US398984A - Flying-machine - Google Patents

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US398984A US398984DA US398984A US 398984 A US398984 A US 398984A US 398984D A US398984D A US 398984DA US 398984 A US398984 A US 398984A
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    • B64B1/00Lighter-than-air aircraft


5 sheetsesneet 1.
No. 398,984. aften'ted Mar, 5 1889.
5 Sheets-Sheet 2.
' {ModeL} 5 Sheets-Sheet 4.
No. 398,984. Patented Mar. 1889.
F mf v 1, 5.5
WITNESSES.- nwsmon: r
5 Sheets-heet 5.
Patented Mar, 5
srncmda'rron forming part of Letters Patent No. 398,984, dated March a, 1889.
' Application as s am. 1, ma. Serial No. 284,840. Model.)
To all whom it may concern-.- 1
Be it known that l, REUBEN J AsP'ER' SPsLn- ING, of Rosita, in the countyof Custer and State of G-olorade, have invented a new and Improved Flying-Machine, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description. My invention relates to a machine for navigating the air, and has for its object to pro vide a simple, comparatively inexpensive, easily-operative, and efficient apparatus of this character.
The invention consists in certain novel features of construction and combinations of than that shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 2 is a front view of the aeronaut standing on the ground, and shows the right wing and a portion of the tail of the flying machine with feathers and *webbingremoved. Fig. 3- is a rearview of that shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is an enlarged front view of the aeronauts jacket. Fig. 5 is a rear view thereof, with the metal back I plate indicated in dotted lines. Figs. 6, 7, and 8 are views of feathers of modified forms, with their difierent attachments to thewing or tail of the machine. Fig. 9 is an enlarged rear detail perspective view of the metal back plate of the jacket removed therefrom and part of the right-wing frame and other connections to the plate. =FigL1O is a transverse section of the wing. Fig. 11 is a detail perspecrive viewiof the lower joint of the wing to the jacket'or its back plate. Fig. 12 is a modifled form of spring attachment by which the wings may be connected to the.jacket or its back plate. Fig. 13 is a. perspective view of disassembled parts, illustrating the manner of connecting the. main lever and outer plate or part of the wing-frame; and Fig. 14 is a detail perspective view showing the 'aerona-uts hand-grasp and its connections to a wing-operating rod and auxiliary spring.
My improved. flying-machine consists of a jacket, A, adapted to the body of the aeronaut, right and leftwings, Bf, and a tail,,D, held to the jacket, and a balloon, E, from which iheaeronaut is suspended by connections to the jacket and'to straps or bands en'- circli'ng his legs, all as shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings, and as will behere'inafter more particularly described in the order abovemen tioned.
The aeronauts jacket A .(sho'wn most clearly. in Figs. 4 and. 5 of the drawings) is preferably made :mainly of leather;- but it may be made mainly of cloth or any other suitable material or fabric. Tthas an elongated main or back p0rtion,a., and a front consisting mainly of a breast-belt, a, two shoulder-belts, a a
and a broad body-belt, a", all having suitable bncklcand -strap connections with, the main part of the jacket, which is provided with holes a a, through which the aeronant will slip his arms prior to buckling the jacket around his body. A couple of straps, a a,
fastened at one end to the bottom of the jacket-back a,-are brought up between the -aeronauts legs, and thence diagonally across his thighs, and are buckled to tabs at the sides of the jacket, and another belt, a, also connected to the middle lower part-of the back a, is brought around between the-aero nauts legs, and is buckled to a tab at the central'lower portion of the broad'bodybelt a and whereby when all these belts are buckled the jacket will be held very tightly tothe aeronautsi-body, as shown in Figs. 1, 2, and
.3 of the drawings, and will be secure against slippingv in any direction, so as to provide a llrm andsubstantial connection of the wings and tail of the apparatus, which is accomplished, preferably, by the use of a thin light but tough metal plate, F, which I hold to the back of the jacket, preferably by riveting it thereto, perforated lugs or flanges being provided on the plate for passage of the rivets; or, if preferred, the plate may be connected to the jacket by stitchingit thereto by strong thread or cord; or any other secure mode of attach ment may be adopted. The general form of '2- (:seaosi.
