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Control system for battery hybrid system

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US4025860A
US4025860A US05613199 US61319975A US4025860A US 4025860 A US4025860 A US 4025860A US 05613199 US05613199 US 05613199 US 61319975 A US61319975 A US 61319975A US 4025860 A US4025860 A US 4025860A
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battery
current
energy
power
thyristor
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US05613199
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Takanori Shibata
Tsutomu Omae
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Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
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Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LELECTRIC EQUIPMENT OR PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES, IN GENERAL
    • B60L11/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L11/18Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using power supply from primary cells, secondary cells, or fuel cells
    • B60L11/1851Battery monitoring or controlling; Arrangements of batteries, structures or switching circuits therefore
    • B60L11/1853Battery monitoring or controlling; Arrangements of batteries, structures or switching circuits therefore by battery splitting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LELECTRIC EQUIPMENT OR PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES, IN GENERAL
    • B60L11/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L11/18Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using power supply from primary cells, secondary cells, or fuel cells
    • B60L11/1851Battery monitoring or controlling; Arrangements of batteries, structures or switching circuits therefore
    • B60L11/1864Control of a battery packs, i.e. of a set of batteries with the same voltage
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/34Parallel operation in networks using both storage and other dc sources, e.g. providing buffering
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LELECTRIC EQUIPMENT OR PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES, IN GENERAL
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/40Drive Train control parameters
    • B60L2240/54Drive Train control parameters related to batteries
    • B60L2240/547Voltage
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LELECTRIC EQUIPMENT OR PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES, IN GENERAL
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/40Drive Train control parameters
    • B60L2240/54Drive Train control parameters related to batteries
    • B60L2240/549Current
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M16/00Structural combinations of different types of electrochemical generators
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/64Electric machine technologies for applications in electromobilty
    • Y02T10/642Control strategies of electric machines for automotive applications
    • Y02T10/646Number of electric drive machines
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/64Electric machine technologies for applications in electromobilty
    • Y02T10/642Control strategies of electric machines for automotive applications
    • Y02T10/646Number of electric drive machines
    • Y02T10/648Two electric drive machines
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage for electromobility
    • Y02T10/7005Batteries
    • Y02T10/7016Lead acid battery
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage for electromobility
    • Y02T10/7038Energy storage management
    • Y02T10/7055Controlling vehicles with more than one battery or more than one capacitor
    • Y02T10/7061Controlling vehicles with more than one battery or more than one capacitor the batteries or capacitors being of the same voltage
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/80Technologies aiming to reduce green house gasses emissions common to all road transportation technologies
    • Y02T10/92Energy efficient charging or discharging systems for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors specially adapted for vehicles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S320/00Electricity: battery or capacitor charging or discharging
    • Y10S320/34Robot, hybrid, recreational or emergency vehicle

Abstract

An electric auto power supply has an energy battery which is capable of discharging a current for a comparatively long period of time and high in energy density, and a power battery which is capable of discharging a current of a comparatively high amperage and high in power density. The energy battery and the power battery are connected respectively by way of switching means in parallel relation to each other, so as to be used as a power source of an electromobile. The current discharged from these batteries is controlled, such that a current required for the travelling of the electromobile, which is dependent upon the travelling conditions thereof, is supplied simultaneously from both batteries, or separately from individual batteries, or otherwise only from one battery, while a current is being charged to the other battery, thus extending the possible mileage range of the electromobile.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to a control system for a battery hybrid system, in which two types of batteries having different characteristics are used as power sources for an electromobile.

In most electromobiles, a lead battery has hitherto been used as a power source. This is because a lead battery is comparatively inexpensive and which is capable of discharging a large amount of current for a short period of time, upon acceleration of a electromobile. The lead battery, however, presents insufficiently high energy density (Wh/kg) to give an acceptably large mileage range to an electromobile. The five-hour term dicharge capacity of the lead battery, in general, ranges from 40 to 50 Wh/kg. An electromobile is therefore short in a possible mileage range, as compared with a gasoline motor vehicle of the same class, and this has been an obstacle in the practical use of the electromobile. In this connection, if the weight of the battery is increased for increasing a weight ratio of the battery to the vehicle, then the possible mileage range of the electromobile could be extended. This, however, results in the increase in the weight of an electromobile itself, thereby lowering the loading capability as well as lowering the performance of the electromobile.

On the other hand, the five-hour-term discharge capacity of a zinc-air battery or an iron-air battery ranges from 80 to 130 Wh/kg, which is twice as high as that of the lead battery. Such a battery, however, is not suited for an electromobile, because of its inability to discharge a large amount of current.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is accordingly an object of the present invention to provide a control system for a battery hybrid system, wherein two types of batteries are used in combination for providing a power source system suited for an electromobile, one battery being high in energy density as in a zinc-air battery or an iron-air battery but unable to discharge a large amount of current (hereinafter referred to as an energy battery), and the other battery being capable to discharging a large amount of current as in a lead battery or a nickel-cadmium battery, but having lower energy density (hereinafter referred to as a power battery); and the characteristics of individual batteries being utilized to the fullest extent by controlling the discharge currents from the energy battery as well as from the power battery, thereby satisfying the various requirements for an electromobile and extending a possible mileage range thereof.

