US3916578A - Earthquake-proof building structure - Google Patents

Earthquake-proof building structure Download PDF

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US3916578A
US3916578A US14613771A US3916578A US 3916578 A US3916578 A US 3916578A US 14613771 A US14613771 A US 14613771A US 3916578 A US3916578 A US 3916578A
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base
shell
beams
building
reinforcing
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Iradj Forootan
Manouchehr Foroutan
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Iradj Forootan
Manouchehr Foroutan
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/32Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures
    • E04B1/3211Structures with a vertical rotation axis or the like, e.g. semi-spherical structures
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H9/00Buildings, or groups of buildings, or shelters adapted to withstand or provide protection against abnormal external influences, e.g. war-like action, earthquake, extreme climate
    • E04H9/02Buildings, or groups of buildings, or shelters adapted to withstand or provide protection against abnormal external influences, e.g. war-like action, earthquake, extreme climate withstanding earthquake or sinking of ground
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/32Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures
    • E04B2001/3235Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures having a grid frame
    • E04B2001/3241Frame connection details
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/32Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures
    • E04B2001/3235Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures having a grid frame
    • E04B2001/3252Covering details
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/32Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures
    • E04B2001/3258Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures comprised entirely of a single self-supporting panel
    • E04B2001/3264Arched structures; Vaulted structures; Folded structures comprised entirely of a single self-supporting panel hardened in situ

Abstract

An earthquake-proof building structure is constituted of a heavyweight, rounded base having its bottom center point resting on the specially constructed base footing, and an upper hollow shell is joined at its lower edge to the base, the weight of the base in relation to that of the shell being such that the center of gravity of the building structure is located within the base and beneath the shell.

Description

Forootan et a1.
[ EARTHQUAKE-PROOF BUILDING STRUCTURE [76] Inventors: Iradj Forootan, 4215 Dover St.,
- Wheat Ridge, Colo. 80033;
Manouchehr Foroutan, No. 73, Yuse-f-abad, Mostofi Ave., Teheran, Iran [22] Filed: May 24, 1971 [21] Appl. No.: 146,137
[52] US. Cl. 52/167; 52/80; 52/292; 52/ 169 [51] Int. Cl. E04H 9/02 [58] Field of Search 52/167, 294, 690-693, 52/726, 198, 220, 393, 169, 79, 80, 292, 57; 169/2 R [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 896,431 8/1908 Boermel 52/167 1,048,938 12/1912 Broughton... 52/198 X 1,088,239 2/1914 Paine 52/167 X 1,662,727 3/1928 Wait 52/294 X 2,014,643 9/1935 Bakkerd 52/167 X 2,156,818 5/1939 Ropp 52/693 2,166,577 7/1939 Beckius. 52/167 X 2,708,828 5/1955 Pruyn 52/726 X Nov. 4, 1975 3,105,252 10/1963 Milk.... 52/167 X 3,576,212 4/1971 Siler 169/2 R 3,583,490 6/1971 McFadden 169/2 R 3,606,715 11/1969 Wyss et al 52/294 R26,121 12/1966 Wiegand 52/220 X FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 170,528 1934 Switzerland 52/167 525,119 1940 United Kingdom... 52/80 876,926 9/1961 United Kingdom... 52/167 459,924 4/1928 Germany 52/167 660,200 5/1938 Germany 52/167 44,582 10/1960 Poland 52/167 Primary Examiner-Emest R. Purser Assistant Examiner-Carl D. Friedman Attorney, Agent, or Firm.lohn E. Reilly; Earl C. Hancock [57] ABSTRACT An earthquake-proof building structure is constituted of a heavyweight, rounded base having its bottom center point resting on the specially constructed base footing, and an upper hollow shell is joined at its lower edge to the base, the weight of the base in relation to that of the shell being such that the center of gravity of the building structure is located within the base and beneath the shell.
1 Claim, 13 Drawing Figures US. Patent Nov. 4, 1975 Sheet 1 of6 3,916,578
FIG
INVENTOR.
