metal insert or lead can be molded into it. It will be understood that many variations are made possible by the process in accordance with the invention. Moreover, the cost of production of implements having ultrasharp edges or points is greatly reduced. The invention thus makes possible a significant extension of the use of diamond tools for cutting and of diamond edges and points for use as emitters.

Classification of the diamond powder used in carrying out the process of the present invention is important for the reason that best results are obtained with a powder of approximately uniform particle size. For critical work it is desirable to have the particle size uniform within a range of 50 angstroms and preferably 20 angstroms. For a diamond knife having an ultrasharp cutting edge, it is desirable to use diamond power having a particle size of 10 to 20 angstroms. If the implement is to be used as an emitter, the particle size of the diamond powder can be larger for example up to 100 angstroms. By reason of the ultrafine powder used and the pressure and temperature at which it is molded, it is possible to obtain by the process of the present invention a material having a density equal to that of a natural diamond. When additives are used which have a density higher than that of diamonds the resulting product has a density higher than that of a natural diamond.

Advantages And Applications Of Ultrahard Materials Produced By Process Of Invention

In accordance with the present invention the features of ultrahigh vacuum, high field superconducting magnets, natural or polycrystalline synthetic diamond anvils with suitable "windows" for laser electron beam or radiation heating are all incorporated in a relatively simple and above all incomparably clean and precise high pressure diamond anvil apparatus which lends itself ideally to constant monitoring and direct observation of critical changes in temperature, fine structure as revealed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and modified transmission electron microscopy and diffraction and determination of the properties of the finished ultrahard diamond-composite part at molecular and atomic levels by x-ray defraction and scattering, laser interferometry, spectroscopy, etc. Moreover, the apparatus illustrated by way of example in the drawings can be readily scaled up in size merely by increasing the dimensions and strength of the magnetic field elements (for example larger superconductive magnets or nitrogen cooled high-field Bitter-type magnets, etc.) and the size of the anvils which can be made progressively larger by using new types of diamond-compacts of polycrystalline type.

A significant feature of the invention that has now been clearly demonstrated is the fact that the material produced in accordance with the invention both in the form of a so-called "polycrystalline diamond" or "synthetic carbonado" represents a totally different type of material. This appears to result at least in part from the uniformly ultrasmall particle size (10 to 100 angstroms) and high surface to volume ratio of the diamond particles which are used. Up till now all of the reported sintered diamond or ultrahard diamond compacts of polycrystalline diamond with suitable solvent metal catalysts or admixtures have been made from diamond particles in the size range of 1 to 100 microns and no attempt has been made to classify or grade the particles. A cube which is 1 centimeter on a side has a total surface area of 6 square centimeters and a volume of 1 cubic centimeter and hence a surface area to volume ratio of 6 sq.cm/cm3. A cube which is 1 micron on a side has a total surface area of 6 × 10-8 square centimeters, a volume of 10-12 cubic centimeters and hence a surface area to volume ratio of 60,000 square centimeters/cubic centimeters. This large increase in surface area to volume ratio would be quite remarkable if anyone has succeeded in accurately classifying or grading the micron size powder and sintering it at high pressures and temperatures without oxidation. This is still an unattained goal. In the process of the present invention we are dealing with particles of about 0.01 micron or 100 angstroms in side dimensions and even though the particles are in the form of a more favorable platelet instead of a cube, the particles have a total surface area of the order of 6 × 10-12 square centimeters, and a volume of 10-18 cubic centimeters with a surface area to volume ratio of the order of 6,000,000 square centimeters/cubic centimeters. The material produced in accordance with the invention is a polycrystalline ultrahard sintered material made up of either uniform ultrafine diamond particles in homogeneous array and in different orientations which would give a material resembling the glassy or vitreous state but incomparably harder with highest tensile strength and lowest thermal expansion coefficient. There is thus produced a new type of diamond glass or ceramic particularly in case of mixing ultrafine diamond particles with suitable bonding metals or catalytic solvents. There are thus achieved unique qualitative differences of this new material which goes well beyond a mere quantitative difference in size.

Moreover, it has been found that the same method and apparatus can be used to make synthetic diamond in polycrystalline form by using very pure ultrafine graphite prepared by high vacuum evaporation and then subjecting a mixture of these graphite crystallites having a particle size of about 10 to 50 angstroms with a wide variety of ultrafine metallic catalytic solvents such as iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, palladium, iridium, platinum, tantalum, ruthenium, most of which belong to group VIII of the periodic table or with certain binary catalytic systems forming alloys composed typically of transition elements such as titanium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, tungsten and hafnium which belong to group IVa, Va or VIa of the periodic table combined with elements such as copper, silver or gold of group Ib of the periodic table. The ultrafine particles of the metallic materials are similarly prepared by high vacuum arc evaporation or sputtering in a noble gas atmosphere. The process in accordance with the present invention thus permits starting with pure ultrafine graphite instead of ultrafine diamond powder and to obtain diamond in polycrystalline form by the reaction of a metallic catalytic solvent on carbon under the same high pressures (for example 50 to 60 kb) and high temperatures (2000° to 2500° K) required to attain the region of thermodynamic stability of diamond.