According to the present invention, a control system for a battery hybrid system is characterized in that two types of batteries of different characteristics, such as an energy battery and a power battery, are provided and respective batteries are controlled in a manner that the energy battery is used in a small current discharging range and the power battery is used in a large current discharging range thereby efficiently extracting energy from the individual batteries.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 plots energy density versus discharge current typical energy battery and power battery;

FIG. 2 is a plot representing power density versus discharge current of the above batteries;

FIG. 3 is a block diagram of a control circuit of an electric motor, according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 4 is an example of a chopper circuit;

FIG. 5 is an embodiment of a forced commutating circuit of thyristors for use in switching current from batteries used in the present invention;

FIG. 6 plots a voltage drop characteristic versus discharge current of the typical energy battery and power battery;

FIGS. 7 and 8 represent the wave forms, explaining the operation of the present invention.

FIG. 9 is a block diagram showing in detail the construction of a control circuit available for the present invention; and

FIGS. 10a and 10b are pulse time charts explaining the operation of FIG. 9.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

FIG. 1 is a plot of a characteristic of energy density (Wh/kg) versus discharge current (C), of an energy battery A and a power battery B. The plot shows that if a limitation is placed on the use of discharge current, then high energy for a predetermined weight of the battery may be extracted from the energy battery. Likewise, FIG. 2 shows a plot of a characteristic of power density (W/kg) versus dicharge current of the energy battery A and the power battery B. As is apparent from FIGS. 1 and 2, it should be desirable that, in small current discharging range, current is discharged from the energy battery, while in a large current discharging range, current be discharged from the power battery. Where it is desired to discharge current of an amount more than that at the reference point Is at which both batteries are equal in energy density, then such an amount of current should be discharged from the power battery.

An effective discharge current of the energy battery may be selected as that at a point, besides the reference point Is, at which the energy of both batteries is efficiently utilized, according to the weight (capacity) distribution of the batteries, although it depends upon the load condition, so that a possible mileage may be extended.

According to the present invention, there is provided a battery hybrid control system, wherein batteries of a dual system which are different in characteristics are provided as a power source; and one battery is high in energy density and used for discharging in a small current discharging range, while the other battery is high in power density and used for the discharging in a large current discharging range, whereby the various requirements for performance of an electromobile are satisfied, as well as energy of respective batteries is efficiently extracted therefrom, thereby extending a possible mileage.

Referring to FIG. 3, there is shown a preferred embodiment of the present invention. Shown at 1 is an energy battery such as a zinc-air battery or an iron-air battery, at 2 a power battery such as a lead battery, or a nickel-cadmium battery, at 3 a battery-current switching control circuit, and at 3a and 3b switching elements. Shown at 4 is a chopper circuit, at 5 a smoothing DC reactor, at 6 an electric motor, at 7 a commutating circuit connected to thyristors in the battery-current-switching-control-circuit, at 8 an electronic controlling circuit for applying an ignition pulse required to respective thyristors in the chopper circuit or in the battery-current switching circuit, according to a control command from an accelerator 9 or from a brake device 10, thereby controlling the running of the electric motor, at 11a and 11b battery-current sensors, and at 12 a motor-current sensor. The construction of the chopper circuit 4 and the commutating circuit 7 for the battery-current switching thyristors are shown in FIGS. 4 and 5. Referring first to FIG. 4, shown at 4a is a reverse-conductive type thyristor which is adapted to be actuated as a main thyristor at the time of the heavy-load running and actuated as a commutating thyristor at the time of the braking action, and at 4b a reverse-conductive type thyristor adapted to be actuated as a main thyristor at the time of application of the braking action and adapted to be actuated as a commutating thyristor at the time of the heavy-load running. Shown at 4c is a reverse flow-blocking type thyristor which is used for charging the commutating thyristor as well as serving as a main thyristor at the time of braking action, at 4d a fly-wheel diode, and at 4f a commutating reactor. Referring to FIG. 5, shown at 7a is a commutating, reverse-conductive type thyristor, at 7b a diode for supplementarily supplying a current to a commutating condenser 7d, at 7c a current-supplementing resistor, and 7e a commutating reactor.

The principle of operation of the chopper circuit will be referred to in conjunction with FIGS. 3 and 4. The explanation will commence with the heavy-load running. At least one of the thyristors 3a and 3b and the thyristor 4c are ignited, thereby charging current from the battery 1 or 2 through the commutating reactor 4f to the commutating condenser 4e. Upon the termination of the charging to the condenser 4e, the respective thyristors will be turned off by itself. Subsequently, when either the element 3a or the element 3b and the main thyristor 4a are turned on in synchronism, then the terminal voltage of the battery will appear across the output terminals C and B of the chopper, whereby the motor current is allowed to flow. The motor current increases according to a circuit time-constant. If, after a given interval of time, the thyristor 4b is turned on, then the electric charge in the commutating condenser 4e will be discharged through the thyristor 4a and the reactor 4f, whereby the condenser current is reversed due to resonance in the reactor and the condenser, and the normal directional current in the thyristors 4a and 4b is offset, thus turning off these thyristors. The condenser current is charged through the reverse-directional diodes 4a and 4b to the condenser, thus imparting the initial polarity thereto. The motor current is fed toward the flywheel diode 4d and attenuates according to a circuit time-constant.

