US3905268A - Reeds for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwinds - Google Patents

Reeds for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwinds Download PDF

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US3905268A
US3905268A US46983174A US3905268A US 3905268 A US3905268 A US 3905268A US 46983174 A US46983174 A US 46983174A US 3905268 A US3905268 A US 3905268A
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reed
pair
vamp section
formed
tip
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John G Gamble
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John G Gamble
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D9/00Details of, or accessories for, wind musical instruments
    • G10D9/02Mouthpieces; Reeds ; Ligatures
    • G10D9/023Reeds

Abstract

A reed is provided which is particularly suited for employment in saxophones, clarinets and other woodwinds. The reed comprises a thin elastic tongue of suitable material which is fastened at one end to the mouthpiece of a musical instrument and is set in vibration by the breath of the musician. The reed is operable as a semi-restrained excitation mechanism for the generating and sustaining of standing longitudinal sound waves in the tuned pipes of woodwinds. The cross section and sagittal section of the reed coact in the distribution of mass so as to maximize the incremental stiffness to inertial mass ratio, thus affording ease of control by the musician. In addition, the distribution of mass is such as to provide the designed selective elaboration of preferred overtones which give quality to the voice of the instrument. The reed consists of a generally elongated member which is provided at one end with a heel or boot which is the portion thereof that is designed to be fastened to the mouthpiece of the instrument, and at the other end thereof with a rounded tip. Extending from the rounded tip of the reed along a portion of the length thereof the side edges of the reed are in the form of rails. Intermediate the length thereof the reed is provided with a transversely extending shoulder. The stock of the reed extends from the aforementioned shoulder rearwardly to the heel of the reed while the vamp of the reed comprises that portion of the latter which extends forward of the shoulder to the rounded tip of the reed. The vamp is arched sagittally and in cross section resembles a bow. By virtue of the arch with which the vamp is provided the embouchure force is distributed laterally to the edge of the vamp as well as axially thereof. The result is that this serves to constrain and position the spring biased tip of the reed.

Description

United States Patent [1 1 Gamble [4 1 Sept. 16, 1975 REEDS FOR SAXOPHONES, CLARINETS AND OTHER WOODWINDS [76] Inventor: John G. Gamble, 75 Library Ln.,

' Simsbury, Conn. 06070 [22] Filed: May 14, 1974 [21] Appl. No.: 469,831

Primary ExaminerLawrence R. Franklin [57] ABSTRACT A reed is provided which is particularly suited for employment in Saxophones, clarinets and other woodwinds. The reed comprises a thin elastic tongue of suitable material which is fastened at one end to the mouthpiece of a musical instrument and is set in vibration by the breath of the musician. The reed is operable as a semi-restrained excitation mechanism for the generating and sustaining of standing longitudinal sound waves in the tuned pipes of Woodwinds. The cross section and sagittal section of the reed coact in the distribution of mass so as to maximize the incremental stiffness to inertial mass ratio, thus affording ease of control by the musician. In addition, the distribution of mass is such as to provide the designed selective elaboration of preferred overtones which give quality to the voice of the instrument. The reed consists of a generally elongated member which is provided at one end with a heel or boot which is the portion thereof that is designed to be fastened to the mouthpiece of the instrument, and at the other end thereof with a rounded tip. Extending from the rounded tip of the reed along a portion of the length thereof the side edges of the reed are in the form of rails. Intermediate the length thereof the reed is provided with a transversely extending shoulder The stock of the reed extends from the aforementioned shoulder rearwardly to the heel of the reed while the vamp of the reed comprises that portion of the latter which extends forward of the shoulder to the rounded tip of the reed. The vamp is arched sagittally and in cross section resembles a bow. By virtue of the arch with which the vamp is provided the embouchure force is distributed laterally to the edge of the vamp as well as axially thereof. The result is that this serves to constrain and position the spring biased tip of the reed.

5 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures PATENTEB SW5 3, 905,268

SHEET 2 UP 2 FIG.1O

REEDS FOR SAXOPHONES, CLARINETS AND OTHER WOODWINDS BACKGROUND THE INVENTION through which the aforereferenced three qualities are capable of being achieved which would also be applicable to all reeds for all reed-blown instruments. In summary, there has existed a need to provide a reed construction which represents a novel departure from clas- 1 sical reed contour and which, when taken in conjuncquite superior to those of reeds made from synthetic plastic or other composite materials as fabricated here to date. The nature of the cane reeds however is such that selection and alteration of the reeds is a necessary craft which goes hand in hand with the practice of the music art. Moreover, a properly selected and fashioned reed may serve well for a matter of hours, then soften or fracture or otherwise fail to function properly.