While preferred embodiments of the invention have been particularly described, it will be understood that many modifications may be made. For example other additives can be used with the ultrafine diamond or graphite powder and two or more additives can be used in the same article. For example alumina or lanthanum borate can be used jointly with a metal selected for its electron emission or other electrical properties. When one or more additive is used, the ultrafine diamond or graphite powder should constitute at least 50% and preferably at least 60% of the composition.

Claims (28)

What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A method of making ultrasharp diamond edges and points which comprises preparing ultrafine diamond powder having a particle size of 10 to 100 angstroms, classifying said ultrafine diamond powder to separate out any diamond particles having a particle size larger than 100 angstroms, placing a measured quantity of said powder of which all particles have a particle size less than 100 angstroms in a diamond mold having therein a mold cavity defining an ultrasharp uniform edge or point having a radius of 10 to 100 angstroms, orienting diamond particles in regular array conforming to said edge or point defining cavity of said mold, placing said mold with said diamond powder therein in a gas-tight envelope, evacuating the space within said envelope to achieve an ultrahigh vacuum to thoroughly degas said ultrafine diamond powder and mold, and concurrently applying to said ultrafine diamond powder in said mold a pressure of the order of 50 kb to 90 kb and a temperature of 2000° to 2500° K while maintaining said mold and powder in an ultrahigh vacuum or atmosphere of noble gas to avoid oxidation of said diamond powder, to thereby bond the particles of said diamond powder together to form an ultrahard sintered body having an ultrasharp edge or point as defined by said mold.
2. A method according to claim 1, in which said ultrafine diamond powder in said mold is subjected to a pressure of the order of 85 kb to 90 kb at a temperature of 2440° to 2500° K.
3. A method according to claim 1, which comprises producing an ultrahigh vacuum of 10-8 to 10-9 Torr in which said diamond powder is degassed, molded and sintered.
4. A method according to claim 1, in which said ultrafine diamond powder is classified to achieve a range of particle sizes less than 50 angstroms.
5. A method according to claim 1, in which said ultrafine diamond powder is classified to achieve a particle size of 10 to 20 angstroms.
6. A method according to claim 1, in which said ultrafine diamond powder is classified by differential and density-gradient ultracentrifugation of an oil or glycerol suspension of said powder at 60,000 to 100,000 × g.
7. A method according to claim 1, in which said ultrafine diamond powder is produced in the form of platelets having a thickness of the order of 6 angstroms and a length of 10 to 100 angstroms.
8. A method according to claim 1, in which the said platelets are oriented in said mold to present 1-1-1 faces of said particles at the edge or point of the article being made.
9. A method according to claim 1, in which said ultrafine diamond particles are first coated with a thin film of ferromagnetic metal and are then oriented magnetically.
10. A method according to claim 1, in which said ultrafine diamond powder before molding is intimately mixed with an ultrafine additive selected from the group consisting of LaB4 and LaB6.
11. A method according to claim 1, in which said ultrafine diamond powder before molding is intimately mixed with ultrafine metal powder selected from the group consisting of nickel, chromium, titanium, niobium, zirconium, molybdenum, tungsten, copper and beryllium and their oxides.
12. A method according to claim 1, in which particles of said ultrafine diamond powder before being molded are coated with a metal which acts as a matrix for the diamond particles when molded.
13. A method according to claim 12, in which the thickness of metal coating on said particles of ultrafine diamond particles is of the order of 10 to 50 angstroms.
14. A method according to claim 1, in which said ultrafine diamond powder before being molded is intimately mixed with ultrafine additives having selected electrical properties selected from the group consisting of tungsten, rhenium, lanthanum, barium and caesium.
15. A method according to claim 1, in which particles of said ultrafine diamond powder before being molded are coated with metal having selected electrical properties selected from the group consisting of tungsten, rhenium, lanthanum, barium and caesium.
16. A method according to claim 1, in which said ultrafine diamond powder is carbonado.
17. A method according to claim 3, in which said temperature of 2000° to 2500° K is applied to said ultrafine diamond powder by a laser beam.
18. A method according to claim 3, in which said temperature of 2000° to 2500° K is applied to said ultrafine diamond powder by an electron beam.
19. A method of making ultrasharp diamond edges and points which comprises preparing ultrafine diamond powder having a particle size of 10 to 100 angstroms, placing a measured quantity of said powder in a diamond mold having therein a mold cavity defining the ultrasharp edge or point to be produced, placing said mold with said diamond powder therein in a fluid-tight envelope, evacuating the space within said envelope to achieve an ultrahigh vacuum of 10-8 to 10-9 Torr to thoroughly degas said ultrafine diamond powder and mold inside said envelope, and concurrently applying to said ultrafine diamond powder in said mold a pressure of the order of 50 kb to 90 kb and a temperature of 2000° to 2500° K while maintaining said mold and diamond powder in said ultrahigh vacuum to avoid oxidation of said ultrafine diamond powder, to thereby bond the particles of said ultrafine diamond powder together to form an ultrahard sintered body having an ultrasharp edge or point as defined by said mold.