Thereafter, the cycle of operations described is repeated. If the turning-on interval and turning-on frequency of the pulse is changed, the current conducting ratio in the chopper may be controlled, and thereby the motor current as well as the motor speed may be controlled. The current conductng ratio is controlled by the control circuit 8. Upon the braking action, following the charging to the commutating condenser in a like manner, the thyristors 4b and 4c are simultaneously turned on. Then the motor current will be caused to flow according to a circuit time-constant in a manner to increase short-circuiting circuits by way of the reactor 5. If, after a given interval of time, the thyristor 4a is caused to be turned on, then electricity charged in the condenser 4e will be discharged through 4b and 4f, and eventually respective thyristors will be turned off through the process the same as in the heavy-load running due to the resonant phenomenon in the chopper circuit. A back electromotive force which is given rise to by the reactor is superposed on the motor voltage, and a motor current is caused to flow as a regenerative current through the reverse-directional diode of the thyristor 4a to the battery. The cycle of operations described is thereafter repeated.

The energy battery and the power battery in general, present a voltage drop characteristic, as plotted in FIG. 6, wherein the former is large in the internal resistance and hence presents a sharp voltage drop characteristic as represented by a line A, while the latter is slow in the voltage drop as represented by a line B, because of a small internal resistance. For this reason, the energy battery need be given an open-circuit voltage much higher than that of the power battery. Assuming that VOA, VOB and ROA, ROB are representative of the open-circuit voltage and the internal resistance of the energy battery and those of the power battery, respectively, and Is is the representative of an effective discharge current of the energy battery, then, ##EQU1##

Thus, the voltage of these batteries should desirably be determined to a level as high as that satisfying the above expression.

The energy battery is high in energy density, and the energy battery must be used within the limit of a discharge current which permits efficient extraction of energy from the battery, so that, in the range where the motor current is small, the thyristor 3a connected to the energy battery is caused to turn on in synchronism with the turning-on of the chopper so as to positively supply a current from the energy battery to the power battery. Where the discharge current from the energy battery exceeds the effective discharge current thereof as a result of an increase in motor current, then the thyristors 3a and 3b both are caused to turn on in synchronism with the turning-on of the chopper. If voltage drop and internal resistance in the thyristors are deemed as being included in the electromotive force and internal resistance of individual batteries, then the current distribution of the energy battery current iA and the power battery current iB is expressed as follows: ##EQU2## wherein IQ is: ##EQU3## and iC is an input current to the chopper, which is represented by: iA iB

i.sub.C = i.sub.A + i.sub.B                                (5)

assuming that im is representative of the mean value of the motor current, and δ is representative of the current conducting ration in the chopper, then the relationship as expressed by the following equation will be established between the mean value ic of the input current to the chopper and the mean value im of the motor current.

i.sub.C = i.sub.A + i.sub.B                                (6)

in the expression (2), when the motor current increases then

 i.sub.A ≧ I.sub.S                                  (7)

since it is undesirable that the discharge current from the energy battery exceeds a preset value of the effective discharge current of the energy battery, then the thyristor 7a is caused to turn on for a duration in which the thyristor 3a is conducting. On the other hand, electricity has been charged beforehand through the reactor 7e, diode 7b, and resistor 7c to the commutating condenser 7d. Thus, the electricity charged in the commutating condenser 7d is discharged through the thyristors 3a and 7a, and the normal-directional current across both thyristors will be off-set due to the resonant phenomenon which arises in the circuit, whereby the thyristor 3a is turned off, thereby blocking the discharge of current from the energy battery.

The motor current, which is required for the starting, accelerating or travelling on an upward road is extremely large and a heavy burden is imposed on the power battery, so that, during the interruption of the chopper or during a short stop of a vehicle, the power battery must be used, with the energy battery being charged, so as to avoid dissipation of energy of the power battery. To this end, immediately after the thyristor 3a has been rendered nonconductive, during the operation described, the thyristor 3a is again turned on, so that a current may be fed from the energy battery to the power battery. The current is given by the expression (4), according to a voltage difference between both batteries. Thus, the reverse directional diode of the thyristor 3b is rendered conductive, whereby the current is fed therethrough to the power battery. In case the thyristor 3a is conducting when the chopper becomes conductive, the thyristor 3a permits to flow the charging current to the power battery, without being turned off even if the chopper is rendered non-conductive. Thus, a turning-on pulse should not necessarily be given to the thyristor 3a. In case the thyristor 3a is non-conducting when the chopper is rendered conductive, then the thyristor 3a must be turned on after the chopper has been rendered non-conductive. The thyristor 3b is turned off by itself due to the interruption of the chopper.

