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US3905864A - Multi-ply fibrous sheets - Google Patents

Multi-ply fibrous sheets Download PDF

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Publication number
US3905864A
US3905864A US39024473A US3905864A US 3905864 A US3905864 A US 3905864A US 39024473 A US39024473 A US 39024473A US 3905864 A US3905864 A US 3905864A
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Prior art keywords
forming
ply
surface
sheet
fibrous
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Expired - Lifetime
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Harold George Curry
Brian William Attwood
Derek Graham Walter White
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KARL KROYER ST ANNE'S Ltd
KROYER ST ANNES Ltd KARL
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KROYER ST ANNES Ltd KARL
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B29/00Layered products comprising a layer of paper or cardboard
    • B32B29/002Layered products comprising a layer of paper or cardboard as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material
    • B32B29/005Layered products comprising a layer of paper or cardboard as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material next to another layer of paper or cardboard layer
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D21PAPER-MAKING; PRODUCTION OF CELLULOSE
    • D21HPULP COMPOSITIONS; PREPARATION THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES D21C OR D21D; IMPREGNATING OR COATING OF PAPER; TREATMENT OF FINISHED PAPER NOT COVERED BY CLASS B31 OR SUBCLASS D21G; PAPER NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D21H27/00Special paper not otherwise provided for, e.g. made by multi-step processes
    • D21H27/30Multi-ply
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D21PAPER-MAKING; PRODUCTION OF CELLULOSE
    • D21HPULP COMPOSITIONS; PREPARATION THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES D21C OR D21D; IMPREGNATING OR COATING OF PAPER; TREATMENT OF FINISHED PAPER NOT COVERED BY CLASS B31 OR SUBCLASS D21G; PAPER NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D21H5/00Special paper or cardboard not otherwise provided for
    • D21H5/26Special paper or cardboard manufactured by dry method; Apparatus or processes for forming webs by dry method from mainly short-fibre or particle material, e.g. paper pulp
    • D21H5/2678Manufacture of layered products (assembly of superposed sheets), comprising the consolidation of such a structure
    • D21H5/2692Assembly of several preformed webs, at least one of which has been formed by dry method
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2250/00Layers arrangement
    • B32B2250/26All layers being made of paper or paperboard

Abstract

Multi-ply paper board or sheet is produced by forming plies individually at ply-forming stations by dry-forming techniques, and then transferring the formed plies to a main forming surface to produce the multi-ply product. The plies are consolidated by hot moist pressing before being transferred.

Description

United States Patent Curry et al.

1451 Sept. 16, 1975 MULTI-PLY FIBROUS SHEETS Inventors: Harold George Curry, Hambrook;

Brian William Attwood, Hanham near Bristol; Derek Graham Walter White, Bristol, all of England Assignee: Karl Kroyer St. Annes Limited,

Bristol, England Filed: Aug. 21, 1973 Appl. No.: 390,244

Foreign Application Priority Data Sept 9, 1972 United Kingdom .1 41960/72 US. Cl. 162/133; 161/268; 162/304; 264/91; 264/1 13; 264/304; 425/80; 425/81; 425/83; 425/224; 425/371 Int. Cl..... 1329c 17/04; D04h 1/16; D2lf 11/00 Field of Search 264/113, 91; 162/132, 133, 162/304 1 5 6] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,341,130 2/1944 Unsworth 264/113 2,486,050 10/1949 Miller et al. 264/1 13 2,624,079 1/1953 Duvall 1. 264/1 13 2,746,895 5/1956 Duvall 264/113 2,987,122 6/1961 Sweitzer et a1. .1 162/304 3,082,138 3/1963 Hjelt 264/1 13 Primary ExaminerDonald E. Czaja Assistant Examinerl-l. H. Fletcher Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Larson, Taylor & Hinds 1 5 7] ABSTRACT Multi-ply paper board or sheet is produced by forming plies individually at ply-forming stations by dryforming techniques, and then transferring the formed plies to a main forming surface to produce the multiply product. The plies are consolidated by hot moist pressing before being transferred.