IRADJ FOROO'FAN BY MANOUCHEHR FOROUTAN US. Patent Nov. 4, 1975 Sheet 2 of6 3,916,578
IRADJ FOROOTAN BY MANOUCHEHR F0 OUTAN ATTORNEYS U.S. Patent Nov. 4, 1975 Sheet 4 of6 3,916,578
FIG.
FIG.
I N VEN TOR.
IRA DJ FOROOTAN MANOUCHEHR 7RouTAN 41 ATTORMEI S US. Patent Nov. 4, 1975 Sheet 5 of6 3,916,578
INVENTOR.
lRADJ FOROQTAN MANOUCHWTAN FIG.
FIG.
ATTORNEYS US. Patent Nov, 4, 1975 Sheet 6 of6 3,916,578
R w m V N I RA DJ FOROOTAN BY MANOUCHEHR ATTORNEYS EARTHQUAKE-PROOF BUILDING STRUCTURE This invention generally relates to building structures, and more particularly relates to building structures capable of effectively resisting subsurface vibrations and shock of the type produced by earthquakes as well as being capable of withstanding floods and tornadoes.
Buildings have been designed in the past to be earthquake-proof as well as flood-proof and tornado-proof, and it is highly desirable in accordance with the present invention to provide a building structure which is capable of providing effective resistance against all such natural perils while at the same time being relatively inexpensive to build and readily conformable for use on virtually any terrain. Previously, one of the applicants to the present invention, Manouchehr Foroutan, had designed an earthquake-proof building which forms the subject of Iranian Pat. No. 5,373, registered Nov. 22, 1964. However, the subject of that patent relates to a full spherical building structure having a relatively heavy base forming the bottom part of the sphere and with the center of gravity of the building located some distance above the base. In accordance with the present invention it is desirable to design an improved building which affords optimum stability against ground shock and wind forces and which is greatly simplified in design and construction; and specifically wherein the center of gravity is located contiguous to or within the base.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide for a novel and improved building structure which is economical to construct in an efficient manner and in such a way as to be earthquake-proof, flood and tornado-proof.
It is another object of the present invention to provide for a novel and improved building structure characterized by having a heavyweight, rounded, solid base structure supported only at its bottom center by a rigid footing so as to be capable of undergoing limited tipping or swaying in response to extreme earth shock or vibration without upsetting the building structure.
It is still a further object of the present invention to provide for a building structure of simple and durable construction which either may be prefabricated and preassembled or fabricated and assembled at the site in a minimum number of steps, is adaptable for installation in virtually any terrain without a full foundation and is further characterized by possessing a high degree of stability so as to be capable of withstanding earthquakes, tornadoes and extremely high wind conditions.
It is a still further object of the present invention to provide for a novel and improved building structure of the type described which may assume a number of different specific configurations while having a center of gravity located in the base of the building, the base being supported preferably above ground level and the living area above the base in spaced relation to the ground surface.
In accordance with the present invention there has been devised a building structure which is earthquakeproof and is characterized by having a heavyweight rounded base structure supported at its bottom center on a solid footing anchored in the ground and with an upper shell, which suitably may form a living area or housing for storage purposes, of generally hemispherical configuration integrally joined to the outer, upper boundary edge of the base. The weight of the a base in relation to that of the shell is such that the center of gravity of the building is located within the base for greatly increased stability. In this way, the building is capable of tipping or swaying when subjected to high winds or extreme earth vibrations without being upset. At the same time, the building structure as described obviates the use of a full foundation beneath the building and permits building construction in areas normally considered to be unsuitable. In its preferred form, the building has a solid base which assumes the form of a ehordal segment of a sphere and an upper shell or housing in the substantial form of a hollow hemisphere with the hemispherical edge permanently joined to the base. The base may either extend beyond the lower edge of the shell or be joined directly to the shell. Further, the base is preferably composed of reinforced concrete in a manner to be described, and the shell preferably is reinforced by beams radiating and curving outwardly and downwardly from the top center point into rigid interconnection with the base. In addition, a central conduit which also may serve as a means of central support for the shell and upper floor areas extends vertically through the shell to house the utilities including a water supply system which may be employed to protect the building against atomic fallout, fire, and as a means of cleaning the exterior of the; building.