20. A method of making ultrasharp diamond edges and points which comprises preparing ultrafine diamond powder having a particle size of 10 to 100 angstroms, classifying said ultrafine diamond powder by differential and densitygradient ultracentrifugation of an oil or glycerol suspension of said powder at 60,000 to 100,000 × g to separate out any diamond particles having a particle size larger than 100 angstroms, placing a measured quantity of said powder of which all particles have a particle size less than 100 angstroms in a diamond mold having therein a mold cavity defining an edge or point having a radius of 10 to 100 angstroms, placing said mold with said diamond powder therein in a fluid-tight envelope, evacuating the space within said envelope to achieve an ultrahigh vacuum to thoroughly degas said ultrafine diamond powder and the mold inside said envelope, and concurrently applying to said ultrafine diamond powder in said mold a pressure of the order of 50 kb to 90 kb and a temperature of 2000° to 2500° K while maintaining said mold and diamond powder in said ultrahigh vacuum to avoid oxidation of said ultrafine diamond powder to thereby bond the particles of said ultrafine diamond powder together to form an ultrahard sintered body having an ultrasharp edge or point with a radius of 10 to 100 angstroms as defined by said mold.
21. A method of making ultrafine diamond edges and points which comprises preparing ultrafine diamond powder in the form of platelets having a thickness of the order of 6 angstroms and a length of 10 to 100 angstroms, placing a measured quantity of said powder in a diamond mold having therein a mold cavity defining the ultrasharp edge or point to be produced, placing said mold with said diamond powder therein in a fluid-tight envelope, evacuating the space within said envelope to achieve an ultrahigh vacuum to thoroughly degas said ultrafine diamond powder and the mold inside said envelope, and concurrently applying to said ultrafine diamond powder in said mold a pressure of the order of 50 kb to 90 kb and a temperature of 2000° to 2500° K while maintaining said mold and diamond powder in an ultrahigh vacuum or atmosphere of noble gas to avoid oxidation of said diamond powder, to thereby bond said particles of said diamond powder together to form an ultrahard sintered body having an ultrasharp edge or point as defined by said mold.
22. A method of making ultrasharp diamond edges and points which comprises preparing ultrafine diamond powder having a particle size of 10 to 100 angstroms, the particles of said diamond particles having 1-1-1 faces, placing a measured quantity of said powder in a diamond mold having therein a mold cavity defining the ultrasharp edge or point to be produced, orienting the particles of ultrafine diamond powder in said mold to present 1-1-1 faces of said particles at the edge or point of the article being made, placing said mold with said oriented particles of diamond powder therein in a fluid-tight envelope, evacuating the space within said envelope to achieve an ultrahigh vacuum to thoroughly degas said ultrafine diamond powder and the mold inside said envelope, and concurrently applying to said ultrafine diamond powder in said mold a pressure of the order of 50 kb to 90 kb and a temperature of 2000° to 2500° K while maintaining said mold and diamond powder in an ultrahigh vacuum or atmosphere of noble gas to avoid oxidation of said diamond powder, to thereby bond said particles of said diamond together to form an ultrahard sinterted body having an ultrasharp edge or point formed by said 1-1-1 faces of said diamond particles.
23. A polycrystalline diamond cutting implement having an ultrasharp edge or point, said implement comprising a multiplicity of diamond particles molecularly bonded together with the cohesion of natural diamond, all of said diamond particles being of a size less than 100 angstroms and being uniformly oriented to present like faces to said edge or point to define a continuous uniform edge or point having a radius of from 10 to 100 angstroms.
24. A cutting implement according to claim 23, in which an ultrafine additive selected from the group consisting of LaB4 and LaB6 is intimately mixed with said diamond particles.
25. A cutting implement according to claim 23, in which ultrafine metallic particles selected from the group consisting of nickel, chromium, titanium, niobium, zirconium, molybdenum, tungsten, copper, beryllium and their oxides are intimately mixed with said diamond particles.
26. A cutting implement according to claim 23, in which individual diamond particles are coated with metal selected from the group consisting of chromium, nickel, cobalt and iron, said metal coating acting as a matrix which contributes to the bonding of said diamond particles.
27. A cutting implement according to claim 23, in which said diamond particles comprise platelets having a thickness of the order of 6 angstroms and a length of 10 to 100 angstroms, said platelets being interlocked with one another to form a solid body.
28. A cutting implement according to claim 27, in which said platelets have 1-1-1 faces and are oriented to present said 1-1-1 faces at the edge or point of said implement.
US05608260 1975-08-27 1975-08-27 Ultrasharp diamond edges and points and method of making Expired - Lifetime US4084942A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US05608260 US4084942A (en) 1975-08-27 1975-08-27 Ultrasharp diamond edges and points and method of making

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US05608260 US4084942A (en) 1975-08-27 1975-08-27 Ultrasharp diamond edges and points and method of making
US05852022 US4164680A (en) 1975-08-27 1977-11-16 Polycrystalline diamond emitter
US06063685 US4273561A (en) 1975-08-27 1979-08-06 Ultrasharp polycrystalline diamond edges, points, and improved diamond composites, and methods of making and irradiating same