The many efforts to extend the useful life of a sound generating reed have led to the fabrication .of reeds from synthetic materials or composite materials. More specifically, in some cases these reeds have been comprised of plastic alone. In other instances, the reeds have been formed of a material wherein plastic fibers are dispersed in a plastic matrix, or some other form of composite is utilized. Regardless of the particular method of fabrication which has been utilized, the object nevertheless in each case has been to attempt to attain the quality of sound produced through the use of a suitable natural fiber and configuration while concomitantly extending the useful life of a dependable reed. Some measure of success has been achieved through these efforts in extending the life of a reed by presenting an impervious barrier to the degrading effects of moisture and saliva to which the reed is subjected during use in its natural environment.

The quality of sound, as well as the range of fluctuation attainable however from such synthetic or composite reeds cannot favorably be compared with the natural fiber reeds. More specifically, the upper range of overblown octaves is unattainable and some very high frequency partials arepresent in significant amplitudes to detract from the musical quality sought by the exacting artist. The physical reasons for thesedeficiencies involve in part the stiffness to mass ratio thereof,

namely the increment of the latter which exists at equivalent distances along the vamp of the reed when compared to the natural reed. This results in reducing the response of the reed which drives the vibrating resonant column at any frequency, which in turn reduces the energy of the desired partials and limits the range of the upper fundamentals as overblown. .To date then, synthetic reeds have attained durability at the expense of range and the quality of sound ex pected as pleasing to the ear. There has thus existed a need to providea reed which is capable of achieving all three qualities in a simple and most inexpensive fashion. Moreover, it has been desired to provide a reed construction which when applied to a natural fiber reed would be effective to also improve its range and quality of sound during its rather brief life. More specifically, it has been desired to devise a construction for a reed tion with a preferred selection of elastic materials, coacts to effect an increase in the incremental stiffness/- mass ratio, by in effect removing reed mass which would not be subject to working stress maximally during its flexure in cycling as a sound generatorresonator,

.Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a synthetic reed for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments which is capable of duplicating the sound characteristics of a natural fiber reed while extending the useful life thereof.

It is another object of the present invention to provide such a synthetic reed for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments which can be manufactured in a simple manner in large quantities with a high degree of dimensional reproducibility at low cost.

A further object of the present invention is to provide such a synthetic reed for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments which during the finishing step of fabrication affords the musician the latitude of enhancing any particular desired range and depth of tonality within the physical limits of elastic modulus, material density and distribution of tension and compression elements.

A still further object of the present invention is to provide such a synthetic reed for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments which will not readily oscillate in a squeal mode.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide such a synthetic reed for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments which is contoured to coact with the mouthpiece of the musical instrument as a most efficient air foil so as to maximize the force acting upon the reed to displace it by maximizing the velocity pressure drop for a given pressure differential across the lip of the mouthpiece and tip face of the reed.

Yet another object of the present invention is to provide such a synthetic reed for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments which embodies an increased capacity for the storage of potential energy, in the manner of a full working recurved archers bow for a given displacement which results in greater projection without loss of musical quality.