- this plate r,
. ingrods g h,
tached, and also of' th'e hinged to-the one F,
and 9 of the drawings. Both of the wingsB the air-resistingplanes or feathers 'q- .lower fulcrum of the wing, iii-connected to one coiled end, of a duplex spring,'J the: other coiled cnd, of which is connected to the fulcrum-pin i of the other wing,whicli has an' uppe' fulcrum in a hearing, f on the plate F'at the other shoulder of the aeronaut,
(See Fig. 3' of the drawings.) The middle:
the wing fulcrum-pint is 'formed' square and the end of. the spring-coil jis this squared or fiat-sided part, which projects sufliciently beyond the edges of the portion of fixed to spring each way to enter square or fiatvsided holes i at the forked end of the two ends of the pin -i are'roun'ded'to form journals which enter holes Win the plate 1' plates the pin or .and' receive nutst' outside the flanges or walls lVit-h this construction it is obvious that as the wing is brought downward the spring-coil j willbe wound up or put in tension, and on the completion of the downstroke of the plates.
the coil will by ts expansive forcein unwind ing again raise the wing. The means for ima the downward Stroke to the. wing by aided r spring-which is put in tensionas the wing parting movementof the aeronauts arn moves upward, will be'hereinafter explained.
The wing-frame lever G is provided with a rod, 9 which reaches from the extremity of its short arm to the outer end of its long arm, and serves notionly as a brace to the lever, but also as a frame-rod over which to stretch the webbing fabric 'G,-which forms the up air-resistingjplaheor surface of the The long arm of the maiuwing-leyer may be made solid; but it is preferably slot v ted longitudinally at g; like 'thesecond-joint the lever, which is preferably made of wood, may be strength-c ee Figs. 9,-10,'and, 13 of thedrawings.) Theweb-' hing fabric G is held atone edge to theme side of the wingby meausof a series of pins, gt, fixed to the inner face of the feathei stems g and the short armof the main lever, and
periinner wing.
bones of it"birds wing, and
ened" by a inctal-re-cnforciugplate; g.
to which the two wings are at} plate ,7, which is and to which the tail is 4 connected, is shown most clearly in C are alike in structure and mode of operation; hencea particulair-descript-ion of one wing and its appurtenances will suffice, asfolldws: The wing is made with an angI'e-leverQoi-fl main frame portion, G, and an outer plate portion, ll, to which, re sp'cctively,- are connected outwardly-extendwhich form the main stems of h'of t-he wing. The shorter inncr arm of the mainlever Gis fulcrumed at its extremity to aneye or hearing, f ,on the :plate F at one shoulder, of the aeronaut, and at its angle the lever is fixed to the outer end of an arm, I, which a forked inner end which is pivoted on a or shaft, 1', to a flanged metal plate, I, fixed transversely to the back plate F of the aeronauts jacket-,and the. pin 1', which forms the;
the arm Land erably provided with a series'of button-holes,
3 of; the dra'win gs. The space between the inhershort arm of the main wing-frame G and the upper portion of the jacket A, or of the metal plate F thereon, is also closed'bya web: bing fabric, G which may be an inwar d'exsecured by sewing or tying side edge" of the plate F, whichis provided attaching-threads or cords;
verbypins and buttons, substantially as above described-for the. fabric G7.-
the wingframe, main lever G of the wing as follows and-as most clea'rly -shown in Fig. 13 of the drawings? The inner narrower portion ofthe plate is providedwith a opposite a like which is fixed at its outer end to the plate H, A coiled spring, L, which is held at one end to the extremity of the main wing-lever G, is
of the spring, so as to enter round holes in,
squared or made flatssided to fit the holes k k iii the plates H fulcrum shaft K receives to hold the "spring-joint in place.
H, will normally be extended or swung outward by the uncoiling tendency-of the ing plates or of the wingby drawing'in the plate to fold some'of its feathers beneath the feathe ers 'g of the main-part of'the' wing,-and which of the'feat-lic'rs g' oft-hemain part of the wing, as next described.