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US05852022 Continuation-In-Part US4164680A (en) 1975-08-27 1977-11-16 Polycrystalline diamond emitter

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US4084942A true US4084942A (en) 1978-04-18

Family

ID=24435718

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US05608260 Expired - Lifetime US4084942A (en) 1975-08-27 1975-08-27 Ultrasharp diamond edges and points and method of making

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US4084942A (en)

Cited By (66)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2389437A1 (en) * 1977-05-04 1978-12-01 Sumitomo Electric Industries
US4164680A (en) * 1975-08-27 1979-08-14 Villalobos Humberto F Polycrystalline diamond emitter
FR2434130A1 (en) * 1978-08-26 1980-03-21 Sumitomo Electric Industries diamond sintered body and process for its manufacture
US4273561A (en) * 1975-08-27 1981-06-16 Fernandez Moran Villalobos Hum Ultrasharp polycrystalline diamond edges, points, and improved diamond composites, and methods of making and irradiating same
US4319889A (en) * 1979-08-06 1982-03-16 Villalobos Humberto F Ultrasharp diamond edges and points and methods of making same by precision micro-irradiation techniques
US4581969A (en) * 1984-07-05 1986-04-15 Kim George A Ultramicrotome diamond knife
US4643161A (en) * 1984-07-05 1987-02-17 Kim George A Method of machining hard and brittle material
US4697489A (en) * 1984-07-05 1987-10-06 Kim George A Ultramicrotome tool
US4902652A (en) * 1987-07-10 1990-02-20 Agency Of Industrial Science & Technology, Ministry Of International Trade & Industry Method for production of a sintered article of diamond
US5138237A (en) * 1991-08-20 1992-08-11 Motorola, Inc. Field emission electron device employing a modulatable diamond semiconductor emitter
US5199918A (en) * 1991-11-07 1993-04-06 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Method of forming field emitter device with diamond emission tips
US5258685A (en) * 1991-08-20 1993-11-02 Motorola, Inc. Field emission electron source employing a diamond coating
US5283501A (en) * 1991-07-18 1994-02-01 Motorola, Inc. Electron device employing a low/negative electron affinity electron source
US5288556A (en) * 1987-03-31 1994-02-22 Lemelson Jerome H Gears and gear assemblies
US5349265A (en) * 1990-03-16 1994-09-20 Lemelson Jerome H Synthetic diamond coated electrodes and filaments
US5462772A (en) * 1957-06-27 1995-10-31 Lemelson; Jerome H. Methods for forming artificial diamond
US5481156A (en) * 1993-09-16 1996-01-02 Samsung Display Devices Co., Ltd. Field emission cathode and method for manufacturing a field emission cathode
US5531880A (en) * 1994-09-13 1996-07-02 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Method for producing thin, uniform powder phosphor for display screens
US5536193A (en) * 1991-11-07 1996-07-16 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Method of making wide band gap field emitter
US5543684A (en) * 1992-03-16 1996-08-06 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Flat panel display based on diamond thin films
US5592053A (en) * 1994-12-06 1997-01-07 Kobe Steel Usa, Inc. Diamond target electron beam device
US5600200A (en) * 1992-03-16 1997-02-04 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Wire-mesh cathode
US5601966A (en) * 1993-11-04 1997-02-11 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Methods for fabricating flat panel display systems and components
US5612712A (en) * 1992-03-16 1997-03-18 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Diode structure flat panel display
US5616372A (en) * 1995-06-07 1997-04-01 Syndia Corporation Method of applying a wear-resistant diamond coating to a substrate
US5619093A (en) * 1995-03-31 1997-04-08 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Electron field emission
US5628659A (en) * 1995-04-24 1997-05-13 Microelectronics And Computer Corporation Method of making a field emission electron source with random micro-tip structures
US5675216A (en) * 1992-03-16 1997-10-07 Microelectronics And Computer Technololgy Corp. Amorphic diamond film flat field emission cathode
US5679043A (en) * 1992-03-16 1997-10-21 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Method of making a field emitter
US5679895A (en) * 1995-05-01 1997-10-21 Kobe Steel Usa, Inc. Diamond field emission acceleration sensor
US5688557A (en) * 1995-06-07 1997-11-18 Lemelson; Jerome H. Method of depositing synthetic diamond coatings with intermediates bonding layers
US5714202A (en) * 1995-06-07 1998-02-03 Lemelson; Jerome H. Synthetic diamond overlays for gas turbine engine parts having thermal barrier coatings
US5740941A (en) * 1993-08-16 1998-04-21 Lemelson; Jerome Sheet material with coating
US5763997A (en) * 1992-03-16 1998-06-09 Si Diamond Technology, Inc. Field emission display device
US5828162A (en) * 1994-11-08 1998-10-27 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Field effect electron source and process for producing said source and application to display means by cathodoluminescence
US5836796A (en) * 1994-11-08 1998-11-17 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Field effect electron source, associated display device and the method of production thereof
US5871805A (en) * 1996-04-08 1999-02-16 Lemelson; Jerome Computer controlled vapor deposition processes
US6000312A (en) * 1996-02-12 1999-12-14 Credo Tool Company Carbide cutting insert
US6083570A (en) * 1987-03-31 2000-07-04 Lemelson; Jerome H. Synthetic diamond coatings with intermediate amorphous metal bonding layers and methods of applying such coatings
US6127773A (en) * 1992-03-16 2000-10-03 Si Diamond Technology, Inc. Amorphic diamond film flat field emission cathode
US6204834B1 (en) 1994-08-17 2001-03-20 Si Diamond Technology, Inc. System and method for achieving uniform screen brightness within a matrix display
US6296740B1 (en) 1995-04-24 2001-10-02 Si Diamond Technology, Inc. Pretreatment process for a surface texturing process
US20040118455A1 (en) * 2002-12-18 2004-06-24 Masco Corporation Of Indiana Valve component with multiple surface layers
US20070278444A1 (en) * 2002-12-18 2007-12-06 Vapor Technologies, Inc. Valve component for faucet
US20080302579A1 (en) * 2007-06-05 2008-12-11 Smith International, Inc. Polycrystalline diamond cutting elements having improved thermal resistance
US20080315146A1 (en) * 2002-12-18 2008-12-25 Masco Corporation Of Indiana Faucet
US20100193255A1 (en) * 2008-08-21 2010-08-05 Stevens John H Earth-boring metal matrix rotary drill bit
US20100192475A1 (en) * 2008-08-21 2010-08-05 Stevens John H Method of making an earth-boring metal matrix rotary drill bit
US8123967B2 (en) 2005-08-01 2012-02-28 Vapor Technologies Inc. Method of producing an article having patterned decorative coating
US8220489B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2012-07-17 Vapor Technologies Inc. Faucet with wear-resistant valve component
RU2460631C2 (en) * 2010-05-25 2012-09-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Ульяновский государственный технический университет" Method of making abrasive tool based on organic thermoplastic binder
RU2467100C1 (en) * 2011-07-15 2012-11-20 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Ульяновский государственный технический университет" Method of thermal treatment of abrasive tool (at)
RU2490115C1 (en) * 2011-12-06 2013-08-20 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Ульяновский государственный технический университет" Method of making abrasive tool on organic thermoset binder
US8529649B2 (en) 2006-11-20 2013-09-10 Us Synthetic Corporation Methods of fabricating a polycrystalline diamond structure
US8555921B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2013-10-15 Vapor Technologies Inc. Faucet component with coating
US8753413B1 (en) 2008-03-03 2014-06-17 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compacts and applications therefor
US8764864B1 (en) 2006-10-10 2014-07-01 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact including a polycrystalline diamond table having copper-containing material therein and applications therefor
RU2521769C1 (en) * 2012-11-23 2014-07-10 Борис Юрьевич Гайворонский Abrasive mixture for abrasive pastes and tools and method for production thereof
US8778040B1 (en) * 2006-10-10 2014-07-15 Us Synthetic Corporation Superabrasive elements, methods of manufacturing, and drill bits including same
US8821604B2 (en) 2006-11-20 2014-09-02 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact and method of making same
US8911521B1 (en) 2008-03-03 2014-12-16 Us Synthetic Corporation Methods of fabricating a polycrystalline diamond body with a sintering aid/infiltrant at least saturated with non-diamond carbon and resultant products such as compacts
US8999025B1 (en) 2008-03-03 2015-04-07 Us Synthetic Corporation Methods of fabricating a polycrystalline diamond body with a sintering aid/infiltrant at least saturated with non-diamond carbon and resultant products such as compacts
US9023125B2 (en) 2006-11-20 2015-05-05 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact
US9027675B1 (en) 2011-02-15 2015-05-12 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact including a polycrystalline diamond table containing aluminum carbide therein and applications therefor
US9376868B1 (en) 2009-01-30 2016-06-28 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact including pre-sintered polycrystalline diamond table having a thermally-stable region and applications therefor
US20160279761A1 (en) * 2015-03-25 2016-09-29 Baker Hughes Incorporated Polycrystalline diamond, methods of forming same, cutting elements, and earth-boring tools