Yet still another object of the present invention is to provide such a synthetic reed for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments which embodies a construction, the principles of which may be applied to a natural reed to improve the latters range and quality of sound during its rather brief life, and which in addition may also be applied to all reeds for all reed-blown musical instruments.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It has now been found that the foregoing and related objectives can be readily attained in a synthetic reed particularly suited for employment in saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments. The reed is designed for its dynamic properties since the reed is effectively the pressure to sound transducer which generates music by adding in-phase energy to a standing sonic wave in a tuned pipe and further sustains the preferred overtones which contribute to the characteristic quality of the voice of a fine musical instrument. A properly designed reed capable of responding to the required driving frequencies, i.e., fundamentals and partials, must not only have the frequency response, but also must provide as well a complete, non-leaking seal as a striking reed in cooperation with the rail, tip rail and table of the mouthpiece. Further, it will be found that the frequency of the tuned section of the pipe asplayed corresponds to the length of the reed which will response in-phase. This requires that the stress gradient vary uniformly, i.e., not necessarily linearly but without sharp transition, blending from the tip of the stock, i.e., root. A perfect reed would exhibit no dead bands, i.e., notes that required higher mouth air pressure to attain an equal or balanced sound energy level or level of projection. The reed of the present invention is characterized by a construction in which there is provided a streamlined relieving of the underside of the vamp area of the reed. Moreover, where stiffness is found to be inadequate, ribbing may be left intact in the otherwise relieved area, or if necessary ribbing may even be added thereto. The net effect of the aforedescribed construction is to move the center of gravity of the reed toward the vamp surface, namely, in essence there is a skewing of the mean fiber toward the vamp surface which for a given inertial mass at a radius from the shoulder provided in the under-surface of the reed, supports a higher beam loading in the transverse axis of the reed. If the stiffness at the point of embouchure to reed pressure which governs the space between the reed tip and the mouthpiece tip is inadequate, the normal playing pressure of the musicians embouchure will merely close the reed to the mouthpiece of the instrument and the reed will fail to vibrate. To increase this stiffness, the thickness of the reed must be increased at this point, but with a corresponding gutting in the air foil beneath the vamp while maintaining a thin tip section and a complete sea] at closure of the mouthpiece. In accord with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a reed is constructed wherein in developing the contour thereof stiffness of the reed is a requirement with a uniform stress gradient also being a concomitant requisite. In its completed form, the reed with or without a stiffening rib or ribs, presents a cross sectional arch or body which coacts with a saggital sectional body to project a stiff member of low inertial mass out from the stock, and more particularly out from the shoulder formed in the reed, to a tip which represents an increased beam loading in the transverse axis of the reed. The resulting structure is the flat spring equivalent of an I beam..ln addition, such a structure has an increase response frequency, which in plastic approaches that of a cane fiber reed with an extended life. Moreover, a natural fiber reed which has been constructed in the aforedescribed manner and plastic-sealed against moisture will also exhibit improved properties. Still further, such materials as micro-deposited boron filaments may be distributed in a suitable plastic matrix to further improve the stiffness to mass ratio of the reed. Finally, reeds which are so contoured are capable of being molded with great precision. Therefore, it is possible to achieve great repeatability in quantity at low cost. This in turn functions to separate the craft of reed fabrication from the artist.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a portion of the mouthpiece of a musical instrument illustrated with a reed constructed in accordance with the present invention fastened thereto;

FIG. 2 is a cross sectional view of a portion of the mouthpiece of a musical instrument having a reed constructed in accordance with the present invention fastened thereto, illustrated positioned in the mouth of a musician;

FIG. 3 is a top plan view of one embodiment of a reed constructed in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 4 is a side elevational view of the reed of FIG. 3 constructed in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 5 is a side elevational view partially in section of the reed of FIG. 3 illustrating the internal structure thereof constructed in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 6 is a cross sectional view of one embodiment of a reed constructed in accordance with the present invention taken substantially along the line 66 in FIG. 4;

FIG. 7 is a top plan view of a portion of another embodiment of reed constructed in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 8 is a cross sectional view of another embodiment of reed constructed in accordance with the present invention taken substantially along the line 8'8 of FIG. 7;