FIGS. 7 and 8 show the current wave form, illustrating the operations described. FIG. 7 shows the case where a motor current iM is comparatively small; a vehicle is run by turning on the thyristors 3a and 3b simultaneously; and the discharge current iA from the energy battery does not exceed the preset value Is of the effective discharge current. Represented by iB is the power battery current. If the chopper is rendered conductive at the time t0 and interrupted at the time t1, then the charging current (current shown by hatching) flows from the energy battery to the power battery for a duration from the interruption of the chopper until the chopper is again rendered conductive. Referring to FIG. 8, the motor current iM is of a large amount; and the chopper is rendered conductive at the time t0. Thus, the discharge current from the energy battery reaches the effective dicharge current at the time t'1. Consequently, the thyristor 3a will be turned off. Then, the power battery current, iB attends upon the motor current iM, thereby increasing current. If the chopper is rendered non-conductive at the time t1 and in turn the thyristor 3a is turned on, then the charging current flows from the energy battery to the power battery. In FIGS. 7 and 8, the current conducting rate δ in the chopper is represented by the following expression:

δ = T.sub.1 /T                                       (8)

also in the case where the chopper is maintained interrupted during a short stop of a vehicle, the thyristor 3a is turned on so that the charging current may be fed from the energy battery to the power battery.

At the time of the regenerative braking, it is effective to charge a large amount of current to the power battery which is high in the charging efficiency. To this end, a reverse-conductive type thyristor is employed for the thyristor 3b for switching the power battery current, so that the regenerative current may flow through the reverse-directional diode to the power battery, as shown in FIG. 3.

According to the present invention, energy of the energy battery having high energy density is effectively utilized for avoiding dissipation of energy of the power battery, so that a possible mileage of an electromobile may be extended without impairing the various performances thereof.

FIG. 9 is a block diagram showing in detail the construction of the control circuit as referred to FIG. 3, and FIG. 10 is a pulse time chart explaining the operation of the control circuit of FIG. 9. Referring to FIG. 9, shown at 801 is a command-signal controlling circuit, which is so arranged as to give a command signal for controlling a current conducting rate in the chopper, according to an output signal Acc from an accelerator 9 and an output signal Br from a brake device 10, and to determine the running mode such as a heavy-load running or the braking action, to thereby give a starting command to a pulse circuit. Designated 802 is a pulse generator, which is so arranged as to control the current conducting rate in the chopper, according to a deviation between the current-conducting-rate-command signal and the output from the motor current sensor 12, thereby producing pulses P1 and P2 as outputs. Shown at 803 is a running-mode-switching signal generator, which produces output signals X and Y according to the running mode such as the heavy-load running or the braking action, at 804 and 805 delayed pulse generators, which are provided for ensuring the time of operation for charging electricity to the commutating circuit for the thyristors and chopper, and at 806 a pulse generator, which compares the discharge current IB from the energy battery with the preset value Is of the proper discharge current of the energy battery, and produces a pulse signal if Is < IB. Designated 807 to 813 and 814 to 819 are logical circuits, which are indicated by positive logic and consist of AND gates and OR gates. The control circuit thus constructed operates in the manner shown in FIG. 10, in which reference (a) shows the heavy-load running and (b) shows the braking action. The current conducting rate δ in the chopper is represented by the following equation from the relationship of time between the pulses P1 and P2 :

δ = t.sub.1                                          (8)

the current conducting rate is controlled by controlling the time T1 and the pulse frequency T to be repeated. The theoretical equations for operating the control circuit are as follows:

3a= P.sub.1 + P'.sub.1 X+ P'.sub.2 X

3b = P.sub. 1 + P'.sub.1 X

4a = P'.sub.1 X+ P'.sub.2 Y

4b = P.sub.1 X++ P'.sub.1 Y

4c = P.sub.1 + P'.sub.1 Y

7a = P.sub.3 + P.sub.2 Y                                   (9)

according to the present invention, the energy battery high in energy density and the power battery having high power density are used in combination as a power source, so that the characteristic of the individual battery may be utilized to the fullest extent for the efficient use of respective batteries. This ensures an electromobile a high accelerating performance, a high capability of travelling an upward road and a high running performance at the maximum speed, as well as extension of the possible mileage of an electromobile.

In the embodiment shown, a zinc-air battery, etc., is used as an energy battery, but a fuel battery may be used although such a battery is rather disadvantageous when used for discharging a large current.

In the embodiment shown the effective discharge current Is of the energy battery is determined by a comparison with the discharge current of the power battery, but may be determined by taking other factors into account.

While a preferred embodiment of the present invention has been set forth in detail with various modifications mentioned and the details being important in their own right, further embodiments, modifications and variations are contemplated according to the broader aspects of the present invention, all as determined by the spirit and scope of the following claims.