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3060781A (en) * 1954-09-04 1962-10-30 Villalobos Hum Fernandez-Moran Diamond cutting tool having an edge thickness of 0.001 to 0.01 micron
US3574580A (en) * 1968-11-08 1971-04-13 Atomic Energy Commission Process for producing sintered diamond compact and products
US3646841A (en) * 1969-06-02 1972-03-07 Humberto Fernandez Moran Villa Apparatus using ultrasharp diamond edge for ultrathin sectioning
US3663475A (en) * 1970-03-06 1972-05-16 Allied Chem Novel diamond powder dispersions and process for obtaining same
US3829544A (en) * 1970-12-09 1974-08-13 Megadiamond Corp Method of making a unitary polycrystalline diamond composite and diamond composite produced thereby
US3879901A (en) * 1970-06-24 1975-04-29 De Beers Ind Diamond Metal-coated diamonds in a metal alloy matrix
US3913280A (en) * 1971-01-29 1975-10-21 Megadiamond Corp Polycrystalline diamond composites

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3060781A (en) * 1954-09-04 1962-10-30 Villalobos Hum Fernandez-Moran Diamond cutting tool having an edge thickness of 0.001 to 0.01 micron
US3574580A (en) * 1968-11-08 1971-04-13 Atomic Energy Commission Process for producing sintered diamond compact and products
US3646841A (en) * 1969-06-02 1972-03-07 Humberto Fernandez Moran Villa Apparatus using ultrasharp diamond edge for ultrathin sectioning
US3663475A (en) * 1970-03-06 1972-05-16 Allied Chem Novel diamond powder dispersions and process for obtaining same
US3879901A (en) * 1970-06-24 1975-04-29 De Beers Ind Diamond Metal-coated diamonds in a metal alloy matrix
US3829544A (en) * 1970-12-09 1974-08-13 Megadiamond Corp Method of making a unitary polycrystalline diamond composite and diamond composite produced thereby
US3913280A (en) * 1971-01-29 1975-10-21 Megadiamond Corp Polycrystalline diamond composites

