US402395A - Apparatus for the manufacture of gas - Google Patents

Apparatus for the manufacture of gas Download PDF

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US402395A
US402395A US402395DA US402395A US 402395 A US402395 A US 402395A US 402395D A US402395D A US 402395DA US 402395 A US402395 A US 402395A
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retorts
chamber
gas
fixing
generators
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B3/00Hydrogen; Gaseous mixtures containing hydrogen; Separation of hydrogen from mixtures containing it; Purification of hydrogen
    • C01B3/02Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen
    • C01B3/04Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by decomposition of inorganic compounds, e.g. ammonia
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J1/00Production of fuel gases by carburetting air or other gases without pyrolysis
    • C10J1/213Carburetting by pyrolysis of solid carbonaceous material in a carburettor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/30Hydrogen technology
    • Y02E60/36Hydrogen production from non-carbon containing sources, e.g. by water electrolysis

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  • PETERS Phnlo-Lnhognplmr. Wnhiugton. u. c.
  • siiicirIcATIoN forming part of Letters Patent No. 402,395, dated April 30, 1 889.
  • My invention relates to apparatus for making gas, in which a mass of carbonaceous material is firstbrought to incandescence by having air forced through it, which air in due time is shut d and steam substituted therefor, producing what is known as water-gas, which is afterward carbureted and fixed in suitable fixing-vessels.
  • the object of my invention is to provide a simple, compact, and efficient apparatus wherein the process of making illuminatinggas can be carried on continuously, and whereby the heavier crude petroleum-oils can be readily used to the best advantage for the purpose of carbureting the non -luminous gas produced.
  • Figure 1 is a plan view of the whole combined apparatus.
  • Fig. 2 is a sectional View of the fixing-chamber on line 2 2
  • Fig. 4 with pipe Gr removed the better to show the mouth-piece of the lower retorts
  • R R R and R Fig. 3 is a sectional elevation of the fixing-chamber on line 3 3
  • Fig. 4 is a sectional elevation of the fixing-chamber through line 4 4
  • Fig. 5 is a sectional elevation of the fixing-chamber on line 5 5, Fig. 2.
  • Z Z are the generators, constructed in general like the well-known water-gas producers in common use. .I employ with each generator Zand Z a set of two outlet-pipes, X Y and X Y, fitted with quick-moving valves of ordinary construction, V V and V V. I have the usual blower, b, driven by an engine, (not shown,) delivering air through pipes at a a regulated by valves 1; v v c, to the generators and fixing and combustion chaml'ast-named retorts and the retort R ber Y, as may be required; also steam-pipes s s, which are supplied from a boiler, (not shown,) to convey steam into the generators at the proper time.
  • the generators also have charging-doors d d and cleaning-doors d d.
  • m m m, &c. are (in all the figures) suitable openings furnished with mouth-pieces, doors, and fastening appliances to admit of quickly cleaning any portion of the apparatus which may become fouled from any cause Whatever.
  • the fixing-chamber Y is preferably in the shape of aparallelopiped standing on one of its smaller sides.
  • the outer casing is made airtight of light boiler-iron. This is lined everywhere with fire -clay blocks. It is divided into two combustionchambers by a brick wall, W, Fig. 5, from the bottom to within a short distance of the top, in the line 5 5, Fig.
  • Retorts R and R are in the bottom of the fixing-chamber, set so as to permit the free circulation of heat around them. At right angles to these first retorts, and resting upon them; are set retorts R and R. At the points where these superposed series of retorts meet or cross one another they are provided with communicating openings, as shown, for example, in Fig. 3, where the retort R of the upper series is shown in communication with the two retorts R R of the lower series. There is the same connection between the These connections are located at or near the opposite ends of the retorts. Half-way of their length retorts R and B have openings in the top, over which are set vertical retorts O and 0 as seen in Fig. 4..