or roller, m, housing, M,
plate F- 'and in's'aid plate. 'Ero'in this pulley which are engaged with buttons 9 at theouter faces of the feather-stems and the short arm of the main lever, as shown in Figs. 2 and tension of the main webbing'fabric G, and is it to the adjacent with a series of edge holes, f, to 'receivethe orthis inner webbing 'fabric, 6*, maybe made separate from, .the fabric G, or may be heldto the wing-le The-plate'I-I, -which is the outer portion of is peculiarly con nected to the square or flat-sided hole, It, holc, k, in a bent plate, It,
fixed at its other end or at the inn'erpa-rt of-- its coil to a pin or shaft,'K, which projects by rounded parts of p it each way beyond the edges" and k, outside of which spring L, and the plate H- and its attached-air-resist- I feathers It may be'con'tracted' or folded inwardto reduce'the air-resisting area- H, soas I accomplish by. means'which also s'imultaneously contract or foldjto a lesser-degree most To the inner rear, comet-of. the plate His attached one end of a cord, Mn vhich is passed inward through guide-eyes-mm on the wing-. frame lever G' to and around a guide pulley jourualed' in a1 metal cas'eor fixedto thoback of the jacket-'- 1 the other or frontedge of the'fabric is pref-.
formed at the end of the lever G, antLbeyond v these rounded parts the ends of the pin K arenuts k onto its rounded threaded extremities .r \Vith this construction it is obvious that the outerplate,
the cord is rove through. an eye or loop, m", at theupper corner of .the plate F and .next
shoulder-strap a? or neck-band pf the jacket see,9a 4 a A, and the extremity of the cord is knotted at m, to prevent its being pulled or blown back- Ward through or out of the loop m, and also -H, by cords or threadspassed through holes allow the cord to be caught by its knotted end into an open-hook detent,-m, which is fixed to the front of the aeronauts jacket, and preferably to one of the front straps, (1?,
thereof. It is manifest that should the aero naut pull on .the cord M,'whieh is in easy reach at his shoulder, the outer wing-plate, H, and
its attached feathers h will be drawn inward- .and partly folded edgewise under the winglever G and the feathers g thereof, and these relative positions of the parts may be maintained by hooking the knotted end of the cord into the detent m, and the cord may have several knots, m on it to engage the detent to hold the outer part, H h, of thewing folded under the main part G 9 thereof to any desired extent, as atmospheric conditions or the strength 'of the aeronaut may require. To cause this infolding of the outer wing-frame,'
H, to contract or fold inward the outer feathers, g, th'e stems g of which are pivoted at their inner ends to, the main wing-frame G, the plate k, which is fixed to .the wing-plate 'H and turns with it and with the fulcrumshaft K, is provided with an eye or lug, to which is attached one end of a rod, N, which extends inward through a suitable eye or staple guide, a, and ranges, preferably,
' through or along the slot g of the wing-frame lever G, and at its other end is connected to an upward extension of one of the stems g of an inner feather, g. It may be the innermost one or the second one; but I show the inner end of the cord connected to the third feather-stem, and the stemsof all the feathers g, from or outside of the one to which the cord N is fastened, are connected bya pull-cord, O,
'which is also-fastened 'at its outer end to the plate H, but so as to allow suflicient slackness of the cord to permit folding movement of the feathers. It is obvious as the cord M is drawn upon and the wing-plate H is foldedv inward, as above described, that the rod IN will be drawn outward and the feather-stem g, to which this red is connected, will be moved inward, and as this stem pulls on all the outer feather-stems by the cord O,c'onnected' to it and to them, the outer feaths r3 of the main part of the wing will also be folded inward more or less, depending'on the draft on the cord M and as circumstances may require, and when the cord Mis released from the deteut m the spring L will instantly throw or swing the wing-section H h ahd-the movable feathers g of the main-wing-section outward into fully-expanded condition.
It will be understood thatthe outer feat-hcred frame, II Ii, may alone be arranged to fold edgeu-ise; but by making it' and also most of the feathers g of the main wing-section adjustable, as described, the wing may be contracted or enlarged in area to quite an extent to adapt the same flying-machine for use by personsof varying strength and under widelydifierent atmospheric conditions.
The feathers may be held to the outer plate,
of the plate and over the butts of the feathers; or these feather-stems may be riveted 'to the plate, so as to be immovable edgewise, as are the two inner feathers, 'g, on the wing-frame lever G. The plate H and the butts of the feathers it will be coveredby a web fabric, H, made of leather, cloth, silk, or any other suitable material, sewed or stitched to or around the plate or fastened thereto in any other approved way. The outer wing-plate, H, is preferably made of aluminum; but it may be made of any thin and tough metal or other material. 1
To stay one feather g to the other all along the main wing-lever G, Ihave-fixed in the lever a series of eyes 'or staples, p, and a series of like staples, alternating in position with those on the lever, are fixedto the inner faces of the feather-stems or their sockets, and a strong cord, P, is rove in zigzag course through all these eyes or staples, the cord preferably being slipped loosely through the lever-eyes p and being knotted at the feather-stem eyes, and the opposite ends of the cord P are or may be fixed,respectively,to the plate H and at the angle of'the main lever G, as shown in the drawings. This cord or lacing permits adj ustment of the feathers edgewise, as above described, and stays the feathers to and from each other to make the entire wing-structure more staunch when the machine is in use.