FIG. 9 is a cross sectional view of a double reed constructed in accordance with the present invention taken substantially along the line 99 in FIG. 10; and FIG. 10 is a top plan view of a portion of a double reed constructed in accordance with the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE ILLUSTRATED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to the drawings and more particularly to FIGS. 1 and 2 thereof, there is illustrated therein the embouchure, i.e., mouthpiece, generally designated by reference numeral 10, of a musical instrument. The embouchure 10 illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2 of the drawings is of a single reed type such as used in a saxophone or clarinet and is depicted with a reed 12 fastened thereto. Although for purposes of setting forth a description of the invention, an embouchure 10 having one particular form of construction has been depicted in the drawings, it is to be understood that the reed l2 constructed in accordance with the present invention is not limited in its applicability solely to the embouchure 10. Rather, the principles of construction which are utilized in the reed 12 are also capable of being applied to reeds which are employable with embouchures differing in dimensions and/or configuration from that of the embouchure 10. Inasmuch as the nature of the construction of the embouchure 10 is only indirectly related to the subject matter of the present invention, it has not been deemed necessary in order to obtain an understanding of the present invention to describe in detail hereinafter the nature of the entire structure which is embodied in the embouchure 10. Instead, it has been deemed sufficient to merely describe briefly the mode of operation of the embouchure 10 and the manner in which the reed 12 is intended to coact therewith in order to produce the desired result from the musical instrument of which the embouchure constitutes the mouthpiece. As is well known to those skilled in the field of music, the function of the reed 12 is to modulate the stream of air which enters the embouchure 10, i.e., the mouthpiece of the musical instrument, in such a way as to excite and maintain the vibrations in the tube (not shown) with which the embouchure 10 is cooperatively associated. A single reed 12 is employed with clarinets and saxophones. These instruments utilize a rigid embouchure of the type which has been illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2 of the drawings. One side 14 of the embouchure 10 is nearly flat and is commonly known as the lay. The other side 16 of the embouchure 10 is tapered so that the two sides meet at an angle of 30 degrees. In the flattened side 14 of the embouchure 10 there is provided an oblong opening 18 communicating with the bore 20. The reed 12 comprises a thin elastic tongue of suitable material which is thinned at one end 22. The reed 12 is fastened with its thickest end 24 positioned at the right-hand end of the embouchure 10 as viewed with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2 of the drawings by means of the screw ligature 26. The latter consists of the band 28 and a threaded screw 30. More specifically, the reed 12 is fastened to the embouchure 10 so as to cover the opening 18 and reach to the left end of the embouchure 10 as viewed with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2 of the drawings. The reed 12 at the latter end of the embouchure 10 is thin and flexible and is spaced at a small distance from the embouchure 10 as best understood with reference to FIG. 2 of the drawings. The distance by which the reed is spaced from the embouchure 10 gradually decreases to zero in moving along the length of the reed 12 to the right as viewed with reference to FIG. 2 of the drawings.

As a result of the aforedescribed construction, a passage is created from the musicians mouth, the latter being schematically depicted at 32 in FIG. 2 of the drawings, to the instrument, and more particularly the embouchure 10 thereof. As best understood with reference to FIG. 1 of the drawings, the aforementioned passage consists of a nearly rectangular portion 34 located between the left hand side of the embouchure 10 and the tip 22 of the reed 12 which is flanked by a pair of wedge-shaped passages 36, only one of which is visible in FIG. 1 of the drawings. When in action, reed 12 moves to and from the embouchure 10, decreasing and increasing the height of the passages 34 and 36, thus varying the stream of air there through.

There are some instruments (not shown), such as the oboe and bassoon, which are sounded by means of a double reed. The principles of construction which are utilized in the reed 12 are also capable of being embodied in a double reed. One embodiment of a double reed constructed in accordance with the present invention, generally designated by reference numeral 76 has been depicted in FIGS. 9 and 10 of the drawings and reference will be had thereto more particularly hereinafter.

In conjunction with reference to FIGS. 3-6 of the drawings, there will now be set forth a description of the manner in which the contour of the reed 12 is determined. The configuration of the reed 12 can be described mathematically in a sense. More specifically, to a first approximation a reed which properly unwraps or rolls around the face 14 of the embouchure 10 may be defined as a function of acoustic pressure in the following manner. The bending moment of the reed 12 is defined by the following formula:

Where:

M is the bending moment of the reed at point X measured along the length of the reed; W is the width of the reed; P is the pressure being applied to the outer surface of the reed; P is the pressure being applied to the inner surface of the reed; X is the length of the reed measured from the tip to a point along the length of the reed to which the bending moment is to be determined.