  • the retorts R R not only are in communication at the bottom with the tops of retorts R R as already described, but they have each an opening at each end on top, to which openings are applied the vertical retorts g g g g (these openings being over those through which the retorts R R communicate with the retorts R R and a third opening half-way of their length, to which latter openings are applied the vertical retorts O O.
  • the retorts O O O O are, in a sense, flues through which the gas is supplied to each one of the four retorts R R R R, and the retorts g g g g are in the same sense llues through which the gas is drawn or carried oil from the same retort.
  • a large central vertical retort, II comm unicates at the top through suitable horizontal branches with the four retorts O O O 0 and this retort II at its lower end is in communication with the pipe 50 from which branch the outlets as x connect with the generators Z Z.
  • Outlet y leads from one generator, Z, into one combustion-chamber of the fixing-chamber, and outlet 1 leads from the other generator Z, to the opposite combustion-chamber of the fixing-chamber.
  • the branch airpipes ac also lead, respectively, to one and the other of the said combustion-chambers.
  • the vertical retorts g g g g at their upper ends communicate with outlet-pipes G, which may lead to an exhauster or to the purifying-vessels direct.
  • Air-tight easily-re movable lids or doors (marked on m, &c.) are shown in all parts of the apparatus, as before mentioned.
  • Each of the two combustionchambers of the fixing chamber or vessel or chamber Y is provided with a valve-controlled outlet for dischargin the products of combustion, these outlets being lettered O O respectively.
  • These outlets for the sake of greater clearness in the drawings, are shown only in Fig. 1. They are placed near the bottom and 011 opposite sides of the fixing-chamber.
  • Air-valve r of branch pipe a is then opened and the carbonic-oxide gas sent into the fixing-chamber will be burned therein, the highly-heated products of combustion passing up the left hand portion of the fixing-chamber, through the opening or openings left at the top of the division-wall ⁇ V, down into the right-hand portion of the fixing-chamber, and thence out from the same, through outlet C into a suit able chimney-flue. (Not shown.) In this way the retorts in the fixing-chamber become and remain highly heated, so long as the operation is continued, the products of combustion passing on the outside of and in contact with the retorts.
  • the fixing-chamber provided with avertical partition-wall dividing it into two combustion-chambers communicating with each other at one end and at the opposite end provided each with a valve-controlled outlet, and the generators communicating one with one and the other with the other combustionchamber, in combination with the superposed series of horizontal and vertical retorts con- 12o tained in said fixing-chamber, the vertical retorts constituting at the same time lines through which gas is both supplied to and carried off from each one of the horizontal retorts, substantially as and for the purposes hereinbefore set forth.

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  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Organic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Combustion & Propulsion (AREA)
  • Oil, Petroleum & Natural Gas (AREA)
  • Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • General Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • Inorganic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Feeding And Controlling Fuel (AREA)

Description

(No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet 1-.
-H.-BR OWN.
APPARATUS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF GAS. No. 402,395. Patented Apr. 30, 1889.
n. PETERS. Phnlo-Lnhognplmr. Wnhiugton. u. c.
(No Model.) v '2 sheets sheet 2.
H. BROWN. APPARATUS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF GAS.
No; 402,395. Patentd Apr. 30, 1889.
1 I v w "PE 72 V//////////// as i Q l I l I H I 1 m? x l-' i N. PETERS, Phololhllngraphvr. wm'hinmo. uc'
NITED STATES GEORGE HENRY BROWN,
PA ENT Fr es.
OF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI.
APPARATUS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF GAS.
siiicirIcATIoN forming part of Letters Patent No. 402,395, dated April 30, 1 889.
Application filed January 16,1889- Serial No. 296,561. (No model.)