The mechanism for operating the wings by the hands and arms of the aeronaut, and which acts in conjunction with the wing-raising spring J, above. described, is made as follows: A pull-rod, R, is connected to the inner endof the wing-lever G and extends forward and is provided with a hand-grasp or handle,
S, to which also is shackled att one end of a spring, T, preferably having a curved-plate form and connected pivotally at its other end at t to the upper part of the jacket-plate F at the shoulder of the aeronaut and near the upper fulcrum, f, of the wing. -The handle S may be made-as shown in Fig. 14 of the drawings, or with a cross-bar, s, to be grasped by theaeronaut and journaled at its angle, a
and with two loops, 3' 3 ,110 which, respectively, the pull-rod R and spring T are attached. The normal effect of. thespring T is to-help give a downstroke to the wing after the upstroke thereof has been effected by the stronger spring, J, at the back of the jacket.
- lo operate the wings, which are made alike, as above stated, the aeronaut will grasp the handles 5 S, one by each hand, and while the spring J raises the wings the aeronaut will bend his arms at the elbows to cause his hands to approach his breast, and he will th straighten out his arms directly from his body, and thus pull on'the rods R R, and will also be assisted by the application of the power 0f grahi't-y, due tothe weight .of the wings themselves, will also assist in producing the downstroke of-the wings, itbeing understood that" the balloon E, from which he is suspended, has suflicient lifting force to hold up the aeronaut,
I less a 'few' pounds, which is all the dead weight to be overcome by the operation .of the'wings, which may thus be effected with comparative ease for-a considerable time without tiring the aeron'aut, and this dead-weight, little as it is, enables the aeronaut to alight at anytime or to take any desired downward sweep by simply stopping the motion of the. wings, and 'at these times and'to promote the comfort. of the acronaut, and while the wings lie in about the same plane as his body, he may slip his thumbs into holes uu, made in straps U U, which are fastened at one end tothe front of his jacket A, and as represented r in Fig, f the drawings, and sail through the.
air at ease. I A spring-plate, V, whichis fastened at its lower or inner end to thefup'per part of the plate F of the jacket A, carries at its outer end a band or strap, '0, into which the aeronaut slips his head to support it and prevent strain of hisneck and shoulder muscles, and thus promote his comfort andsafety in fiight,jand as will be most clearly understood from Fig. 1 of the drawings. a
I particularly describe the. tail D- of thefly ing-machine asfollows: The tail-feathers d are held'by their stems or rods dto the back. or lower end of the plate f, which maybe hinged tov the main plate F, as shown in Figs.
1, 3, and 9 of the drawings, or maybe hinged -to'a separate" plate, f, riveted to the aeronauts jacket A, as shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings. When the last-named construc- -tion is adopted, I will fasten" a leather, cloth, or other flexible fabric strip, f,'to the jacket A, so that said strip overlaps thertopand side.
.'edges of the plate f and allows connection to it by sew'ing'or otherwise-of a-covering fabric, f, for the plate. The. tail-feathered may be fixed to the plate f, if desired; but 'I preferto pivot the feather-stems to the plate toJallow lateral'edgewise motion of the feathers,w'hich lap one on the other like the wing-feathers above described; To the feather-stems. .d', and a little below-the plate f, is fastened, by rivets w or otherwise, an elastic or contract- Y ile structure, preferablyastrap orband, W,
which holds the feathers in a-normal position edgewise' relatively to each other.. The outer feather-stems, d d, at opposite sides of the tail are provided with laterally-extending lugs or projections ,d"d",; to each of which is connected a pull ropeor cord, X. The cord Xof each of the other feathersextends up-.