The above and other objects, advantages and features of the present invention will become more readily understood and appreciated from a consideration of the following detailed description of the present invention when taken together with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a preferred form of building structure in accordance with the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a view partially in section schematically illust'rating the framework of the building shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a top plan view of the preferred form of building structure shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is a detailed top plan view of one form of base footing for the building.
FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken on lines 5-5 of FIG. 4.
FIG. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary view of the bottom central part of the base of the building.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary, enlarged view in detail of the reinforcing frame structure for the building.
FIG. 8 is an end view in section of the frame structure shown in FIG. 7.
FIG. 9 is a side view in detail of the joint between the shell and base reinforcing structure.
FIG. 10 is a view in detail of the shell reinforcing frame structure.
FIG. 11 is an enlarged view in section of one of the window portions of the shell.
FIG. 12 is an enlarged view in section of one of the smaller window portions of the shell; and
FIG. 13 is an enlarged view of one of the ventilating panels of the shell.
' Referring in more detail to the drawings, a preferred embodiment of the present invention is illustrated in FIGS. 1 through 6 and is broadly comprised of a solid base portion 10 which is preferably in the form of a ehordal section ofa sphere having a rounded or arcuate undersurface 11 and a relatively flat top surface 12. An upper, hollow shell portion 14 preferably in the substantial form of a hemisphere integrally joined or united to the base at or near its outer periphery. It will be noted that the entire building structure is supported above the ground by a base footing or pier designated which is embedded in the ground to support the building at the bottom central point of the base. Generally, the upper spherical shell portion and lower spherical base portion are formed on different radii of curvature, that of the base being greater than that of the shell portion so that the thickness or depth of the base is considerably less than the height of the building while having an outer circumference or peripheral surface corresponding to or greater than that of the shell to fully support the shell. In a manner to be described, the base is of solid construction and of a material sufficiently heavy and dense that its weight exceeds substantially that of the upper shell portion so as to place the center of gravity of the entire building structure directly adjacent to or in the base for greatly increased stability and specifically in such a way that the building can undergo limited lateral swaying or tipping under severe ground shock or wind forces without capsizing. A secondary benefit and advantage is to eliminate the necessity of a separate building foundation in the ground.
Referring to FIG. 1, for the purpose of illustration, the preferred form of building structure is designed for use as a residential building and has a row of relatively large circumferentially spaced windows and a second row of relatively small windows 21 arranged in circumferentially spaced relation to one another and in spaced relation to the first row of windows 20. In addition, ventilating panels 22 are spaced beneath the windows 20 to afford a means of ventilation for the structure separate and apart from the windows 20 and 21. Entry doors are provided on opposite sides of the shell at its connection into the base, one entry door being represented at 24, and porches 25 and spiral staircases 26 project from opposite sides of the shell downwardly along the underside of the base portion from porches 25 to the ground surface designated G. As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, an upper dome 28 may be transparent to admit sunlight and also contains discharge nozzles 29 for a water spray system to be utilized in the event of fire, atomic fallout, or for cleaning purposes.
Now considering in more detail the construction of the base footing 15, as will be seen from FIGS. 2, 4 and 5, the base footing 15 is comprised of a series of I beams laid in perpendicular superimposed relation to one another and specifically including a lower series of I beams 30 laid side by side and in joined relation to one another and an upper plurality ofI beams 31 in side by side relation superimposed on the lower series 30. The I beams are welded together along their joining lines, and a series of plates 32 are stacked on the upper series of I beams 31 with an upper plate 32' having an upper concave surface and being substantially flush with the ground surface. It will be evident that, depending upon the building weight and ground, the beams may be placed either directly in the ground or encased in a concrete block represented at 34 with suitable heavy-duty steel reinforcing mesh or bars at spaced intervals, as represented at 35. However, the only part of the footing which is in contact with the base is the upper plate surface 32' beneath the bottom central point of the base. The radius of curvature of the upper surface of the plate 32 is preferably greater than that of the bottom center of the base in order that the base is free to undergo a limited degree of tipping under high wind or shock forces.