T" c'tZZ whom it may concern.-
.Be it known that I, GEORGE HENRY BROWN, acitizen of the United States, residing at St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Apparatus for the Manufacture of Gas, of which the following is a specification;
My invention relates to apparatus for making gas, in which a mass of carbonaceous material is firstbrought to incandescence by having air forced through it, which air in due time is shut d and steam substituted therefor, producing what is known as water-gas, which is afterward carbureted and fixed in suitable fixing-vessels. V
The object of my invention is to provide a simple, compact, and efficient apparatus wherein the process of making illuminatinggas can be carried on continuously, and whereby the heavier crude petroleum-oils can be readily used to the best advantage for the purpose of carbureting the non -luminous gas produced.
the same being adapted to operate together :in the manner hereinafter set forth to produce the results above mentioned.
Reference now being had to the drawings which illustrate my invention, Figure 1 is a plan view of the whole combined apparatus. Fig. 2 is a sectional View of the fixing-chamber on line 2 2, Fig. 4, with pipe Gr removed the better to show the mouth-piece of the lower retorts, R R R and R Fig. 3 is a sectional elevation of the fixing-chamber on line 3 3, Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a sectional elevation of the fixing-chamber through line 4 4, Fig. 2. Fig. 5 is a sectional elevation of the fixing-chamber on line 5 5, Fig. 2.
Like letters of reference refer to similar parts in all the figures.
Z Z are the generators, constructed in general like the well-known water-gas producers in common use. .I employ with each generator Zand Z a set of two outlet-pipes, X Y and X Y, fitted with quick-moving valves of ordinary construction, V V and V V. I have the usual blower, b, driven by an engine, (not shown,) delivering air through pipes at a a regulated by valves 1; v v c, to the generators and fixing and combustion chaml'ast-named retorts and the retort R ber Y, as may be required; also steam-pipes s s, which are supplied from a boiler, (not shown,) to convey steam into the generators at the proper time. The generators also have charging-doors d d and cleaning-doors d d.
m m m, &c., are (in all the figures) suitable openings furnished with mouth-pieces, doors, and fastening appliances to admit of quickly cleaning any portion of the apparatus which may become fouled from any cause Whatever.
The fixing-chamber Y is preferably in the shape of aparallelopiped standing on one of its smaller sides. The outer casing is made airtight of light boiler-iron. This is lined everywhere with fire -clay blocks. It is divided into two combustionchambers by a brick wall, W, Fig. 5, from the bottom to within a short distance of the top, in the line 5 5, Fig.
2, thus leaving a passage for gas between the two chambers at the top only. A series of horizontal and vertical retorts are set into this fixing-chamber, all connected as shown in the drawings.
Retorts R and R are in the bottom of the fixing-chamber, set so as to permit the free circulation of heat around them. At right angles to these first retorts, and resting upon them; are set retorts R and R. At the points where these superposed series of retorts meet or cross one another they are provided with communicating openings, as shown, for example, in Fig. 3, where the retort R of the upper series is shown in communication with the two retorts R R of the lower series. There is the same connection between the These connections are located at or near the opposite ends of the retorts. Half-way of their length retorts R and B have openings in the top, over which are set vertical retorts O and 0 as seen in Fig. 4..
The retorts R R not only are in communication at the bottom with the tops of retorts R R as already described, but they have each an opening at each end on top, to which openings are applied the vertical retorts g g g g (these openings being over those through which the retorts R R communicate with the retorts R R and a third opening half-way of their length, to which latter openings are applied the vertical retorts O O.
The retorts O O O O are, in a sense, flues through which the gas is supplied to each one of the four retorts R R R R, and the retorts g g g g are in the same sense llues through which the gas is drawn or carried oil from the same retort.
A large central vertical retort, II, comm unicates at the top through suitable horizontal branches with the four retorts O O O 0 and this retort II at its lower end is in communication with the pipe 50 from which branch the outlets as x connect with the generators Z Z.
Outlet y leads from one generator, Z, into one combustion-chamber of the fixing-chamber, and outlet 1 leads from the other generator Z, to the opposite combustion-chamber of the fixing-chamber. The branch airpipes ac also lead, respectively, to one and the other of the said combustion-chambers.