. ward to and th'rougha guideeye or loop, :v,
hich is fixed to the aeronauts jacket about at his hip, and passes thence to and through escape of the cord; from the eyes .or' loops and holds the cord in easy reach of the aer'onaut,
nected to the inner ones by the elastic band feathers outward also, and thereby expand hooks as a), fastened to the breast of the aeron'auts jacket A, to hold either orboth side seriesof the tail-feathers at any-'desireddegree of expansion, to vary'the area of the tail as diiferent. atmospheric conditions and the quire.
A metal. plate, X, preferably rivetedzat one hinge which the stay-plate overlies; and does.
.for steering. purposes If desired, the tailapproved manner,
The aeronaut when in flying trim-is conjoints of the aeronaut or his legs just above the knees, and the other ends of said .ropes nected'to a ring, .2, to which is attached the lower end of the rope Z, the upper :end of which is connected to a ring or swivel, e','.to which the suspension cords or ropes. e of the in Fig. 1 of the drawings.
coiled spring J for raising the wings of flying machine, asother forms of sprin' a-t-ransverse plate having holes'to receive-rivets or bolts for fastening. it 'to'thefjacketplate F and looped and-bent aroundat opposite at their outer ends are provided with clamp plates jf-j', which will overlap and be riveted 'to opposite. sides of'the. main lever G4)! each the jacket, and 1s knotted at a), above or behind saidv eye or loop. The knot 0: or any j WV, willby or through'the band draw the inner" the tail-feathers more or less, and the knots I w of both the cords X may be caught into not prevent edgewis'e adjustments of the tail 95 a plate f may have a fixed instead of a hinged connection to the main plateF'or to the plate are connected to eyes or staplesy.' y',wh-i ch 'are fixed to the metal back plate, .F, ofrthe jacket A. Both the ropes Y Yare passed through the tail-webbing D, and are conballoon are fastened, all as mostelearly shown I am not-limited to the use of the can t e. y betused-as, for instance, a spring, J, shown in Fig. 12 of the drawings) which consists-0f 1 ends to form bowed plate-springs j.'.j.' which who by pulling on itwill draw on fth e outer side feather d of the tail, which is connected to the cord, and this outer feather, being con-I g I 5 direction of flight of the aeronaut may re-j end'to the tail-plate f and held at its other end within a staple or loop, a, fixed to the .main plate F, actsasa stay or brace to pre-' vent upward movement of the tail on its tail'feathers, and,'n1ayheld t'o them'- in any I 5 nected to the balloon E by'means of ropes Y' vZ,-the two ropesYbein'gconnected atone end a r to bands or straps y, which-encircle thekneewing, substantially as above described for the clamp-arms l, which are held to the coils j of the spring J. I may also use pull-cords R instead of the pull-rods R,'said cords being connected at opposite ends tothe wingframes and running over pulleys or rollers r, journalcd in suitable bearing-plates, r, held to the aeronauts jacket under-his arms, (flee the dotted lines in Fig. 4 of the drawings.)
machine may also be made of different materials; l orinstance, l maydsesilk stretched over a light frame and held to the stems or rods of the feathers, which are inserted in sockets held to the wing or tail frame, as shown in Fig. 6 of the drawings; orI may use rawhide cut into proper form and fastened to and bet-ween light flat metal or wood plates, which are riveted to the frame, as shown in Fig. 7 plates of metal of proper shape and riveted to short plates, which will be held to the f ramc ofthe wing or tail, and as shown in Fig. 8 of the drawings. Any suitable material maybe used to form the air-resisting planes or surfaces of the feathers, and the-feathers may be either pivoted to the wing or tail frames, or may be fixed thereto by rivets, nails, screws, or otherwise, as may be necessary or convcn ient. The stems of the feathers will range along one side of the center of the feathers to cause the overlapping parts of the feathers to open to pass the air through the wings on their upstroke and reduccthe resistance of the air during the ineii'ect'ive strokes of the wings.