In addition, a resilient padding 33 is positioned in the space between the plates 32 and surrounding concrete to yieldingly resist lateral shifting of the plates under swaying or lateral forces applied to the footing by the building. In this relation, it is desirable merely to stack the plates as opposed to rigid attachment or interconnection between the plates in order to permit some limited degree of movement under lateral forces applied.
Referring more specifically to FIGS. 2 and 6, the base portion 10 is preferably made up of a high density, structural material such as concrete or aggregate concrete material containing large boulders. Further, the base is preferably reinforced by T-shaped steel beams or rebars 40 which radiate outwardly and downwardly from the upper part of the base and are connected at their lower extremities to an outer reinforcing framework in the form of curved, radial steel frame members 36 which extend along the undersurface of the base portion. As best seen from FIG. 6, the frame members 36 radiate outwardly and curve upwardly from the bottom center of the base to terminate at the outer periphery of the top surface portion 12. The frame members are made up of a principal beam 37 extending continuously from diametrically opposed sides of the base around its undersurface; and beams 38 curve upwardly from the midsection of the principal beam. In addition, secondary beam members 39 are spaced between the beams 38 and curve upwardly around the undersurface of the base from a slotted end portion 58' of the main support column 58 to terminate at the outer periphery of the top surface portion. The beams 36 to 39 are made up of spaced inner and outer, curved T-shaped beams 41 and 42 arranged with their stern portions in facing relation to one another and being rigidly joined together by girders 44, as shown in more detail in FIGS. 6 to 8. Specifically, the girders 44 extend at relatively low angles between the cross portions of the Ts and are L-shaped in cross-section to permit rigid attachment to the beams, such as by welding both to the cross portions and stem portions on one side of the beams as shown. Again it will be seen that the frame members or beams curve upwardly and outwardly from the bottom center of the base in equally spaced, circumferential relation to one another and are connected to the lower terminal ends of outer reinforcing frame members 50 of the upper shell portion. As illustrated in FIG. 9, the terminal ends of the frame members 50 and of the lower frame members 36 have end connecting plates 51 and 52, respectively, the plates being flat and preferably welded together at their abutting end surfaces. Moreover, a box-shaped angular frame is formed at the joint between the upper and lower frames by steel plates 54 which are welded to opposite sides of the upper and lower frames to strengthen the joint; also, reinforcing plates 55 and 56 are attached to the inner and outer side surfaces of the joint.
Generally, the number and spacing of the beams comprising both the upper and lower frame members may be varied depending upon the required load capacity of the building structure. The same is true of the reinforcing bars 40. Preferably, the concrete is poured so as to be flush with or to cover the external surfaces of the reinforcing framework in the base portion.
In pouring or casting the concrete base structure, vertical openings are left for insertion of sleeves or pipes represented at 57 for sanitary drains, hot and cold water, electrical power and heating lines as desired. Also a central opening is left for insertion of a central pipe or conduit 58 which defines a main support column extending upwardly through the base and the upper shell portion of the building structure. A collar 59 is affixed to the conduit 58 directly above the base frame members 36 at the bottom center of the base. Preferably the beams 40 are attached to the top surface of the base and radiate outwardly for connection to the inner beam sections 41 as hereinbefore described. For the purpose of illustration, a suitable topping or flooring represented at 61 may be placed or formed over the top surface of the base.
In the mounting and disposition of the base structure on the base footing, no connection is required because of the inherent stability of the base, and the building merely rests on the footing to prevent sinking or shifting of the building structure once in place. Although the upper plate 32' on top of the base footing plates 32 is shown as being concave, it can be made to be flat but when flat the building will be more subject to the relative shifting under lateral forces caused by earthquake or seismic waves.
Now considering in more detail the construction of the upper shell portion, as illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3, it may be divided into first and second floor levels by the circular floor or partition wall 62, the latter being supported centrally by a collar 63 on the central column 58 and being united at its outer peripheral edge to the inner wall surface of the building. It will be apparent that the interior of the shell may be partitioned into the desired number of floors and rooms and, as such,
forms no part of the present invention. An important consideration however is the construction of the outer wall of the shell and its connection into the base as hereinafter described.