8 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures PATENTEB SEP-] 6 I975 S'iiZET 1 OF 3 PATENTED SEP I 6 I975 SHEET 3 BF 3 11 MULTl-PLY narrows spams This invention concerns a method of and apparatus for making multi-ply fibrous sheets or webs and in particular is concerned with the manufacture of fibrous sheets or webs using the so-called dry forming method in which fibres in a substantially dry state are formed into webs and are bound into a sheet using a binder or adhesive rather than or in addition to the conventional wet forming process in which fibres are bonded together by natural hydrogen bonding the web having been cast from prepared stock having a high water content e.g. of the order of 99%v The advantages of dry paper-forming are well known and it has previously been proposed to form paper sheets or boards of one or two plies by depositing dry fibres onto a supporting surface and bonding these fibres with a binder to form a coherent sheet or web. A single-ply layer is relatively easy to form and a multiply sheet consisting of two or perhaps three plies can be formed by depositing the fibres directly on top of the previously formed ply using fibres suspended in a gas stream.

If it is desired to produce folding boxboard, many such plies may be required. For example eight gm. plies could be deposited to make a ZOOgsm (grams per square meter) board. The machine can become quite large for so many plies. Furthermore the machine will be even larger if it is desired to place barrier materials between plies since this will space the heads depositing fibres yet further apart. Drying the multi-ply sheet after application of aqueous binders can also be a problem since an otherwise small and compact machine can be rendered large and cumbersome by the need for large diameter driers which are required to dry the whole multi-ply sheet at once.

The present invention seeks to provide an alternative method of making a milti-ply fibrous sheet or web using the dry paper-making technique and provides a method and apparatus which can be used to form a sheet or web of as many plies as is desired whilst reducing the overall size of the machine and reducing the size of the components e.g. drying cylinders used.

According to one aspect of the present invention there is provided a method of making multi-ply fibrous sheets or webs comprising passing a gas stream containing suspended fibres, through an auxiliary permeable forming surface to form a fibrous layer thereon, and subsequently transferring said fibrous layer onto a main forming surface on which the multi-ply sheet is to be formed.

Preferably the method comprises consolidating the formed fibrous layer on the auxiliary forming surface. This may be done by passing the formed layer with binder through a pressure nip to subject the web to hot moist pressing.

The fibrous layer may be sprayed with a binder following its deposition on said auxiliary permeable forming surface or it may have dry binder mixed therewith and may then be subsequently water sprayed. Yet again the fibres may be impregnated with a binder, dried and used for dry-laying, being subsequently water sprayed.

The method may also comprise applying a vacuumto the face of said auxilliary forming surface remote from that on which the fibres are to be deposited, to urge the fibres into web forming contact therewith.

A plurality of plies of the multi-ply sheet may be formed by the same method and are applied to a common main forming surface. The main forming surface may be an endless band on which the multi-ply sheet is formed and from which it is removed after formation. Alternatively the main forming surface may be a scrim sheet or board to which the fibrous layer is transferred, the scrim sheet or board forming an integral part of the finished product.

The fibrous layers may be applied to opposed sides of the scrim sheet or board and may be adhered thereto by a binder.

The sheet on the main forming surface may be sprayed with further binder before or after each fibrous layer has been deposited thereon, and is subsequently passed through a further pressure nip.

According to another aspect of the present invention there is provided apparatus for making a multi-ply fibrous sheet or web comprising a main forming surface, an auxiliary permeable forming surface, means for passing a gas stream containing suspended fibres. through the auxiliary permeable forming surface to form a fibrous layer thereon, and means for transferring said fibrous layer from the auxiliary forming surface to said main forming surface.

A pressure nip or nips may be provided on the auxiliary and/or main forming surface for consolidating the layer by hot wet pressing the web.

The apparatus may include means for spraying binder on said fibrous layer on said auxiliary forming surface and/or on the main forming surface or may include means for adding dry binder to the fibre and subsequently spraying water.

The auxiliary forming surface preferably includes a vacuum box on the face of the surface remote from the source of gas containing suspended fibres.

A preferred embodiment of the present apparatus includes a plurality of ply forming units. an endless common main forming surface on which the multi-ply or coated sheet is formed, and means for removing the finished product from the main forming surface.

The apparatus may however comprise a feed device and reel-up unit for scrim sheet or board which is to form the main forming surface.