By employing the following formula the moment of inertia of the reed 12 taken at a given cross section is capable of being calculated:

Where:

J, is the moment of inertia of the cross section of the C is the curvature of the reed defined in radians per centimeter; M is the bending moment of the reed;

E is Youngs modulus; J is the moment of inertia of a cross section of the reed; P is the pressure being applied to the outer surface of the reed; P is the pressure being applied to the inner surface of the reed; X is the length of the reed measured from the tip to a point along the length of the reed whereat the curvature is being calculated; Y is the vertical dimension of the reed. For a constant curvature of the reed 12 the following formula is utilized:

(4) Where:

Y is the vertical dimension of the reed at a point along the length of the reed; K is a constant; X is the length of the reed measured from the tip to a point therealong whereat the vertical dimension is being determined. The aforereferenced formulas provide a means of determining the correct profile of the reed 12 with the stiffness level thereof being determined by the values of E and J at the shoulder 44 of the reed 12 as a result of which in terms of stiffness there may be provided reeds which are characterized as being hard, medium or soft. Synthetic reeds, even the stiffest known, embodying the conventional configuration have a specific gravity higher than natural cane reeds. Therefore, assuming the existence of a superior synthetic material of equal flexural modulus to that of cane, synthetic reeds formed of plastic of conventional contour will not be as responsive as the fibrocellular construction of natural cane. By increasing the stiffness and/or reducing mass by form factor it is possible to equate the behaviour of a synthetic reed with a natural cane reed since the natural frequency of the reed is directly proportional to its stiffness and inversely proportional to its mass.

For four full octave range of a saxophone, for example, the stiffness/mass ratio of the reed is of particular importance since tip response initiates the overall phase response of the reed with respect to the acoustic pressure wave within the embouchure of the instrument. Musical quality is a function of this phase relationship in that the earlier in the rise of an acoustic pressure wave upon the inner aspect of the reed that the reed snaps open, the lower the value of the pressure acting on the inner surface of the reed relative to the air pressure in the mouth of the musician acting on the outer surface of the reed and, consequently, the higher the difference between the two pressures, the rate of mass flow and the amount of energy in the first burst of injected air to support the overtones as well as the initial fundamental. Examination of the relative pressures acting on the opposing surfaces of the reed will reveal the phase relationships and source of the strongest partials, which give character to the voice of the instrument. From a theoretical standpoint, the ideal reed possesses a stiffness whereby it is operable by the musicians embouchure approximately /2 inch to 4 inch from the reed tip and is mass less.

The above is best understood by comparing the reed to a flapper valve, the latter being actuated by the interplay of forces to alternately open and close the orifice in the embouchure of the instrument which is of an area having a given width. The lowest mass form to cover the area of such an orifice is a member which has a relatively small vertical dimension and which is elongated in the transverse direction so as to have a width corresponding to the width of the orifice. A member having such a configuration has low stiffness in the vertical axis. On the other hand, a member which is elongated in the vertical dimension and which has a relatively narrow width-has very high stiffness in the vertical axis but the width thereof is insufficient to cover the width of the area of the orifice in the embouchure.

Since the natural frequency of a vibrating reed is proportional to the stiffness thereof and inverse with respect to the mass thereof and the valve-like action thereof must be quick to follow pressure changes, a compromise must be reached with regard to the configuration of the reed requiring consideration primarily of the characteristics of the material from which the reed is formed. It is possible, bearing the above-described factors in mind, to arrive at an optimum geometry for a reed for each different type of material. More specifically, as noted above a member of small thickness and elongated width meets the minimum closure specification for a reed while a member of narrow width elongated in the vertical dimension meets the minimum stiffness specification for a reed. Therefore, if these two members are combined in an effort to provide a compromise structure, there is provided a combined member having an inverted T-shaped configuration. Where there is added to the above considerations the additional factor of minimizing the mass/stiffness of the reed symmetrically about the center of gravity thereof with respect to the shoulder 44 of the reed, members having several different configurations are developed. For example, the above referenced factors are met by a member having an inverted V-shaped configuration, or a member having the configuration of an archers bow, or a member having the external shape of an archer"s bow and in which an internal rib or web is provided substantially at the mid point thereof.

Insofar as a reed for a musical instrument is concerned, the mass thereof is of consequence with respect in time in the displacement of any segment of the reed in response to the net force, which is equivalent to the pressure acting on the outer surface of the reed minus the reed spring load at closure deflection, and the instantaneous acoustic force which is equal to the pressure in pounds per square inch times the area on which the pressure is acting, that are tending to accelerate the reed in conversion of its loaded potential energy. The reed is latched closed by the pressure differential of the fundamental with respect to mouth air pressure. This is commonly referred to as stick-slip and is analogous to the action of a conventional toggle switch wherein the reed is suddenly released to snap open to expose an inrush of air which is injected energy in support of the resonant tuned frequency and the generator of overtones or partials.