Cited By (95)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5462772A (en) * 1957-06-27 1995-10-31 Lemelson; Jerome H. Methods for forming artificial diamond
US4164680A (en) * 1975-08-27 1979-08-14 Villalobos Humberto F Polycrystalline diamond emitter
US4273561A (en) * 1975-08-27 1981-06-16 Fernandez Moran Villalobos Hum Ultrasharp polycrystalline diamond edges, points, and improved diamond composites, and methods of making and irradiating same
FR2389437A1 (en) * 1977-05-04 1978-12-01 Sumitomo Electric Industries
US4171973A (en) * 1977-05-04 1979-10-23 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Diamond/sintered carbide cutting tool
FR2434130A1 (en) * 1978-08-26 1980-03-21 Sumitomo Electric Industries diamond sintered body and process for its manufacture
US4319889A (en) * 1979-08-06 1982-03-16 Villalobos Humberto F Ultrasharp diamond edges and points and methods of making same by precision micro-irradiation techniques
US4581969A (en) * 1984-07-05 1986-04-15 Kim George A Ultramicrotome diamond knife
US4643161A (en) * 1984-07-05 1987-02-17 Kim George A Method of machining hard and brittle material
US4697489A (en) * 1984-07-05 1987-10-06 Kim George A Ultramicrotome tool
US6083570A (en) * 1987-03-31 2000-07-04 Lemelson; Jerome H. Synthetic diamond coatings with intermediate amorphous metal bonding layers and methods of applying such coatings
US5288556A (en) * 1987-03-31 1994-02-22 Lemelson Jerome H Gears and gear assemblies
US5030596A (en) * 1987-07-10 1991-07-09 Agency Of Industrial Science And Technology Sintered article of diamond and method for production thereof
US4902652A (en) * 1987-07-10 1990-02-20 Agency Of Industrial Science & Technology, Ministry Of International Trade & Industry Method for production of a sintered article of diamond
US5349265A (en) * 1990-03-16 1994-09-20 Lemelson Jerome H Synthetic diamond coated electrodes and filaments
US5283501A (en) * 1991-07-18 1994-02-01 Motorola, Inc. Electron device employing a low/negative electron affinity electron source
US5138237A (en) * 1991-08-20 1992-08-11 Motorola, Inc. Field emission electron device employing a modulatable diamond semiconductor emitter
US5258685A (en) * 1991-08-20 1993-11-02 Motorola, Inc. Field emission electron source employing a diamond coating
US5341063A (en) * 1991-11-07 1994-08-23 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Field emitter with diamond emission tips
US5199918A (en) * 1991-11-07 1993-04-06 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Method of forming field emitter device with diamond emission tips
US5861707A (en) * 1991-11-07 1999-01-19 Si Diamond Technology, Inc. Field emitter with wide band gap emission areas and method of using
US5536193A (en) * 1991-11-07 1996-07-16 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Method of making wide band gap field emitter
US5686791A (en) * 1992-03-16 1997-11-11 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corp. Amorphic diamond film flat field emission cathode
US5551903A (en) * 1992-03-16 1996-09-03 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Flat panel display based on diamond thin films
US5543684A (en) * 1992-03-16 1996-08-06 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Flat panel display based on diamond thin films
US5600200A (en) * 1992-03-16 1997-02-04 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Wire-mesh cathode
US6629869B1 (en) 1992-03-16 2003-10-07 Si Diamond Technology, Inc. Method of making flat panel displays having diamond thin film cathode
US5612712A (en) * 1992-03-16 1997-03-18 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Diode structure flat panel display
US6127773A (en) * 1992-03-16 2000-10-03 Si Diamond Technology, Inc. Amorphic diamond film flat field emission cathode
US5703435A (en) * 1992-03-16 1997-12-30 Microelectronics & Computer Technology Corp. Diamond film flat field emission cathode
US5675216A (en) * 1992-03-16 1997-10-07 Microelectronics And Computer Technololgy Corp. Amorphic diamond film flat field emission cathode
US5763997A (en) * 1992-03-16 1998-06-09 Si Diamond Technology, Inc. Field emission display device
US5679043A (en) * 1992-03-16 1997-10-21 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Method of making a field emitter
US5740941A (en) * 1993-08-16 1998-04-21 Lemelson; Jerome Sheet material with coating
US5794801A (en) * 1993-08-16 1998-08-18 Lemelson; Jerome Material compositions
US5481156A (en) * 1993-09-16 1996-01-02 Samsung Display Devices Co., Ltd. Field emission cathode and method for manufacturing a field emission cathode
US5601966A (en) * 1993-11-04 1997-02-11 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Methods for fabricating flat panel display systems and components
US5652083A (en) * 1993-11-04 1997-07-29 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Methods for fabricating flat panel display systems and components
US5614353A (en) * 1993-11-04 1997-03-25 Si Diamond Technology, Inc. Methods for fabricating flat panel display systems and components
US6204834B1 (en) 1994-08-17 2001-03-20 Si Diamond Technology, Inc. System and method for achieving uniform screen brightness within a matrix display
US5531880A (en) * 1994-09-13 1996-07-02 Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation Method for producing thin, uniform powder phosphor for display screens
US5836796A (en) * 1994-11-08 1998-11-17 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Field effect electron source, associated display device and the method of production thereof
US5828162A (en) * 1994-11-08 1998-10-27 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Field effect electron source and process for producing said source and application to display means by cathodoluminescence
US5592053A (en) * 1994-12-06 1997-01-07 Kobe Steel Usa, Inc. Diamond target electron beam device
US5619093A (en) * 1995-03-31 1997-04-08 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Electron field emission
US5628659A (en) * 1995-04-24 1997-05-13 Microelectronics And Computer Corporation Method of making a field emission electron source with random micro-tip structures
US6296740B1 (en) 1995-04-24 2001-10-02 Si Diamond Technology, Inc. Pretreatment process for a surface texturing process
US5679895A (en) * 1995-05-01 1997-10-21 Kobe Steel Usa, Inc. Diamond field emission acceleration sensor
US5714202A (en) * 1995-06-07 1998-02-03 Lemelson; Jerome H. Synthetic diamond overlays for gas turbine engine parts having thermal barrier coatings
US5688557A (en) * 1995-06-07 1997-11-18 Lemelson; Jerome H. Method of depositing synthetic diamond coatings with intermediates bonding layers
