US3914514A - Termination for resistor and method of making the same - Google Patents

Termination for resistor and method of making the same Download PDF

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Publication number
US3914514A
US3914514A US38873473A US3914514A US 3914514 A US3914514 A US 3914514A US 38873473 A US38873473 A US 38873473A US 3914514 A US3914514 A US 3914514A
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metal
termination
film
particles
oxide
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George D Mackenzie
Michael G Noblett
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Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp
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Northrop Grumman Space and Mission Systems Corp
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01CRESISTORS
    • H01C17/00Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing resistors
    • H01C17/28Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing resistors adapted for applying terminals
    • H01C17/281Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing resistors adapted for applying terminals by thick film techniques
    • H01C17/283Precursor compositions therefor, e.g. pastes, inks, glass frits
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/31504Composite [nonstructural laminate]
    • Y10T428/31678Of metal

Abstract

A method of making a resistor termination comprising the steps of applying to the surface of a substrate and firing a mixture of glass frit and particles of a compound taken from the group consisting of ruthenium oxide, iridium oxide, and rhodium oxide and mixtures thereof, until the compound dissociates to form and sinter the metal. The mixture is fired at a temperature of at least 900*C and preferably at 1,150*C in a reducing or nonoxidizing atmosphere such as that provided by nitrogen. When cooled there is provided a glass film with metal particles therein strongly bonded to the substrate.

Description

United States Patent 11 1 MacKenzie et al.

[4 1 Oct. 21, 1975 1 TERMINATION FOR RESISTOR AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME [75] Inventors: George D. MacKenzie, Maple Glen,

Pa.; Michael G. Noblett, Ventnor, NJ.

[73] Assignee: TRW, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio [22] Filed: Aug. 16, 1973 [21] Appl. No.: 388,734

[52] US. Cl. 428/426; 428/457; 427/101; 427/376; 427/377; 427/383; 252/514; 252/518 Primary Examiner-Michael F. Esposito Attorney, Agent, or Firm.lacob Trachtman [57] ABSTRACT A method of making a resistor termination comprising the steps of applying to the surface of a substrate and firing a mixture of glass frit and particles of a compound taken from the group consisting of ruthenium oxide, iridium oxide, and rhodium oxide and mixtures thereof, until the compound dissociates to form and sinter the metal. The mixture is fired at a temperature of at least 900C and preferably at 1,150C in a reducing or non-oxidizing atmosphere such as that provided by nitrogen. When cooled there is provided a glass film with metal particles therein strongly bonded to the substrate.

7 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure /4- TERM/NAT/O/V (METAL 61. A25) /6- RES/STANCE FILM /2- cyan/c TERMINATION, FOR RESISTOR AND ivniriioo or MAKING THE SAME The present invention relates to.a method of making a resistor termination and the termination produced thereby, and more particularly to a methodof making a conductive termination for a vitreous'en'amel resistor.

Vitreous enamel resistors include 'a substrate having on a surface thereof, a film of glass and particlesof'a' metal borides, and nitrides, have been fired in .non-

oxidizing environments. When the resistor is cooled,

the glass solidifies to form the glass film with the conductive particles therein.

in order to provide an electrical connection to the resistor it is desirable to provide on the substrate at each end of the resistance film a conductive termination. Heretofore, the termination generally used for resistors of the type produced in a non-oxidizing atmosphere, was a film of a metal, such as nickel or copper. However, it has been found that such metal film terminations are not suitable for many vitreous enamel resistance products.

Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide a novel method of making a termination for a vitreous enamel resistor.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a novel termination for a vitreous enamel resistor.

It is still another object of the present invention to provide a novel resistor termination.

These objects are achieved by applying to a substrate a mixture of a glass frit and particles of ruthenium oxide, iridium oxide, rhodium oxide or mixtures thereof. The substrate and coating are then heated in a nitrogen atmosphere at a temperature at which the glass frit melts and the metal oxide dissociates to the metal form and the metal sinters to a dense film which is strongly bonded to the substrate.

The invention accordingly comprises the several steps and the relation of one or more of such steps with respect to each of the others, and the composition possessing the features, properties, and the relation of constitutents which are exemplified in the following detailed disclosure, and the scope of the invention will be indicated in the claims.