The invention is illustrated merely by way of example in the accompanying drawings in which,

FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 are diagrammatic views of three alternative forms of apparatus according to the present invention.

Referring to FIG. 1 apparatus for forming a multi-ply sheet comprises an endless wire or fabric 10 onto which a lSOgsm multi-ply sheet is to be formed from three ply stations A, B and C each making a SOgsm web. The stations are identical and only one will be described. Referring to station A this comprises an endless wire 11 having an horizontal section passing between fibre dispensing heads 12 and 13 and a vacuum box 14. Dry fibres of 10% moisture content mechanical wood pulp mixed with 4% dry starch are deposited on the wire 11 in an air stream to form a random web of fibre and starch. The web is sprayed with water by sprays 15 to provide a moisture content of 35%. The moist web is consolidated by being subjected to hot pressing by passage around the surface of a stream-heated cylinder 20 of surface temperature 240F. Two pressure hips are provided by rollers 21 and 22 pressing against cylinder 20 with a pressure of 250 lb/inch. The consolidated web is dried as it passes around the cylinder to take-off roll 24 where it has a moisture content of 2()25 /r. This formed consolidated web is transferred to the wire 10. A vacuum box may be placed below wire to assist in this transfer.

I A similar dry laid web is formed in device B and is transferred onto the top of the dry laid web upon wire 10. A vacuum box below wire 10 may assist the trans- ,fer. A third dry-laid web is produced in device C and is transferred onto the top of the first two webs to provide a three ply product.

Further binder may be sprayed between the plies by sprays 25 and 26 and further pressure nips can be provided to press these plies into a multi-ply sheet.

The sheet so formed can be treated by size presses and surface spraying in conventional manner to provide the characteristics desired in the final sheet.

It will be appreciated that, with this arrangement much of the moisture added to the fibrous webs has been removed within the forming devices before the webs reach the main forming wire 10.

The present device could be preferable to one in which all ISOgsm are deposited in one layer before endeavouring to consolidate and dry the layer since one very large drying cylinder would be required and this could be a disadvantage compared with a number of smaller cylinders. Furthermore the present machine facilitates the use of different furnishes in the plies and the use of different binders, inter-ply agents and barrier properties and more flexibility in weights and production outputs. Differing ply characteristics can of course be achieved by varying the temperature and pressure of each consolidating cylinder in each device A, B, C,

whereby sheets of differing strength and/or bulk can be formed. Flexibility of this nature is not so readily available where a single ply, 'even from a number of heads, is deposited before consolidation and drying.

Referring to FIG. 2 this is similar to FIG. 1 but demonstrates an alternative arrangement in which a bank of ply stations is arranged to provide, in this case, a four-ply sheet.

Four identical devices for forming dry-laid webs are used, identified as P Q R and S. Each device is identical with the devices A B and C of FIG. 1. The parts of device P have been numbered in the same way as the corresponding parts of device A of FIG. 1. A minor difference in device P is the addition of a further pressure roll 23 defining a further pressure nip with cylinder 20.

The process parameters detailed with reference to FIG. 1 are in use in these devices whereby each device P Q R S produces a 50gsm consolidated, dry-laid web of fibres.

The webs from devices P and Q are combined at rolls 40, 41 which press the webs together to form a two ply web 44. Sets of pressure rolls 42, 43 effect further pressing.

The webs from devices R and S are transferred from their respective forming bands onto the opposite surfaces of the two ply web 44 at rolls 45, 46 respectively. A four ply web 47 results from this laminating.

The same details and variations of fibre, binder and process parameters as detailed in FIG. 1 description can be employed here. Thus four SOgsm plies can be formed to provide a ZOUgsm final sheet. Four pressure nips per cylinder are shown here, each applying 250 lb/inch. Water or binder or indeed any solution provid- 4 ing barrier properties may be sprayed betwecn plies by sprays 30, 31, 32.

The weight of each ply on either of the above machines may be from 20 to lOOgsm, thereby providing a final sheet of from 60 to 300gsm for a three-ply and from 80 to 4()()gsm for a four-plysheet.