Considering the construction of the shell as illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 3, the outer reinforcing framework as defined by the frame members 50 correspond in number, spacing and basic construction to the frame members 36 of the base portion. Accordingly the construction of the frame members of the base as described with reference to FIGS. 6 to 8 applies equally as well to the upper shell framework, and like parts are correspondingly enumerated. Of course the curvature and length of the upper frame members will differ in order to conform to the desired configuration of the shell which in the preferred form is of hemispheral configuration. Further it will be noted that the principal beam 37 for the upper shell has straight extensions 66 at diametrically opposed ends to serve as reinforcing members for the balcony 25 and stairway 26. Extensions 67 are also provided on the secondary beams 39 next to the principal beam 37. A circumferential reincombination corresponds to the beam construction described with reference to beams 37 and 38 and shown in FIGS. 7 and 8.
It will be seen from FIGS. 3 and 6 that the frame construction at the bottom center of the base and the top center of the shell are identical. In each, the principal beam 37 and the secondary beams 38 pass through open slots in the end portions 58 of the columns 58; whereas, the secondary beams 39 terminate at the edges of the end portions 58'. In addition, the center connecting portions of the beams 37 to 39 have side rcinforcing plates 60 interconnecting opposite sides of the inner end beams 41 and 42 comprising each of the beam members 37 to 39. The collars 59 and 63' are correspondingly attached to the column against the inner surfaces of the inner beams 41 as shown.
The wall 71 of the shell is preferably composed of concrete which either may be sprayed, cast or poured in accord with conventional practice between the reinforcing frames.'The concrete wall covers the external surfaces of the upper frame members 50 and includes a layer of insulating material 72 together with reinforcing mesh layers 74 as best seen from FIGS. 3 and 10.
Referring to FIGS. 11 and 12, the preferred form of window construction is illustrated for the lower and upper rows of windows 20 and 21, in the upper shell. Here the mounting and installation of the windows in each row is identical except for difference in size and accordingly like parts are correspondingly numbered. Thus in each row each window consists of a convex transparent plastic window placed in eight equally spaced openings around the building in each row for natural lighting purposes. The outer peripheral edge of the window is secured in an annular rubber seal 81 which in turn is mounted within a generally U-shaped metallic frame 82, the latter being embedded in the concrete wall of the building. It will be noted that the windows are permanently mounted in place and cannot be opened so as to provide a more rugged, safe construction and simplified installation. Instead, separate ventilating doors 22 are arranged in spaced relation corresponding to that of the lower row and directly beneath the lower row for ventilating purposes. Here the door is represented as being relatively flat and of rectangular configuration with one end hinged as at 84 to a jamb or frame installed in the concrete wall. It will be seen further that main entrance doors 25, one being illustrated in FIG. 2, are positioned in opposed wall portions of the building and are inset from the wall to provide a means of access from the balconies into the interior of the shell. The doors are of conventional construction and form no part of the present invention. If desired, the doors can also be built to be flush with the outside wall of the building and the doorway leads from the circular balcony 25 on each side, the balconies including a suitable railing 86 surrounding the flooring 87 and leading into the stairway 26. Again the entrance door, balconies and stairways are shown merely for the purpose of illustration and may be of any design construction.
The water spray system which runs through the central pipe leads into the'discharge nozzles 29 disposed between the relatively large circular, convex metal covers 87 and 88 on the top center portion 29 of the building externally of the shell. In addition, the utilities for the building may also extend from the supply lines 57 by a suitable conduit, not shown, through the central pipe. The water spray system is provided merely for the purpose of cleaning or to be used in the event of fire or atomic fall-out and is not an essential part of the building structure.