For a fuller understanding of the nature and objects of the invention, reference should be had to the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing in which:

The FIGURE of the drawing is a sectional view of a resistor having the termination of the present invention.

Referring to the drawing there is shown a resistor 10 which comprises a substrate 12 of an electrical insulating material, such as a ceramic, a termination film 14 on a surface of the substrate 12, and a resistance film 16 on the surface of the substrate and contacting the termination film 14. The resistance film 16 is a vitreous enamel resistance film which comprises a film of glass 2 having particles of a conductive material embedded therein and dispersedtherethroughout. The conductive material may be a'nyof the well known materials used in vitreous enamelresistors.

The termination film 14,comprises a layer of glass having particles of either ruthenium, iridium, rhodium or mixtures thereof, embedded'in and dispersed therethroughout. The amount of the metal present in the termination film is preferably between 60% and 92% by volume or 79% to 99% by weight. The glass may be any glass having a suitable melting temperature, i.e., a melting temperature below that of the metal. The glasses most preferable are the borosilicate glasses, such as lead borosilicate, bismuth, cadmium, barium, calcium, or other alkaline earth borosilicates. If desired, up to 5% of the metal can be replaced by copper particles to improve the solderability of the termination film 14.

' To make the termination film 14, a termination material is first formed. The termination material comprises a mixture of a glass frit and particles of either ruthenium oxide, iridium oxide, rhodium oxide or mixtures of the oxides. The amount of the oxide included is dependent on the volume percent of the metal desired in I the termination film. The following table shows the amount of the oxide by weight percent needed to achieve 60% and 92% by volume of the metal .in the termination film. 1

The glass frit and the metal oxide particles are thoroughly mixed together, such as by milling, in a suitable vehicle, such as butyl carbital acetate, a mixture of butyl carbitol acetate and toluol or any well known screening medium. The viscosity of the mixture is then adjusted for the desired manner of applying the material either by adding or removing some of the vehicle medium. If copper is to be included in the termination film, it is included in the termination material either as copper particles or copper oxide particles.

The termination material is then applied to the substrate 12 by any desired technique, such as brushing, dipping, spraying or screen stencil application. The coated film is then preferably dried, such as by heating at a low temperature, such as C for about 10 minutes. Next, the film is heated at a higher temperature, about 400C or higher, to burn off the vehicle. Finally, the film is fired at a temperature at which the glass melts, generally at least 900C and preferably l,l50C, in an atmosphere, such as nitrogen, which allows dissociation of the metal oxide and sintering of the metal thus formed. After the termination film 14 is applied to the substrate 12, the vitreous enamel resistance film 16 can be applied to the substrate in the manner well known in the art.

The following table provides test results for resistors utilizing terminations produced in accordance with the present invention.

Not Tested The change in resistance shown in the Table is for the application of 50 watts per square for a period of 100 hours. The small change in resistance from the power loading and the low value of current noise for the resistors indicate good electrical continuity between the resistor and the termination film.

The present invention may be carried out and embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential attributes thereof, and, accordingly, references should be made to the appended claims, rather than the foregoing specification as indicating the scope of the invention.

What is claimed is:

l. A method of making a termination for refractory metal glaze resistors comprising the steps of:

a. applying to the surface of a substrate a mixture of a glass frit and particles of a compound taken from the group consisting of ruthenium oxide, iridium oxide, rhodium oxide, and mixtures thereof, the metal oxide particles being present in the amount of 79% to 99% by weight and b. firing the mixture at a temperature of at least 900C in a non-oxidizing atmosphere until the compound dissociates to formand sinter the metal.

2. The method in accordance with claim 1 in which the mixture is fired at a temperature of at least 900C in a nitrogen atmosphere.

3. The method in accordance with claim 1 in which the mixture is fired at a temperature of between l,lOOC to l,l50C.

4. The method in accordance with claim 2 in which the metal oxide particles are present in the mixture, such that the amount of metal in the termination is between and 92% by volume.

5. The method in accordance with claim 4 in which copper particles are present in the mixture and in which of the metal oxide and copper particles no greater than 5% are of the copper particles.