It will be' understood that the flying-machine comprising the wings and ,tail or the wings alone and their attachments, as above described, may be used advantageously without the balloon. For instance, the cord Z may be suspended from a pulley running on a wire' stretched across a cbasmor at other place, and the aeronaut may operate the wings to propel himself through theair while he is support-ed mainly or partly by the wire; or the wings, either with or without. the tail, may be applied to vehicles or ice or water boats or an air-boat or frame-work, and the wings may be operated by manor animal or electromagnetic or any other power for moving the vehicle or boats or frame-work for- 10011 from tipping the aeronautover backward when in flight. It is obvious that the aero- The wing and tail feathers of the flying-- of the drawings; or i may use thin naut has amplepower to direct his course and fly with the wind or diagonally across it, or
to any point of the compass in a calm, as he may desire. As the wings flap up ordown, the flexible portions of their feat-hers bend, and while bent they are trying to straighten, and this action or tendency pnsbcs'the man or craft forward, producing hcadwa y, while at the same time the alternatingpressure of the front ends of the feathers downward and up ward, which takes place while the bent feathers. are trying to straighten, counteracts the unfavorable action of the web portions of the wings and consequently produces an equilibrium.
Having thus fully described my invention, I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patentl. The combination, with a plate or support to be secured to theba'ck of an aerouaut, of spring-elevated wing-levers hinged to said plate to swing vertically and, inclined outward] y and forwardly therefrom, and separate flexible feathers secured at their front ends to and projecting rearwardl y from said levers and alternately overlapped a-longtheirlongit-udinal edges, substantially as set forth.
2. The combination, with a plate or support to besccured to the back of an aeronaut, of vertically-swinging elbow-levers hinged at their angles to the said plate or support behind the shoulder portions thereof, with their short. arms inclined inwardly and providedwith hearings on the shoulder portions of. the plate or support, the long arms of said levers p ro j eel i n g forward ly and outwardly, and separate and independent feathers secured at their front ends to said long arms extending rearwardly therefrom and overlapping alternately along their longitudinal edges, substantially as set forth.
3. In a flying-machine, the combination, with a support'to be secured to the back of an aeronaut, of vertically-swinging wings having bearings on said support, springs acting on the wings at their pivots or axes to raise them, and operating-connections, substantially as described, leading from the wings to points within reach of the aeronaut, substantially as set forth.
4. In a flying-machine, the combination, with a jacket or support for' the aeron'aut, of a pair of wings fulcrumed on the jacket, :1 spring, J, held to the jacket and having opposite end coils, ,7 j, and arms I I, connected to the wings and fulerumcd to the spring bearings, and connected to the spring-coils which raise the wings, and operating-connections, substantially as'described, connected .to the wings and in reach of the aeronant for lowering the wings, substantially as herein set forth.
"5. In a flying-machine, the combination, with a jacket orsupport for the acronaut, of a pair of wings fulcrumed on the jacket, a spring connected to the jacket, and also to the wings, and operatingwings, and auxiliary springs connected to in lowering the wings, substantially as hereinset forth. v v
6. In a flying-machine, the combination,
with a jacket or support for the aeronaut, of a pair ofving's fulcrumed thereto, a springconnected to the jacket, and alsot-o the wings, and
operating normally to raise the wings, operat-' mg-connections, sui'istnntially as described, connectedto the'wings an to hand-grasps for the aeronaut, and plate-springs '1, connected to the jacket and to the hand-grasps, and assisting the aerouautto lower the win gs, substantially as herein set forth.
7. In a flying-machine,the combination,
with a jacket or support for the aeronaut', of
wings fulcrumed. thereto and made in inner and outer sections hinged together, and eordsi leading from the outer wing-sections in reach of the aeronaut,who by pulling the cords will contract or fold the wings cdgewise to reduce their area, sul'isi'aut-ially as herein set forth.
'8; In a flying-machinc, the combination, with a ackctor support for the aerona'ut, of
wings fulcrumod thereto and each made with a hinged sectional frame and a spring which normally expands the wing edgewise, and cords leading from the outer wing section-in reach of the aeronaut for contracting or fold-' 'ing the win gssections to reduce the area of the wings, substantially as herein set forth.
9. In a flyinganachine, .the, combination, with 'a jacket or support for theaeronaut, (if wings fulrrume d to the jacket and made with sectional "frames having spring uctuated joints which; normally expand the wings, cords leading from the outer wing-sections in reach of tlieaeron'aut and provided with knotsfoiiholdin-g the cords, and detents on the jacket with which the cords may beinter :locked to hold the wings in contracted co'ndi-' tion,-si ibstantialiy as herein set forth.
- 10. In a flying-machine, the combination, with a jacket. or support'for the aeranaut, of wings fulcrumed thereto and made in two hinged sections adapted to fold or contract edgewise to reduce the area of the wings, andthc feathers of theinner or main wing-section pipotedto, their frame, and pull-rod and cord. connections from the outer wing-sections to the feathers of the inner wing-sections, substantially as described, whereby as the outer win g-se'ctions are folded ed gcwise the feathers of the inner wing-sections will also be contracted or folded cdgmvise, and as the outer wing-soetiouIis expanded the feathers of the herein set forth.