From the foregoing, it will be appreciated that the preferred form of building structure is readily conformable for use and installation in virtually any terrain; and for the purpose of illustration but not limitation, is readily adapted for use in the design andconstruction of residential homes, storage facilities, stadiums, convention centers, apartment or office buildings. The base and shell portions may be prefabricated and preassembled at the factory for shipment to the intended site, at least for smaller sized buildings. However, in larger sized buildings, the weight of the base portion may preclude preassembly and require construction at the site or at least require shipment in separate sections. The upper shell portion, even for larger sizes, either may be built in section or completely prefabricated and joined to the base by welding together the outer reinforcing framework in the manner described. While the upper shell portion may assume various different configurations, such as, rectangular or other polygonal or curved configurations. The hemispherical configuration itself lends well to ease of fabrication and assembly to the base. Its height and weight in relation to that of the base can be determined in order to maintain the center of gravity of the building within the base portion. in this way the building is capable of withstanding high wind forces as well as earthquakes or lateral shifting in the ground, together with vertical oscillations and waves. Further the building may be constructed without the central pipe or conduit.
it is therefore to be understood that various modifications and changes in the construction and arrangement of parts and elements comprising the preferred form of invention may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of the present invention.
What is claimed is:
1. An earthquake-proof building structure comprising in combination:
a concrete base footing embedded in the ground having superimposed l-beams embedded therein and a series of steel support plates stacked on said beams, and a resilient pad between said support plates and the concrete;
:1 solid, heavyweight base composed of reinforced concrete being in the form of a sphere less than a hemisphere having a relatively flat surface and a round undersurface resting on the support plates of said base footing even with the ground surface so that said building is capable of being lifted, tipped or swayed;
a hollow upper shell affixed to the upper and outer periphery of said base, having outer wall sections, a plurality of window openings and separate ventilating panels disposed at spaced intervals in the wall of said shell, entry doors, and a stairway extending downwardly from the entry doors into said shell along the external surface of said base to the ground level;
said base'having a radius of curvature being greater than that of said upper shell and the weight of said base in relation to that of said shell being such that the center of gravity of the building structure is located within said base;
said base and shell each including radially extending circumferentially spaced steel reinforcing beams extending from the upper and lower center portions of said shell and base, respectively, and curving outwardly for connection at the juncture of said base and shell; a
said reinforcing members being defined by a pair of inner and outer generally T-shaped beams in which the stem portions of said beams face inwardly toward one another and girder members extend at relative low angles between said inner and outer beams and rigidly interconnect said beams;
said girders being generally L-shaped in cross-section and being permanently attached to the cross portions of said T-shaped beams; and
the joint formed at the juncture of each of said reinforcing members for said base and shell having reinforcing plates interconnecting adjoining ends of said reinforcing members.

Claims (1)

1. An earthquake-proof building structure comprising in combination: a concrete base footing embedded in the ground having superimposed I-beams embedded therein and a series of steel support plates stacked on said I-beams, and a resilient pad between said support plates and the concrete; a solid, heavyweight base composed of reinforced concrete being in the form of a sphere less than a hemisphere having a relatively flat surface and a round undersurface resting on the support plates of said base footing even with the ground surface so that said building is capable of being lifted, tipped or swayed; a hollow upper shell affixed to the upper and outer periphery of said base, having outer wall sections, a plurality of window openings and separate ventilating panels disposed at spaced intervals in the wall of said shell, entry doors, and a stairway extending downwardly from the entry doors into said shell along the external surface of said base to the ground level; said base having a radius of curvature being greater than that of said upper shell and the weight of said base in relation to that of said shell being such that the center of gravity of the building structure is located within said base; said base and shell each including radially extending circumferentially spaced steel reinforcing beams extending from the upper and lower center portions of said shell and base, respectively, and curving outwardly for connection at the juncture of said base and shell; said reinforcing members being defined by a pair of inner and outer generally T-shaped beams in which the stem portions of said beams face inwardly toward one another and girder members extend at relative low angles between said inner and outer beams and rigidly interconnect said beams; said girders being generally L-shaped in cross-section and being permanently attached to the cross portions of said T-shaped beams; and the joint formed at the juncture of each of said reinforcing members for said base and shell having reinforcing plates interconnecting adjoining ends of said reinforcing members.