A possible disadvantage of the embodiments of FIGS. I and 2 for some uses is the existence, on both outer faces of the finished product, of the wire mark or wire surface of the product. Conventionally made products have only one wire side but in the products of FIGS. 1 and 2 both faces will be wire faces.

The disadvantage can be overcome by hot -moist pressing the finished product to hot roll or iron the wire marks. An alternative is to hot moist press each ply to hot roll or iron each ply before laminating together. This is done by adding to each consolidating cylinder e.g. 20 a plain heated metal roller which cooperates directly with the surface of cylinder 20 to form a hot plain metal pressure nip. As described in our copending application 32098/72 the wire mark is removed by this technique. Also considerable strength can be developed.

Yet a further arrangement for avoiding wire markings is shown in FIG. 3. In this arrangement, two devices X and Y are employed. Each is identical with device A of FIG. 1. Each device produces a SOgsm dry laid web which is consolidated on the respective cylinders 20. Web 50 is produced on device X. Web 51 is produced on device Y. These webs combine in pressure nip 53 to form a two ply web 52.

This two ply web may, pass on to coating and finishing units or may be combined with other similarly formed webs to produce a larger multi-ply wcb.

With this arrangement, the outer surfaces of the plies will not be wire sides of the web but rather the surfaces formed against the respective heated cylinders 20. The wire sides of each ply will be innermost. The wire mark even on these faces may be reduced or removed by the use of a hot press roll as described above.

The present invention provides a useful alternative method of producing a multi-ply board in which each ply of the board is deposited independently on its own forming wire or surface before being transferred to the main forming surface on which the multi-ply sheet is to be formed. A particular advantage of this is that each ply is dried independently and thus smaller drying cylinders can be used, providing a more compact machine. A further important advantage is that the characteristics of each ply can be determined more readily, since each can be determined before laminating to the next rather than working on the finally formed multiply shcet to produce the desired characteristics.

It will be appreciated that many variations on the basic invention set forth above can be effected without departing from the scope of the present invention.

Where particular barrier properties are required, such properties could be produced by extruding a film of plastics material for example polyethylene film between plies. Thus in the embodiment of FIG. 2 a polyethylene extruder could take the place of spray head 30. Indeed such extruders could take the place of each of the heads 30, 31, 32 if particularly complex materials are required.

Rather than spray binder between consecutive plies in the above formation, any other material can be sprayed to provide the final board with rigidity or other properties e.g. fire resistance. Also, particularly when binder is sprayed between the plies, a further pressure nip can be provided between ply stations to further compress the board to form a good coherent sheet.

In the embodiments described above the main forming surface has been an endless wire or fabric from which the final product is removed and reeled-up after formation. In alternative embodiments of the present invention which are not illustrated the main forming surface can be a scrim sheet or board (e.g. wet-laid) onto which the plies or fibrous sheets from the forming stations are deposited to form with the scrim sheet or board an integral product. Thus the supporting surface can be a permeable scrim to which each layer is adhered by binder which is sprayed onto the scrim before each ply station. Alternatively a reel of paper or board which may have been wet-laid can be passed adjacent each forming station to have deposited thereon a fibrous layer which is subsequently sprayed and bonded e.g. to form a flocked or other surface finish to the board or sheet. To coat a sheet or board in this way an unwind device and a reel-up unit will be required for the sheet or board which effectively provides the main forming surface for the new product. Flock or metal fibres or indeed any other fibrous substance can be coated onto a board in this way.

Any suitable fibrous material can be formed into a multi-ply sheets or coated onto another base board by any of the methods described above. In forming a multi-ply sheet or board cellulose fibres could be suspended in air and the binder used could be starch to form a finished multi-ply product similar in properties to that made by conventional paper and board techniques.

With the present invention one is provided with the facility to make and dry efficiently, heavy fibrous sheets. Also in such sheets the plies can be of any fibre and the ply characteristics can be varied readily from ply to ply. Also inter-ply characteristics can be achieved with sprays. A versatile machine is provided for efficient multi-ply sheet production.