The vertical retorts g g g g at their upper ends communicate with outlet-pipes G, which may lead to an exhauster or to the purifying-vessels direct. Air-tight easily-re movable lids or doors (marked on m, &c.) are shown in all parts of the apparatus, as before mentioned.
Each of the two combustionchambers of the fixing chamber or vessel or chamber Y is provided with a valve-controlled outlet for dischargin the products of combustion, these outlets being lettered O O respectively. These outlets, for the sake of greater clearness in the drawings, are shown only in Fig. 1. They are placed near the bottom and 011 opposite sides of the fixing-chamber.
The manner of operating the apparatus is as follows: Having a sufiicient depth of incandescent fuel in both generators Z and Z, we turn on the air-blast to one of the generators-say Zby opening valve 11. Before doing this, valve V of pipe .1; must be closed and valve V of pipe 2 and the valve of outlet 0 on the right of the fixing-chamber must be opened. Outlet C, on the contrary, must be closed. The gas (mostly carbonic oxide) generated by the passage of the air through the incandescent fuel in generator Z will be forced through the pipe y into the left-hand side of fixing-chamber Y. Air-valve r of branch pipe a is then opened and the carbonic-oxide gas sent into the fixing-chamber will be burned therein, the highly-heated products of combustion passing up the left hand portion of the fixing-chamber, through the opening or openings left at the top of the division-wall \V, down into the right-hand portion of the fixing-chamber, and thence out from the same, through outlet C into a suit able chimney-flue. (Not shown.) In this way the retorts in the fixing-chamber become and remain highly heated, so long as the operation is continued, the products of combustion passing on the outside of and in contact with the retorts. \Vhile this is going on in the portion of the apparatus above referred to steam is turned onto the incandescent fuel in generator Z, air-valves r o and valve V of pipe y being closed and valve V of pipe 41; being opened. The water-gas thus generated will pass through pipes 00 x into and up through retort II, from the upper end of which it is distributed to and passes down through the four retorts O O 0 O, carrying with it any kind of oil (preferably crude petroleum) which may be admitted through the oil-pipe S, (shown in Fig. 1,) supplied from a suitably-situated tank in proper quantity. The mixture of water-gas and oil makes its way down through the last-mentioned retorts to the horizontal retorts R R R R, and from them up through the vertical retorts g g g g" to the outlet-pipe G, and thence to a purifying apparatus, as previously mentioned. In due time, when the fuel in generator Z becomes cooled off to that point where-it can no longer act efiicient-ly, the steam is shut oil and the connection of the two generators by means of their controlling-valves is changed, so that generator Z shall now supply water gas to the retorts, while generator Z shall supply fuel-gas to the comlnistion-chamber surrounding the retorts. In this way and by these means an exceedingly brilliant can be produced, and crude petroleum may be employed, the production being uniform and continuous, and the apparatus being so constructed that all portions of it can be easily reached and the coke and pitch resulting from the distillation of the crude petroleum can be easily removed.
\Vhat I claim herein as new and of my own invention is- 1. The combination, with the generators and the fixing-chamber, of the seriesof superposed horizontal and vertical retorts contained in said chamber, the vertical retorts constituting at the same time llues through which the gasis both supplied to and carried off from each one of the horizontal retorts, substantially as and for the purposes hereinbefore set forth.
2. The fixing-chamber provided with avertical partition-wall dividing it into two combustion-chambers communicating with each other at one end and at the opposite end provided each with a valve-controlled outlet, and the generators communicating one with one and the other with the other combustionchamber, in combination with the superposed series of horizontal and vertical retorts con- 12o tained in said fixing-chamber, the vertical retorts constituting at the same time lines through which gas is both supplied to and carried off from each one of the horizontal retorts, substantially as and for the purposes hereinbefore set forth.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand this 11th day of January, 1889.
GEORGE HENRY BROIVN.
Witnesses:
W. R. SILLITo, JNo. A. TOMPKINS.
IIO
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