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US4442639A (en) * 1981-11-27 1984-04-17 Lindsey Stanley D Building structure method
US4519176A (en) * 1982-06-28 1985-05-28 Earthship Enterprise, Inc. Modular method of making a building structure
US4565149A (en) * 1982-03-11 1986-01-21 Richard Clasky Semi-submergible spherical residential structure
US4638609A (en) * 1984-06-07 1987-01-27 Budapest Muszaki Egyetem System for reducing the seismic load of tall buildings
US4651481A (en) * 1984-05-22 1987-03-24 The Budapesti Muszaki Egyetem Progressive shock absorption system for reducing the seismic load of buildings
FR2619147A1 (en) * 1987-08-07 1989-10-06 Thiery Gerard Spherical earthquake-resistant shelter
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US5267420A (en) * 1991-04-05 1993-12-07 Sam Segman Building construction
US5325642A (en) * 1992-01-17 1994-07-05 Cooley Warren L Geodesic hazardous waste containment building
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US5437756A (en) * 1990-07-16 1995-08-01 United Technologies Corp. Method of making a composite sphere for a motion base simulator with a low center of gravity
US5765326A (en) * 1993-10-15 1998-06-16 Schuster; Siegfried Globated builiding structure
US6101769A (en) * 1998-07-22 2000-08-15 Survival Technologies International, Llc Earthquake resistant bed
US6298612B1 (en) 1995-09-05 2001-10-09 James A. Adams Wall strengthening component
EP1275788A2 (en) * 2001-07-11 2003-01-15 Fritz Gampe Building
US20040226236A1 (en) * 2000-11-21 2004-11-18 Pidgeon John Terry Foundation structure
US20070028531A1 (en) * 2005-07-20 2007-02-08 Woodcock Jerry A Haven House
US7185780B2 (en) * 2003-12-15 2007-03-06 Sonoco Develpoment, Inc. Container overcap with drying agent layer
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US20090223167A1 (en) * 2008-02-28 2009-09-10 Anderson Jeffrey A Pierced drywall stud
US20100300010A1 (en) * 2009-05-27 2010-12-02 Maria Eugenia Vallejo Eco sphere
CN102191871A (en) * 2011-04-26 2011-09-21 王同岩 Rotating thin shell type house anti-seismic safety survival device made of thin plates
US8112968B1 (en) 1995-12-14 2012-02-14 Simpson Strong-Tie Company, Inc. Pre-assembled internal shear panel
US20120045285A1 (en) * 2010-08-23 2012-02-23 Oil Well Closure And Protection As Offshore structure
US20120260583A1 (en) * 2011-04-18 2012-10-18 Bischoff Gregory G Hybrid geodesic structure
US8397454B2 (en) 1997-11-21 2013-03-19 Simpson Strong-Tie Company, Inc. Building wall for resisting lateral forces
US20140366459A1 (en) * 2011-12-17 2014-12-18 Gary Olson Personal Storm Shelter
CN105952230A (en) * 2016-07-08 2016-09-21 李伟博 Novel anti-seismic building
FR3099779A1 (en) * 2019-08-06 2021-02-12 Betarhobeta-High Tech-France Removable living space including a base and a dome.

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US4126972A (en) * 1976-06-28 1978-11-28 Almer Silen Tornado protection building
US4068421A (en) * 1976-10-01 1978-01-17 Marovich John M Frameless shelter for sunlit enclosures such as greenhouses, solariums and pool shelters
US4442639A (en) * 1981-11-27 1984-04-17 Lindsey Stanley D Building structure method
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US4519176A (en) * 1982-06-28 1985-05-28 Earthship Enterprise, Inc. Modular method of making a building structure
US4651481A (en) * 1984-05-22 1987-03-24 The Budapesti Muszaki Egyetem Progressive shock absorption system for reducing the seismic load of buildings
US4638609A (en) * 1984-06-07 1987-01-27 Budapest Muszaki Egyetem System for reducing the seismic load of tall buildings
FR2619147A1 (en) * 1987-08-07 1989-10-06 Thiery Gerard Spherical earthquake-resistant shelter
FR2665211A1 (en) * 1989-12-12 1992-01-31 Emmanuel Emile Michel Earthquake-resistant system "SATURNE"
US5437756A (en) * 1990-07-16 1995-08-01 United Technologies Corp. Method of making a composite sphere for a motion base simulator with a low center of gravity
US5267420A (en) * 1991-04-05 1993-12-07 Sam Segman Building construction
US5325642A (en) * 1992-01-17 1994-07-05 Cooley Warren L Geodesic hazardous waste containment building
WO1993019264A1 (en) * 1992-03-17 1993-09-30 Bernard Thomann Earthquake-proof building
US5605021A (en) * 1992-03-17 1997-02-25 Thomann; Bernard Earthquake-proof building
FR2688818A1 (en) * 1992-03-17 1993-09-24 Thomann Bernard ANTISISMIC BUILDING.