What we claim is:

l. A method of making multi-ply paper board or sheet comprising forming the plies individually by passing gas streams containing suspended paper-forming fibres. through auxiliary permeable forming surfaces at separate ply-forming stations to form individual fibrous layers thereon. consolidating the layers individually at their respective ply-forming stations by moistening the layers and passing the fibrous layers with binder through heated pressure nips to subject them individually to hot moist pressing and subsequently transferring said consolidated fibrous layers onto a main forming surface on which the multi-ply board or sheet is formed.

2. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein each fibrous layer is sprayed with an aqueous binder following its deposition on the respective auxiliary permeable forming surface.

3. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the fibrous layer has dry binder mixed therewith and after deposition on the surface is subsequently watersprayed.

4. A method as claimed in claim 1 comprising applying a vacuum to the face of said auxiliary forming surface remote from that on which the fibres are deposited, to urge the fibres into web forming contact therewith.

5. A method of making multi-ply paper board or sheet by transferring a ply from a ply-forming station to a main forming surface on which the multi-ply board or sheet is formed. wherein the method comprises forming the ply at the ply-forming station by passing a gas stream containing suspended! fibres through an auxiliary permeable forming surface to form a fibrous layer thereon, and consolidating the layer by moistening the layer and passing the fibrous layer with binder through a heated pressure nip to subject the layer to hot moist pressing. before it is transferred to the main forming surface.

6. A method as claimed in claim 5 wherein the formed fibrous layer is sprayed with an aqueous binder.

7. A method as claimed in claim 5 wherein the fibrous layer has dry binder mixed therewith and after deposition on the surface is subsequently watersprayed.

8. A method as claimed in claim 5 comprising applying suction to the face of said auxiliary forming surface remote from that on which the fibres are deposited, to

urge the fibres into webforming contact therewith.

Claims (8)

1. A METHOD OF MAKING MULTI-PLY PAPER BOARD OR SHEET COMPRISING FORMING THE PLIES INDIVIDUALLY BY PASSING GAS STREAMS CONTAINING SUSPENDED PAPER-FOMING FIBRES, THROUGH AUXILIARY PERMEABLE FORMING SURFACES AT SEPARATE PLY-FORMING STATIONS TO FORM INDIVIDUAL FIBROUS LAYERS THEREON, CONSOLIDATING THE LAYERS INDIVIDUALLY AT THEIR RESPECTIVE PLY-FORMING STATIONS BY MOISTENING THE LAYERS AND PASSING THE FIBROUS LAYERS WITH BINDER THROUGH HEATED PRESSURE NIPS TO SUBJECT THEM INDIVIDUALLY TO HOT MOIST PRESSING AND SUBSEQUENTLY TRANSFER-
2. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein each fibrous layer is sprayed with an aqueous binder following its deposition on the respective auxiliary permeable forming surface.
3. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the fibrous layer has dry binder mixed therewith and after deposition on the surface is subsequently water-sprayed.
4. A method as claimed in claim 1 comprising applying a vacuum to the face of said auxiliary forming surface remote from that on which the fibres are deposited, to urge the fibres into web forming contact therewith.
5. A method of making multi-ply paper board or sheet by transferring a ply from a ply-forming station to a main forming surface on which the multi-ply board or sheet is formed, wherein the method comprises forming the ply at the ply-forming station by passing a gas stream containing suspended fibres through an auxiliary permeable forming surface to form a fibrous layer thereon, and consolidating the layer by moistening the layer and passing the fibrous layer with binder through a heated pressure nip to subject the layer to hot moist pressing, before it is transferred to the main forming surface.
6. A method as claimed in claim 5 wherein the formed fibrous layer is sprayed with an aqueous binder.
7. A method as claimed in claim 5 wherein the fibrous layer has dry binder mixed therewith and after deposition on the surface is subsequently water-sprayed.
8. A method as claimed in claim 5 comprising applying suction to the face of said auxiliary forming surface remote from that on which the fibres are deposited, to urge the fibres into web-forming contact therewith.
US3905864A 1972-09-09 1973-08-21 Multi-ply fibrous sheets Expired - Lifetime US3905864A (en)

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GB4196072A GB1430760A (en) 1972-09-09 1972-09-09 Multi-ply fibrous sheets
GB4195872A GB1435703A (en) 1972-09-09 1972-09-09 Multi-ply paper and paperboard