6. The method in accordance with claim 5 in which the copper particles include particles of copper and copper oxide.

7. A termination film for an electrical refractory metal glaze resistor consisting of a glass film bonded to the surface of an insulating substrate, and particles of metal from the group consisting of ruthenium, iridium and rhodium, and mixtures thereof, embedded within and dispersed throughout the glass film, the metal particles being present in the amount of 60% to 92% by volume.

Claims (7)

1. A METHOD OF MAKING A TERMINATION FOR REFRACTORY METAL GLAZE RESISTORS COMPRISING THE STEPS OF: A. APPLYING TO THE SURFACE OF A SUBSTRATE A MIXTURE OF A GLASS FRIT AND PARTICLES OF A COMPOUND TAKEN FROM THE GROUP CONSISTING OF RUTHENIUM OXIDE, IRIDIUM OXIDE, RHODIUM OXIDE, AND MIXTURES THEREOF, THE METAL OXIDE PARTICLES BEING PRESENT IN THE AMOUNT OF 79% BY WEIGHT AND B. FIRING THE MIXTURE AT A TEMPERATURE OF AT LEAST 900*C IN
2. The method in accordance with claim 1 in which the mixture is fired at a temperature of at least 900*C in a nitrogen atmosphere.
3. The method in accordance with claim 1 in which the mixture is fired at a temperature of between 1,100*C to 1,150*C.
4. The method in accordance with claim 2 in which the metal oxide particles are present in the mixture, such that the amount of metal in the termination is between 60% and 92% by volume.
5. The method in accordance with claim 4 in which copper particles are present in the mixture and in which of the metal oxide and copper particles no greater than 5% are of the copper particles.
6. The method in accordance with claim 5 in which the copper particles include particles of copper and copper oxide.
7. A termination film for an electrical refractory metal glaze resistor consisting of a glass film bonded to the surface of an insulating substrate, and particles of metal from the group consisting of ruthenium, iridium and rhodium, and mixtures thereof, embedded within and dispersed throughout the glass film, the metal particles being present in the amount of 60% to 92% by volume.
US3914514A 1973-08-16 1973-08-16 Termination for resistor and method of making the same Expired - Lifetime US3914514A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3914514A US3914514A (en) 1973-08-16 1973-08-16 Termination for resistor and method of making the same

Applications Claiming Priority (8)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3914514A US3914514A (en) 1973-08-16 1973-08-16 Termination for resistor and method of making the same
JP4922574A JPS5639001B2 (en) 1973-08-16 1974-05-01
CA 201231 CA993969A (en) 1973-08-16 1974-05-30 Termination for resistor and method of making same
FR7422322A FR2246037B1 (en) 1973-08-16 1974-06-26
GB3366474A GB1465931A (en) 1973-08-16 1974-07-30 Electrical resistors
DE19742438048 DE2438048B2 (en) 1973-08-16 1974-08-07 A process for the production of solderable anschlusschichten of electrical resistors
DK436774A DK139826C (en) 1973-08-16 1974-08-15
GB4023475A GB1460320A (en) 1973-08-16 1975-10-02 Sodium specific glass compositions and electrodes

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US3914514A true US3914514A (en) 1975-10-21

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US (1) US3914514A (en)
JP (1) JPS5639001B2 (en)
CA (1) CA993969A (en)
DE (1) DE2438048B2 (en)
DK (1) DK139826C (en)
FR (1) FR2246037B1 (en)
GB (2) GB1465931A (en)

Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2650466A1 (en) * 1975-11-24 1977-05-26 Trw Inc Electrical resistance with connectors and methods of making the same
US4065743A (en) * 1975-03-21 1977-12-27 Trw, Inc. Resistor material, resistor made therefrom and method of making the same
US4087778A (en) * 1976-04-05 1978-05-02 Trw Inc. Termination for electrical resistor and method of making the same
US4139832A (en) * 1976-03-19 1979-02-13 Hitachi, Ltd. Glass-coated thick film resistor
US4146759A (en) * 1976-08-12 1979-03-27 Nissan Motor Company, Limited Ignition distributor
US4155064A (en) * 1976-08-27 1979-05-15 Allen-Bradley Company Electrical resistor element
US4164067A (en) * 1976-08-27 1979-08-14 Allen-Bradley Company Method of manufacturing electrical resistor element
FR2431183A1 (en) * 1978-07-15 1980-02-08 Sony Corp Canon TV tube electrons and A PART of resistance to this canon electrons
US4213113A (en) * 1978-09-08 1980-07-15 Allen-Bradley Company Electrical resistor element and method of manufacturing the same
US4286251A (en) * 1979-03-05 1981-08-25 Trw, Inc. Vitreous enamel resistor and method of making the same
US4293838A (en) * 1979-01-29 1981-10-06 Trw, Inc. Resistance material, resistor and method of making the same
WO1982000233A1 (en) * 1980-07-03 1982-01-21 Western Electric Co Thick film resistor circuits
US4415486A (en) * 1981-06-11 1983-11-15 U.S. Philips Corporation Resistive paste for a resistor body
US4527050A (en) * 1981-07-08 1985-07-02 E.G.O. Elektro-Gerate Blanc Und Fischer Hotplate
US4622240A (en) * 1985-11-12 1986-11-11 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Process for manufacturing thick-film electrical components
US4651126A (en) * 1985-05-02 1987-03-17 Shailendra Kumar Electrical resistor material, resistor made therefrom and method of making the same
US4835038A (en) * 1985-06-29 1989-05-30 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Substrate coated with multiple thick films
EP0364095A2 (en) * 1988-10-11 1990-04-18 DELCO ELECTRONICS CORPORATION (a Delaware corp.) Post-termination process for thick-film resistors of printed-circuit boards
US5185182A (en) * 1990-12-10 1993-02-09 Ford Motor Company Method for inhibiting significant oxidation of a film on a substance during heating
US8623776B2 (en) 2008-02-26 2014-01-07 Corning Incorporated Silicate glasses having low seed concentration

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4100524A (en) * 1976-05-06 1978-07-11 Gould Inc. Electrical transducer and method of making
DE3121891A1 (en) * 1981-06-02 1983-01-27 Teves Gmbh Alfred Aircraft disc brake
US4514321A (en) * 1983-08-25 1985-04-30 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Thick film conductor compositions
DE3722576C2 (en) * 1987-07-08 1990-04-12 Danfoss A/S, Nordborg, Dk

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US3304199A (en) * 1963-11-12 1967-02-14 Cts Corp Electrical resistance element
US3484284A (en) * 1967-08-15 1969-12-16 Corning Glass Works Electroconductive composition and method
US3573229A (en) * 1968-01-30 1971-03-30 Alloys Unlimited Inc Cermet resistor composition and method of making same
US3620840A (en) * 1968-12-13 1971-11-16 Methode Dev Co Resistance material and resistance elements made therefrom
US3640764A (en) * 1968-09-26 1972-02-08 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Integral heating elements
US3679607A (en) * 1966-10-24 1972-07-25 Int Nickel Co Oxide resistor materials
US3741780A (en) * 1970-11-04 1973-06-26 Du Pont Metallizing compositions containing bismuthate glass-ceramic conductor binder
US3776769A (en) * 1970-08-27 1973-12-04 Atomic Energy Authority Uk Metallising pastes

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3304199A (en) * 1963-11-12 1967-02-14 Cts Corp Electrical resistance element
US3679607A (en) * 1966-10-24 1972-07-25 Int Nickel Co Oxide resistor materials
US3484284A (en) * 1967-08-15 1969-12-16 Corning Glass Works Electroconductive composition and method
US3573229A (en) * 1968-01-30 1971-03-30 Alloys Unlimited Inc Cermet resistor composition and method of making same
US3640764A (en) * 1968-09-26 1972-02-08 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Integral heating elements
US3620840A (en) * 1968-12-13 1971-11-16 Methode Dev Co Resistance material and resistance elements made therefrom
US3776769A (en) * 1970-08-27 1973-12-04 Atomic Energy Authority Uk Metallising pastes
US3741780A (en) * 1970-11-04 1973-06-26 Du Pont Metallizing compositions containing bismuthate glass-ceramic conductor binder

Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4065743A (en) * 1975-03-21 1977-12-27 Trw, Inc. Resistor material, resistor made therefrom and method of making the same
DE2650466A1 (en) * 1975-11-24 1977-05-26 Trw Inc Electrical resistance with connectors and methods of making the same
FR2332600A1 (en) * 1975-11-24 1977-06-17 Trw Inc Electric resistance-terminated thin film and its production method
US4139832A (en) * 1976-03-19 1979-02-13 Hitachi, Ltd. Glass-coated thick film resistor
US4087778A (en) * 1976-04-05 1978-05-02 Trw Inc. Termination for electrical resistor and method of making the same
US4146759A (en) * 1976-08-12 1979-03-27 Nissan Motor Company, Limited Ignition distributor
US4164067A (en) * 1976-08-27 1979-08-14 Allen-Bradley Company Method of manufacturing electrical resistor element
US4155064A (en) * 1976-08-27 1979-05-15 Allen-Bradley Company Electrical resistor element
FR2431183A1 (en) * 1978-07-15 1980-02-08 Sony Corp Canon TV tube electrons and A PART of resistance to this canon electrons
US4213113A (en) * 1978-09-08 1980-07-15 Allen-Bradley Company Electrical resistor element and method of manufacturing the same
US4293838A (en) * 1979-01-29 1981-10-06 Trw, Inc. Resistance material, resistor and method of making the same
US4286251A (en) * 1979-03-05 1981-08-25 Trw, Inc. Vitreous enamel resistor and method of making the same
WO1982000233A1 (en) * 1980-07-03 1982-01-21 Western Electric Co Thick film resistor circuits
US4316920A (en) * 1980-07-03 1982-02-23 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated Thick film resistor circuits
US4415486A (en) * 1981-06-11 1983-11-15 U.S. Philips Corporation Resistive paste for a resistor body
US4527050A (en) * 1981-07-08 1985-07-02 E.G.O. Elektro-Gerate Blanc Und Fischer Hotplate
US4651126A (en) * 1985-05-02 1987-03-17 Shailendra Kumar Electrical resistor material, resistor made therefrom and method of making the same
US4835038A (en) * 1985-06-29 1989-05-30 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Substrate coated with multiple thick films
US4622240A (en) * 1985-11-12 1986-11-11 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Process for manufacturing thick-film electrical components
EP0364095A2 (en) * 1988-10-11 1990-04-18 DELCO ELECTRONICS CORPORATION (a Delaware corp.) Post-termination process for thick-film resistors of printed-circuit boards
EP0364095A3 (en) * 1988-10-11 1990-11-07 DELCO ELECTRONICS CORPORATION (a Delaware corp.) Post-termination process for thick-film resistors of printed-circuit boards
US5164698A (en) * 1988-10-11 1992-11-17 Delco Electronics Corporation Post-termination apparatus and process for thick film resistors of printed circuit boards
US5169679A (en) * 1988-10-11 1992-12-08 Delco Electronics Corporation Post-termination apparatus and process for thick film resistors of printed circuit boards
US5185182A (en) * 1990-12-10 1993-02-09 Ford Motor Company Method for inhibiting significant oxidation of a film on a substance during heating
US8623776B2 (en) 2008-02-26 2014-01-07 Corning Incorporated Silicate glasses having low seed concentration
US9073779B2 (en) 2008-02-26 2015-07-07 Corning Incorporated Fining agents for silicate glasses

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
FR2246037A1 (en) 1975-04-25 application
JPS5053896A (en) 1975-05-13 application
FR2246037B1 (en) 1978-10-27 grant
GB1460320A (en) 1977-01-06 application
GB1465931A (en) 1977-03-02 application
DK139826B (en) 1979-04-23 grant
DK139826C (en) 1979-10-01 grant
DK436774A (en) 1975-04-28 application
JPS5639001B2 (en) 1981-09-10 grant
CA993969A (en) 1976-07-27 grant
DE2438048A1 (en) 1975-02-27 application
DE2438048B2 (en) 1977-06-16 application
CA993969A1 (en) grant
JP1094445C (en) grant

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