Claims (11)

What we claim is:
1. A control system for a hybrid battery power source having at least one energy battery of high energy density capable of discharging a small current over a comparatively long period of time and at least one power battery of high power density capable of discharging at least momentarily a comparatively large current for supplying current to a variable load, said control system comprising: controllable switch means for selectively connecting only one and both of the energy and power batteries in parallel across the load; means for monitoring the discharge current from at least one of the energy and power batteries, and the load current through the load; said monitoring means providing respective output signals in dependence on said load and discharge currents; means for controlling said switch means in dependence on said output signals to cause said switch means to connect both said energy and power batteries in parallel across the load when said load current is smaller than a fixed level and the dicharge current from the energy battery is below a fixed level, and to connect only the power battery across the load when said load current is higher than a fixed level and the discharge current from the energy battery is at or above said predetermined level.
2. The control system of claim 1, wherein the energy battery has a greater terminal voltage than the power battery when said load current is reduced to zero and wherein said controlling means causes said switching means to connect the energy and power batteries in parallel when said load current is zero, thereby causing the energy battery of higher terminal voltage to charge the power battery of lower terminal voltage when said load current is zero.
3. The control system of claim 1, wherein the variable load means comprises chopper means in series connection with an electrical load, said chopper means alternating periods of connecting said switch means and power source to the load with periods of disconnecting said switch means and power source from the load to drop the load current to zero and recharge the power battery with the energy battery.
4. The control system of claim 3, wherein said chopper means is controllable for changing the relative length of alternating periods for correspondingly varying the current passing therethrough to the load.
5. The control system of claim 4 wherein said electrical load comprises the motor of an electrically powered vehicle having a hybrid battery power source and said control system is employed for controlling said power source, said control system further comprising manually operable means for providing variable acceleration and braking signals, and said controlling means being further connected for controlling said chopper in response to said acceleration and braking signals, thereby modifying the current through said motor in dependence on said acceleration and braking signals.
6. The control system of claim 5 wherein said controlling means is responsive to said signal means from said monitoring means, for connecting only the power battery across said motor during regenerative braking of said vehicle, thereby causing said power battery to be recharged.
7. The control system of claim 1, wherein said controllable switch means comprises controllable first and second switches each of which is connected in series with a respective one of the energy and power batteries.
8. The control system of claim 7, wherein at least one of said switches comprises a thyristor.
9. The control system of claim 8 wherein said controlling means further comprises commutating circuit means for opening the controllable switch connected in series with the energy battery when the discharge current of the energy battery reaches said predetermined level.
10. The control system of claim 7 wherein said controlling means further comprises commutating circuit means for opening the controllable switch connected in series with the energy battery when the discharge current of the energy battery reaches said predetermined level.
11. The control system of claim 1 wherein said electrical load comprises the motor of an electrically powered vehicle having a hybrid battery power source and said control system is employed for controlling said power source, said control system further comprising manually operable means for providing variable acceleration and braking signals, and said controlling means further modifying the current through said motor in dependence on said acceleration and braking signals.
US05613199 1974-09-14 1975-09-15 Control system for battery hybrid system Expired - Lifetime US4025860A (en)

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JP10553974A JPS5314748B2 (en) 1974-09-14 1974-09-14
JA49-105539 1974-09-14

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US4025860A true US4025860A (en) 1977-05-24

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GB (1) GB1505876A (en)