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US3905864A Expired - Lifetime US3905864A (en) 1972-09-09 1973-08-21 Multi-ply fibrous sheets

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DE (2) DE2342811C3 (en)
DK (1) DK133992C (en)
ES (1) ES418614A1 (en)
FI (1) FI56982C (en)
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Cited By (20)

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US4046622A (en) * 1973-08-23 1977-09-06 Karl Kroyer St. Anne's Limited Multi-ply fibrous sheets having a wet-laid ply and a dry-laid ply
US3976412A (en) * 1974-07-16 1976-08-24 Karl Kroyer St. Anne's Limited Apparatus for making fibrous sheet material
US4089740A (en) * 1976-01-30 1978-05-16 Conwed Corporation Apparatus for applying secondary layer on board surface
US4202851A (en) * 1976-06-18 1980-05-13 Kroyer K K K Method of preparing a sheet-formed product
US4292360A (en) * 1980-03-05 1981-09-29 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Pressure sensitive adhesive tape
WO1983000888A1 (en) * 1981-09-10 1983-03-17 Kroyer, Karl, Kristian, Kobs Multilayered fibrous product
US5023027A (en) * 1984-02-03 1991-06-11 Casimir Kast Gmbh & Co., Kg Process for producing fibrous mats as a starting material for compression moulded articles
US4961810A (en) * 1986-03-27 1990-10-09 Paul Svensson Method for the vertical manufacture of sandwich structural elements
US4805269A (en) * 1987-01-22 1989-02-21 Hergeth Hollingsworth Gmbh Apparatus for producinhg fibrous webs of superposed web layers
US4910830A (en) * 1987-01-22 1990-03-27 Hergeth Hollingsworth Gmbh Process for producing fibrous webs of superposed web layers
US4795335A (en) * 1987-07-20 1989-01-03 Johnson & Johnson Multi-headed ductless webber
US5023126A (en) * 1987-10-02 1991-06-11 Fort Howard Corporation Composite towels and method for making composite towels
US6699361B1 (en) * 1999-09-07 2004-03-02 Metso Paper Karlstad Ab Papermaking device for producing a multilayer liner and associated methods
US6592713B2 (en) * 2000-12-18 2003-07-15 Sca Hygiene Products Ab Method of producing a nonwoven material
US20040244927A1 (en) * 2001-06-06 2004-12-09 Fabienne Pianta Method for manufacturing a multi-layered pulp product comprising a filler between layers
US20050072541A1 (en) * 2001-12-19 2005-04-07 Antti Heikkinen Sizing method for board
US20050109448A1 (en) * 2003-11-21 2005-05-26 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Method for changing the orientation of the plies within a multi-ply product
US7033453B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2006-04-25 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Method for changing the orientation of the plies within a multi-ply product
WO2015166426A1 (en) * 2014-04-29 2015-11-05 Stora Enso Oyj Process for producing at least one ply of a paper or board and a paper or board produced according to the process
EP2985375A1 (en) 2014-08-12 2016-02-17 Glatfelter Gernsbach GmbH Dispersible non-woven fabric and method for producing the same

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
NL7312109A (en) 1974-03-12 application
BE804631A1 (en) grant
DK133992C (en) 1977-01-31 grant
CA981080A (en) 1976-01-06 grant
DE2342811B2 (en) 1977-10-06 application
CA991901A (en) 1976-06-29 grant
CA991901A1 (en) grant
DE2342810B2 (en) 1976-05-06 application
DE2342811A1 (en) 1974-03-14 application
GB1435703A (en) 1976-05-12 application
ES418614A1 (en) 1976-06-16 application
FR2199035A1 (en) 1974-04-05 application
FI56982C (en) 1980-05-12 grant
DK133992B (en) 1976-08-23 grant
DE2342811C3 (en) 1978-05-24 grant
FI56982B (en) 1980-01-31 application
LU68372A1 (en) 1973-11-12 application
BE804631A (en) 1974-01-02 grant
DE2342810A1 (en) 1974-03-14 application
CA981080A1 (en) grant
US3954554A (en) 1976-05-04 grant
GB1430760A (en) 1976-04-07 application
FR2199035B1 (en) 1978-01-27 grant

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