US5616372A (en) * 1995-06-07 1997-04-01 Syndia Corporation Method of applying a wear-resistant diamond coating to a substrate
US6000312A (en) * 1996-02-12 1999-12-14 Credo Tool Company Carbide cutting insert
US5871805A (en) * 1996-04-08 1999-02-16 Lemelson; Jerome Computer controlled vapor deposition processes
US8118055B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2012-02-21 Vapor Technologies Inc. Valve component for faucet
US20040129314A1 (en) * 2002-12-18 2004-07-08 Masco Corporation Of Indiana Valve component with multiple surface layers
US6935618B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2005-08-30 Masco Corporation Of Indiana Valve component with multiple surface layers
US20060038156A1 (en) * 2002-12-18 2006-02-23 Masco Corporation Of Indiana Method of forming a wear resistant component
US20040118455A1 (en) * 2002-12-18 2004-06-24 Masco Corporation Of Indiana Valve component with multiple surface layers
US20070278444A1 (en) * 2002-12-18 2007-12-06 Vapor Technologies, Inc. Valve component for faucet
US7445026B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2008-11-04 Masco Corporation Of Indiana Valve component with improved wear resistance
US9388910B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2016-07-12 Delta Faucet Company Faucet component with coating
US20080315146A1 (en) * 2002-12-18 2008-12-25 Masco Corporation Of Indiana Faucet
US8555921B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2013-10-15 Vapor Technologies Inc. Faucet component with coating
US8220489B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2012-07-17 Vapor Technologies Inc. Faucet with wear-resistant valve component
US7866342B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2011-01-11 Vapor Technologies, Inc. Valve component for faucet
US7866343B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2011-01-11 Masco Corporation Of Indiana Faucet
US7216661B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2007-05-15 Masco Corporation Of Indiana Method of forming a wear resistant component
US8123967B2 (en) 2005-08-01 2012-02-28 Vapor Technologies Inc. Method of producing an article having patterned decorative coating
US8764864B1 (en) 2006-10-10 2014-07-01 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact including a polycrystalline diamond table having copper-containing material therein and applications therefor
US9623542B1 (en) 2006-10-10 2017-04-18 Us Synthetic Corporation Methods of making a polycrystalline diamond compact including a polycrystalline diamond table with a thermally-stable region having at least one low-carbon-solubility material
US8814966B1 (en) 2006-10-10 2014-08-26 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact formed by iniltrating a polycrystalline diamond body with an infiltrant having one or more carbide formers
US8790430B1 (en) 2006-10-10 2014-07-29 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact including a polycrystalline diamond table with a thermally-stable region having a copper-containing material and applications therefor
US8778040B1 (en) * 2006-10-10 2014-07-15 Us Synthetic Corporation Superabrasive elements, methods of manufacturing, and drill bits including same
US9017438B1 (en) 2006-10-10 2015-04-28 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact including a polycrystalline diamond table with a thermally-stable region having at least one low-carbon-solubility material and applications therefor
US8529649B2 (en) 2006-11-20 2013-09-10 Us Synthetic Corporation Methods of fabricating a polycrystalline diamond structure
US9663994B2 (en) 2006-11-20 2017-05-30 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact
US8979956B2 (en) 2006-11-20 2015-03-17 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact
US9808910B2 (en) 2006-11-20 2017-11-07 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compacts
US8821604B2 (en) 2006-11-20 2014-09-02 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact and method of making same
US9023125B2 (en) 2006-11-20 2015-05-05 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact
US20080302579A1 (en) * 2007-06-05 2008-12-11 Smith International, Inc. Polycrystalline diamond cutting elements having improved thermal resistance
US9381620B1 (en) 2008-03-03 2016-07-05 Us Synthetic Corporation Methods of fabricating polycrystalline diamond compacts
US9643293B1 (en) 2008-03-03 2017-05-09 Us Synthetic Corporation Methods of fabricating a polycrystalline diamond body with a sintering aid/infiltrant at least saturated with non-diamond carbon and resultant products such as compacts
US8999025B1 (en) 2008-03-03 2015-04-07 Us Synthetic Corporation Methods of fabricating a polycrystalline diamond body with a sintering aid/infiltrant at least saturated with non-diamond carbon and resultant products such as compacts
US8753413B1 (en) 2008-03-03 2014-06-17 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compacts and applications therefor
US8911521B1 (en) 2008-03-03 2014-12-16 Us Synthetic Corporation Methods of fabricating a polycrystalline diamond body with a sintering aid/infiltrant at least saturated with non-diamond carbon and resultant products such as compacts
US20100192475A1 (en) * 2008-08-21 2010-08-05 Stevens John H Method of making an earth-boring metal matrix rotary drill bit
US20100193255A1 (en) * 2008-08-21 2010-08-05 Stevens John H Earth-boring metal matrix rotary drill bit
US9376868B1 (en) 2009-01-30 2016-06-28 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact including pre-sintered polycrystalline diamond table having a thermally-stable region and applications therefor
RU2460631C2 (en) * 2010-05-25 2012-09-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Ульяновский государственный технический университет" Method of making abrasive tool based on organic thermoplastic binder
US9027675B1 (en) 2011-02-15 2015-05-12 Us Synthetic Corporation Polycrystalline diamond compact including a polycrystalline diamond table containing aluminum carbide therein and applications therefor
RU2467100C1 (en) * 2011-07-15 2012-11-20 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Ульяновский государственный технический университет" Method of thermal treatment of abrasive tool (at)
RU2490115C1 (en) * 2011-12-06 2013-08-20 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Ульяновский государственный технический университет" Method of making abrasive tool on organic thermoset binder
RU2521769C1 (en) * 2012-11-23 2014-07-10 Борис Юрьевич Гайворонский Abrasive mixture for abrasive pastes and tools and method for production thereof
US20160279761A1 (en) * 2015-03-25 2016-09-29 Baker Hughes Incorporated Polycrystalline diamond, methods of forming same, cutting elements, and earth-boring tools