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US4351405A (en) * 1978-10-12 1982-09-28 Hybricon Inc. Hybrid car with electric and heat engine
US4565951A (en) * 1983-12-21 1986-01-21 Petit Jean C Process and electronic device for the control and regulation of the supply current in an electric motor fed from a fixed voltage direct current source
US4667142A (en) * 1985-09-09 1987-05-19 Tie/Communications, Inc. Three-way power source circuit
GB2202097A (en) * 1986-11-21 1988-09-14 Mvb Components Ltd Control circuit for a bicycle lighting system
EP0291131A1 (en) * 1987-05-15 1988-11-17 Emerson Electric Co. Tool for intermediate voltage
US4931947A (en) * 1983-09-29 1990-06-05 Engelhard Corporation Fuel cell/battery hybrid system having battery charge-level control
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US5206576A (en) * 1989-11-22 1993-04-27 Motorola, Inc. Battery charger
US5272475A (en) * 1991-12-09 1993-12-21 Motorola, Inc. Alerting system for a communication receiver
US5383907A (en) * 1992-12-18 1995-01-24 Angeion Corporation System and method for delivering multiple closely spaced defibrillation pulses
US5399956A (en) * 1992-02-03 1995-03-21 Motorola, Inc. Backup battery system for a portable electronic device
US5416401A (en) * 1991-06-20 1995-05-16 Wabco Standard Gmbh Dual voltage supply circuit for vehicles
US5522853A (en) * 1992-10-27 1996-06-04 Angeion Corporation Method and apparatus for progressive recruitment of cardiac fibrillation
US5563479A (en) * 1993-10-29 1996-10-08 Aisin Seiki Kabushiki Kaisha Power supply apparatus for electric vehicle
WO1997008439A1 (en) * 1995-08-31 1997-03-06 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system with a drive engine, an electrical machine and a battery
US5620464A (en) * 1992-12-18 1997-04-15 Angeion Corporation System and method for delivering multiple closely spaced defibrillation pulses
EP0782209A1 (en) * 1995-12-29 1997-07-02 FINMECCANICA S.p.A. AZIENDA ANSALDO A supply system with fuel cells and a buffer battery for a self-supplied vehicle with electric drive
US5697953A (en) * 1993-03-13 1997-12-16 Angeion Corporation Implantable cardioverter defibrillator having a smaller displacement volume
US5780980A (en) * 1995-04-14 1998-07-14 Hitachi, Ltd. Electric car drive system provided with hybrid battery and control method
US5827326A (en) * 1991-03-15 1998-10-27 Angeion Corporation Implantable cardioverter defibrillator having a smaller energy storage capacity
US5957956A (en) * 1994-06-21 1999-09-28 Angeion Corp Implantable cardioverter defibrillator having a smaller mass
US6138629A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-10-31 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg System for actively reducing radial vibrations in a rotating shaft, and method of operating the system to achieve this
US6148784A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-11-21 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive systems, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6149544A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-11-21 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system for a motor vehicle with a drive unit and electric machine, and method of operating the system
US6158405A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-12-12 Isad Electronic Systems System for actively reducing rotational nonuniformity of a shaft, in particular, the drive shaft of an internal combustion engine, and method of operating the system
US6177734B1 (en) 1998-02-27 2001-01-23 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Starter/generator for an internal combustion engine, especially an engine of a motor vehicle
US6199650B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2001-03-13 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6202776B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2001-03-20 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6405701B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2002-06-18 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg System for actively reducing rotational nonuniformity of a shaft, in particular, the drive shaft of an internal combustion engine, and method for this
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US6487998B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2002-12-03 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co., Kg Drive system, particularly for a motor vehicle, and process for operating it
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US20040249431A1 (en) * 2003-06-04 2004-12-09 Terrance Ransbury Device and method for retaining a medical device within a vessel
US20040249417A1 (en) * 2003-06-04 2004-12-09 Terrance Ransbury Implantable intravascular device for defibrillation and/or pacing
US20050154437A1 (en) * 2003-12-12 2005-07-14 Williams Michael S. Implantable medical device having pre-implant exoskeleton
US20050228471A1 (en) * 2003-06-04 2005-10-13 Williams Michael S Method and apparatus for retaining medical implants within body vessels
US20050234431A1 (en) * 2004-02-10 2005-10-20 Williams Michael S Intravascular delivery system for therapeutic agents
US20070284159A1 (en) * 2006-06-13 2007-12-13 Norio Takami Storage battery system, on-vehicle power supply system, vehicle and method for charging storage battery system
US20080077219A1 (en) * 2003-06-04 2008-03-27 Williams Michael S Intravascular electrophysiological system and methods
US20090096399A1 (en) * 2007-10-16 2009-04-16 Yung Chen Intelligent motorized appliances with multiple power sources
US20090302685A1 (en) * 2008-05-15 2009-12-10 Quentin Wayne Kramer Bi-directional nominal current, variable power and/or variable voltage, energy transfer circuit
WO2011114349A2 (en) * 2010-03-15 2011-09-22 Mahindra Reva Electric Vehicles Pvt. Ltd Hybrid battery pack
CN102290856A (en) * 2011-08-17 2011-12-21 深圳科力远新能源有限公司 A dual power supply apparatus and method
US20130009469A1 (en) * 2011-07-06 2013-01-10 Gillett Carla R Hybrid energy system
US20130134786A1 (en) * 2010-09-22 2013-05-30 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Dc-dc converter comprising dc power sources to be connected in parallel or in series
US8981710B2 (en) 2010-09-20 2015-03-17 Indy Power Systems Llc Energy management system
US20160089992A1 (en) * 2014-09-30 2016-03-31 Johnson Controls Technology Company Battery system bi-stable relay control
US20160094056A1 (en) * 2014-09-30 2016-03-31 Johnson Controls Technology Company Battery module short circuit protection
US9352644B2 (en) * 2011-08-30 2016-05-31 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Vehicle
US20160172888A1 (en) * 2014-12-11 2016-06-16 Samsung Sdi Co., Ltd. Battery pack
US9647544B2 (en) 2012-03-19 2017-05-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho Magnetic component, power converter and power supply system
US20170182910A1 (en) * 2014-04-24 2017-06-29 Audi Ag Multi-battery system for increasing the electric range
US9812949B2 (en) 2013-10-10 2017-11-07 Indy Power Systems Llc Poly-phase inverter with independent phase control