AU663163B2 (en) * 1992-03-17 1995-09-28 Bernard Thomann Earthquake-proof building
US5394661A (en) * 1993-06-24 1995-03-07 Noble; Curtis R. Earthquake resistant biosphere
US5765326A (en) * 1993-10-15 1998-06-16 Schuster; Siegfried Globated builiding structure
US6298612B1 (en) 1995-09-05 2001-10-09 James A. Adams Wall strengthening component
US9085901B2 (en) 1995-12-14 2015-07-21 Simpson Strong-Tie Company, Inc. Pre-assembled internal shear panel
US8112968B1 (en) 1995-12-14 2012-02-14 Simpson Strong-Tie Company, Inc. Pre-assembled internal shear panel
US8479470B2 (en) 1997-11-21 2013-07-09 Simpson Strong-Tie Company, Inc. Building wall for resisting lateral forces
US8397454B2 (en) 1997-11-21 2013-03-19 Simpson Strong-Tie Company, Inc. Building wall for resisting lateral forces
US6101769A (en) * 1998-07-22 2000-08-15 Survival Technologies International, Llc Earthquake resistant bed
US20040226236A1 (en) * 2000-11-21 2004-11-18 Pidgeon John Terry Foundation structure
EP1275788A3 (en) * 2001-07-11 2003-11-19 Fritz Gampe Building
EP1275788A2 (en) * 2001-07-11 2003-01-15 Fritz Gampe Building
US7185780B2 (en) * 2003-12-15 2007-03-06 Sonoco Develpoment, Inc. Container overcap with drying agent layer
US20070028531A1 (en) * 2005-07-20 2007-02-08 Woodcock Jerry A Haven House
WO2007110489A1 (en) * 2006-03-03 2007-10-04 Jean-Jacques Franch Survival device in the context of natural disasters consisting of a dwelling module and its accessories
US20090223167A1 (en) * 2008-02-28 2009-09-10 Anderson Jeffrey A Pierced drywall stud
US20100300010A1 (en) * 2009-05-27 2010-12-02 Maria Eugenia Vallejo Eco sphere
US20120045285A1 (en) * 2010-08-23 2012-02-23 Oil Well Closure And Protection As Offshore structure
US20120260583A1 (en) * 2011-04-18 2012-10-18 Bischoff Gregory G Hybrid geodesic structure
US8863447B2 (en) * 2011-04-18 2014-10-21 Gregory G. Bischoff Hybrid geodesic structure
CN102191871B (en) * 2011-04-26 2012-09-05 王同岩 Rotating thin shell type house anti-seismic safety survival device made of thin plates
CN102191871A (en) * 2011-04-26 2011-09-21 王同岩 Rotating thin shell type house anti-seismic safety survival device made of thin plates
US20140366459A1 (en) * 2011-12-17 2014-12-18 Gary Olson Personal Storm Shelter
CN105952230A (en) * 2016-07-08 2016-09-21 李伟博 Novel anti-seismic building
CN105952230B (en) * 2016-07-08 2019-01-29 李伟博 New construction antiseismic structure
FR3099779A1 (en) * 2019-08-06 2021-02-12 Betarhobeta-High Tech-France Removable living space including a base and a dome.

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