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3469976A (en) Isostatic hot pressing of metal-bonded metal carbide bodies
US3676161A (en) Refractories bonded with aluminides,nickelides,or titanides
McHugh et al. Dispersion‐Strengthened Aluminum Oxide
US5643343A (en) Abrasive material for precision surface treatment and a method for the manufacturing thereof
US6056857A (en) Cryogenic annealing of sputtering targets
US4104441A (en) Polycrystalline diamond member and method of preparing same
US4354964A (en) Cermet materials
US4807402A (en) Diamond and cubic boron nitride
US5213248A (en) Bonding tool and its fabrication
Westbeook Temperature Dependence of Hardness of the Equi‐Atomic Iron Group Aluminides
US20050186104A1 (en) Composite materials containing a nanostructured carbon binder phase and high pressure process for making the same
US4647304A (en) Method for producing dispersion strengthened metal powders
US4475983A (en) Base metal composite electrical contact material
US4303442A (en) Diamond sintered body and the method for producing the same
US4353714A (en) Polycrystalline silicon-bonded cubic boron nitride body and method
US5723799A (en) Method for production of metal-based composites with oxide particle dispersion
US4643741A (en) Thermostable polycrystalline diamond body, method and mold for producing same
Dynys et al. Influence of aggregates on sintering
US4595663A (en) Sintered ceramic shaped article wholly or predominantly of eutectic microstructure constituents
US3565643A (en) Alumina - metalline compositions bonded with aluminide and titanide intermetallics
US3969131A (en) Coated graphite members and process for producing the same
US5472749A (en) Graphite encapsulated nanophase particles produced by a tungsten arc method
Feng et al. Field-activated pressure-assisted combustion synthesis of polycrystalline Ti 3 SiC 2
Grasso et al. Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS): a review of patents 1906–2008
US4900628A (en) Gaseous phase synthesized diamond and method for synthesizing same