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JPS603642Y2 (en) * 1977-06-15 1985-02-01
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Cited By (78)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4351405A (en) * 1978-10-12 1982-09-28 Hybricon Inc. Hybrid car with electric and heat engine
US4348628A (en) * 1980-06-20 1982-09-07 Loucks Carl C Electric motor alternating power supply for vehicles
US4931947A (en) * 1983-09-29 1990-06-05 Engelhard Corporation Fuel cell/battery hybrid system having battery charge-level control
US4962462A (en) * 1983-09-29 1990-10-09 Engelhard Corporation Fuel cell/battery hybrid system
US4961151A (en) * 1983-09-29 1990-10-02 Engelhard Corporation Fuel cell/battery control system
US4565951A (en) * 1983-12-21 1986-01-21 Petit Jean C Process and electronic device for the control and regulation of the supply current in an electric motor fed from a fixed voltage direct current source
US4667142A (en) * 1985-09-09 1987-05-19 Tie/Communications, Inc. Three-way power source circuit
GB2202097A (en) * 1986-11-21 1988-09-14 Mvb Components Ltd Control circuit for a bicycle lighting system
EP0291131A1 (en) * 1987-05-15 1988-11-17 Emerson Electric Co. Tool for intermediate voltage
US5206576A (en) * 1989-11-22 1993-04-27 Motorola, Inc. Battery charger
US5827326A (en) * 1991-03-15 1998-10-27 Angeion Corporation Implantable cardioverter defibrillator having a smaller energy storage capacity
US5416401A (en) * 1991-06-20 1995-05-16 Wabco Standard Gmbh Dual voltage supply circuit for vehicles
US5272475A (en) * 1991-12-09 1993-12-21 Motorola, Inc. Alerting system for a communication receiver
US5399956A (en) * 1992-02-03 1995-03-21 Motorola, Inc. Backup battery system for a portable electronic device
US5522853A (en) * 1992-10-27 1996-06-04 Angeion Corporation Method and apparatus for progressive recruitment of cardiac fibrillation
US5383907A (en) * 1992-12-18 1995-01-24 Angeion Corporation System and method for delivering multiple closely spaced defibrillation pulses
US5620464A (en) * 1992-12-18 1997-04-15 Angeion Corporation System and method for delivering multiple closely spaced defibrillation pulses
US5697953A (en) * 1993-03-13 1997-12-16 Angeion Corporation Implantable cardioverter defibrillator having a smaller displacement volume
US5563479A (en) * 1993-10-29 1996-10-08 Aisin Seiki Kabushiki Kaisha Power supply apparatus for electric vehicle
US5957956A (en) * 1994-06-21 1999-09-28 Angeion Corp Implantable cardioverter defibrillator having a smaller mass
US5780980A (en) * 1995-04-14 1998-07-14 Hitachi, Ltd. Electric car drive system provided with hybrid battery and control method
US6365983B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2002-04-02 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Starter/generator for an internal combustion engine, especially an engine of a motor vehicle
US6487998B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2002-12-03 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co., Kg Drive system, particularly for a motor vehicle, and process for operating it
US6138629A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-10-31 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg System for actively reducing radial vibrations in a rotating shaft, and method of operating the system to achieve this
US6148784A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-11-21 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive systems, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
WO1997008439A1 (en) * 1995-08-31 1997-03-06 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system with a drive engine, an electrical machine and a battery
US6158405A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-12-12 Isad Electronic Systems System for actively reducing rotational nonuniformity of a shaft, in particular, the drive shaft of an internal combustion engine, and method of operating the system
US6405701B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2002-06-18 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg System for actively reducing rotational nonuniformity of a shaft, in particular, the drive shaft of an internal combustion engine, and method for this
US6199650B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2001-03-13 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6202776B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2001-03-20 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6281646B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2001-08-28 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system with drive-motor, electric machine and battery
US6149544A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-11-21 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system for a motor vehicle with a drive unit and electric machine, and method of operating the system
EP0782209A1 (en) * 1995-12-29 1997-07-02 FINMECCANICA S.p.A. AZIENDA ANSALDO A supply system with fuel cells and a buffer battery for a self-supplied vehicle with electric drive
US6177734B1 (en) 1998-02-27 2001-01-23 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Starter/generator for an internal combustion engine, especially an engine of a motor vehicle
US20020158606A1 (en) * 1998-11-12 2002-10-31 King Robert Dean Traction motor drive system
US6737822B2 (en) * 1998-11-12 2004-05-18 General Electric Company Traction motor drive system