11. In a flying-machine, the combination of made with l a main lover, G, and feathers-or inner wing-sections will also'he expanded, as"
plate and adapted to receive K acrialplanes g, interlaced between the lever and feathers,
12. In afiying-machi'ne a jacket or support for the aeronaut and a .pair of wings fulcrumed thereto, said wings made with-a main lever, G, provided with feathers or aerial planes, as 9, an upper rod, 9 on the lever, and webbing, G, stretched'uon said rod and on the frame, substantially as herein set forth. j
13. In a flying-machine, the oi'm'ibination of "a jacket or support for the aeropaut and a pair of wings fulcrumed thereto, said wings each made with a main lever, G, havin g feathers g, and an outer plate, H, hinged to the lever G by a spring-joint normal y expending the wing, and having feathers h, a rod, y on the lever G, and the wing-frame sections G H, substant ally as herein set forth.
with a jacket or support for the aeronaut, of a tail or aerial plane hinged thereto and comprising a plate, a series of feathers pivoted ing' aplate and'a'sei'ies of feathers on pullmay ,be
the aeronauhof to and comprisand guides a: mfl'a'nd detents, as ,911 the jacket for the-pull-corda; substantially' as he'reinset forth;
with a jacket or support forthe aeronaut and the aeronaut, of
herein set forth.
with a jaekct or support for the aeronaut and wings connected therewith and operative by the aeroiiaut, of an-elastic plate, V, connected to the jacket, and a hand, 1, attached to the head, substantially as herein set forth.
with a jacket or support. for the aeronaut, of i a tail or rudder hinged thereto, and a stay-.
pi voted thereto, and"cords' P,
16..In'- a flying-machine, the combination;
wings connected therewith and operative'b'y the aero'naut, of) a head-rest for-the aeronautconnected to' the jacket, substantially as I 18. In a flying-machine, thecombination,
19. In a flying-machine, the. combination,v
substantially as herein set forth.
the combination of, y
14. In a flying-machine, the-combination,
thereto, an elastic connection between the n feathers holding them normally in contracted condition," and pull-cords connected to the leading to the aeronaut,
substantially as and for the" combination,
held thereto, pull-cords X,.connected to the tail,
the aeronauts I plate, 2?, held-at the tail-j'ointiand 1imiLing' -t0 the 56mm ha nd g'rasps, pull-rods R,
vertical movement as herein set forth.
bf the tail, sli bstantially 20. In a flying-machine, th'e comhihaizion,
5 with a jacket plate, F, held fulcrumcd to the plate at for the aeronaiit, of a by arms I I 'to a spring, held to a bearingp 1 fnlerumed at t" also fixed to the plate F, springs T,
to the plate F and connected met-a1- thereto, a pair of wing's,-B O,
f and connected conneeted tofthe hand-grasps and wings,a :had-resQflY p, an auxiliary pletej, hinged to the main plate also held '00 the plate F, and.
Faandcarrying the tail nan arranged for :5
"operation sfibstantially as herein set forth.
. REUBEN Witnesses:
US398984D Flying-machine Expired - Lifetime US398984A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2611558A (en) * 1950-06-10 1952-09-23 Mackiewicz Maria Flapping wing flier for individual flying
US2721047A (en) * 1953-03-11 1955-10-18 Sommer Ludwig Flying apparatus, particularly for testing flying wings
US20140241878A1 (en) * 2013-02-28 2014-08-28 General Electric Company System and method for controlling a wind turbine based on identified surface conditions of the rotor blades

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2611558A (en) * 1950-06-10 1952-09-23 Mackiewicz Maria Flapping wing flier for individual flying
US2721047A (en) * 1953-03-11 1955-10-18 Sommer Ludwig Flying apparatus, particularly for testing flying wings
US20140241878A1 (en) * 2013-02-28 2014-08-28 General Electric Company System and method for controlling a wind turbine based on identified surface conditions of the rotor blades
US9759068B2 (en) * 2013-02-28 2017-09-12 General Electric Company System and method for controlling a wind turbine based on identified surface conditions of the rotor blades

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