US7049792B2 (en) 1998-11-12 2006-05-23 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for a hybrid battery configuration for use in an electric or hybrid electric motive power system
US20030160510A1 (en) * 2002-02-26 2003-08-28 Koichi Mizutani Power supply control system for vehicle and method
US7042115B2 (en) * 2002-02-26 2006-05-09 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Power supply control system for vehicle and method
WO2003086810A1 (en) * 2002-04-05 2003-10-23 Powergenix Systems, Inc. Hybrid energy system for traction vehicles
US20050228471A1 (en) * 2003-06-04 2005-10-13 Williams Michael S Method and apparatus for retaining medical implants within body vessels
US8239045B2 (en) 2003-06-04 2012-08-07 Synecor Llc Device and method for retaining a medical device within a vessel
US7899554B2 (en) 2003-06-04 2011-03-01 Synecor Llc Intravascular System and Method
US7617007B2 (en) 2003-06-04 2009-11-10 Synecor Llc Method and apparatus for retaining medical implants within body vessels
US20040249431A1 (en) * 2003-06-04 2004-12-09 Terrance Ransbury Device and method for retaining a medical device within a vessel
US7082336B2 (en) 2003-06-04 2006-07-25 Synecor, Llc Implantable intravascular device for defibrillation and/or pacing
US7840282B2 (en) 2003-06-04 2010-11-23 Synecor Llc Method and apparatus for retaining medical implants within body vessels
US20080077219A1 (en) * 2003-06-04 2008-03-27 Williams Michael S Intravascular electrophysiological system and methods
US7734343B2 (en) 2003-06-04 2010-06-08 Synecor, Llc Implantable intravascular device for defibrillation and/or pacing
US20090281521A1 (en) * 2003-06-04 2009-11-12 Williams Michael S Method and apparatus for retaining medical implants within body vessels
US7529589B2 (en) 2003-06-04 2009-05-05 Synecor Llc Intravascular electrophysiological system and methods
US20040249417A1 (en) * 2003-06-04 2004-12-09 Terrance Ransbury Implantable intravascular device for defibrillation and/or pacing
US20050154437A1 (en) * 2003-12-12 2005-07-14 Williams Michael S. Implantable medical device having pre-implant exoskeleton
US7747335B2 (en) 2003-12-12 2010-06-29 Synecor Llc Implantable medical device having pre-implant exoskeleton
US20090048583A1 (en) * 2004-02-10 2009-02-19 Williams Michael S Intravascular delivery system for therapeutic agents
US20050234431A1 (en) * 2004-02-10 2005-10-20 Williams Michael S Intravascular delivery system for therapeutic agents
US20070284159A1 (en) * 2006-06-13 2007-12-13 Norio Takami Storage battery system, on-vehicle power supply system, vehicle and method for charging storage battery system
US8047316B2 (en) * 2006-06-13 2011-11-01 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Storage battery system, on-vehicle power supply system, vehicle and method for charging storage battery system
US7825615B2 (en) 2007-10-16 2010-11-02 Glj, Llc Intelligent motorized appliances with multiple power sources
US20090096399A1 (en) * 2007-10-16 2009-04-16 Yung Chen Intelligent motorized appliances with multiple power sources
US20090302685A1 (en) * 2008-05-15 2009-12-10 Quentin Wayne Kramer Bi-directional nominal current, variable power and/or variable voltage, energy transfer circuit
US8076797B2 (en) 2008-05-15 2011-12-13 Indy Power Systems Llc Energy transfer circuit and method
WO2011114349A2 (en) * 2010-03-15 2011-09-22 Mahindra Reva Electric Vehicles Pvt. Ltd Hybrid battery pack
WO2011114349A3 (en) * 2010-03-15 2011-11-10 Mahindra Reva Electric Vehicles Pvt. Ltd Hybrid battery pack
US8981710B2 (en) 2010-09-20 2015-03-17 Indy Power Systems Llc Energy management system
US20130134786A1 (en) * 2010-09-22 2013-05-30 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Dc-dc converter comprising dc power sources to be connected in parallel or in series
US9431824B2 (en) * 2010-09-22 2016-08-30 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho DC-DC converter comprising DC power sources to be connected in parallel or in series
US20130009469A1 (en) * 2011-07-06 2013-01-10 Gillett Carla R Hybrid energy system
US9553452B2 (en) * 2011-07-06 2017-01-24 Carla R. Gillett Hybrid energy system
CN102290856B (en) 2011-08-17 2013-06-19 深圳先进储能材料国家工程研究中心有限公司 Double-power device and power supplying method thereof
CN102290856A (en) * 2011-08-17 2011-12-21 深圳科力远新能源有限公司 A dual power supply apparatus and method
US9352644B2 (en) * 2011-08-30 2016-05-31 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Vehicle
US9647544B2 (en) 2012-03-19 2017-05-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho Magnetic component, power converter and power supply system
US9812949B2 (en) 2013-10-10 2017-11-07 Indy Power Systems Llc Poly-phase inverter with independent phase control
US20170182910A1 (en) * 2014-04-24 2017-06-29 Audi Ag Multi-battery system for increasing the electric range
US20160089992A1 (en) * 2014-09-30 2016-03-31 Johnson Controls Technology Company Battery system bi-stable relay control
US20160094056A1 (en) * 2014-09-30 2016-03-31 Johnson Controls Technology Company Battery module short circuit protection
US20160172888A1 (en) * 2014-12-11 2016-06-16 Samsung Sdi Co., Ltd. Battery pack

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
GB1505876A (en) 1978-03-30 application
JPS5314748B2 (en) 1978-05-19 grant
JP936567C (en) grant
JPS5132926A (en) 1976-03-19 application

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