The stiffness of the reed, on the other hand, is of consequence in establishing the flat spring rate, namely, the force per displacement thereof. This potential energy stored in the deflected reed determines the release pressure differential of the latched reed and thereby the acoustic phase angle at which the initiation of the injection of augmenting air under pressure occurs. The

acoustic wave which is produced pulses in the embouchure. More particularly, the volume of the mouth functions as a resonant cavity which may or may not be in tune with overtones or high fundamentals to support the vibrations of the musical instrument out of phase and therefore in phase to augment the second injection of air as the acoustic wave is reflected and the pressure acting on the inner surface of the reed drops below the pressure acting on the outer surface of the reed.

It has been found that a bow tension reed l2 embodying the configuration depicted in FIGS. 3 6 of the drawings has a stiffness to mass ratio when formed from a resin marketed by Celanese Corporation which consists of glass coupled acetal copolymer G.C.-25 with a flexural modulus of l 1.0 X 10 psi and a specific gravity of 1.61 gm/cm is superior to a reed formed from natural cane fiber as well as being immuned to variations in environmental conditions. The reed 12 when used in a musical instrument has proven capable of yielding a brilliant-warm musical quality which is indicative of a richness of proper partials.

Referring now again to FIGS. 3 6 of the drawings, a description of the nature of the construction of the reed 12 will now be set forth. As depicted therein, the reed 12 embodies a bow tensioned construction. More particularly, the reed 12 comprises a thin elastic tongue formed from a synthetic material. At one end the reed 12 is provided with a relatively thin tip 22, while the other end 38 thereof, which is commonly referred to as the root, is relatively thick in cross section. The reed 12 in addition includes a number of other structural portions to which reference is had hereinafter and with reference being made thereto by the name which is commonly associated therewith by those skilled in the field of music. Namely, the reed l2 embodies a construction wherein there is provided a pair of rails, a pair of shoulders, a vamp, a table and a web. The rails of the reed 12 comprise the side edges 40 and 42 of the reed 12. As best understood with reference to FIG. 3 of the drawings, the side edges 40 and 42 of the reed 12 are tapered inwardly starting at the tip 22 and extending towards the root 38 thereof.. Moreover, as depicted in FIG. 4 of the drawings, the side rails 40 and 42 of the reed 12 are relatively thin in cross section particularly theportion thereof which exists between the tip 22 and the shoulder 44.-The latter shoulder 44 is located between the forward edge of the upper surface of the root 38 and the rear edge of the vamp 46, and is operable to define a separation between the upper surface of the root 38 and the upper surface of the vamp 46. AS shown in FIG. 3 of the drawings, the shoulder 44 extends transversely of the major axis of the reed 12 so as to reach the rail 40 to the rail 42 and so as to lie in a sagittal plane of the reed 12. It should be noted as illustrated in FIG. 4 of the drawings that not only is the upper surface of the vamp 46 arched between the rails 40 and 42 but also that the vamp 46 is tapered in a downwardly direction extending from the shoulder 44 to the tip 22.

Turning now to FIGS. and 6 of the drawings, reference will be had thereto for purposes of setting forth a description of the under-surface of the reed 12. As best understood with reference to FIG. 5, a second shoulder, i.e., shoulder 48, is provided on the under-surface of the reed 12 at a point substantially equally distant from the tip 22 and the rear edge of the root 38. The portion 50 of the reed 12 extending rearwardly of the shoulder 48, i.e., the portion of the reed 12 which extends to the right of the shoulder 48 as viewed with reference to FIG. 5 of the drawings, is known most commonly as the table of the reed 12. The table 50 is substantially flat and is designed as such to cooperate with the flattened side 14 of the enbouchure when the reed 12 is fastened to the latter by means of the screw ligature 26. Forward of the shoulder 48 extending to the tip of the reed '12 is found the undersurface of the vamp 46 which iss'tructurally configured in a manner which will now be described in more detail. As best understood with reference to FIGS. 3, 5 and 6 of the drawings, the under-surface of the vamp 46 is relieved in a streamlined manner so as to remove mass therefrom without reducing the stiffness of the reed 12. More particularly, the under-surface of the vamp 46 is relieved so as to form two cavities 52 and 54 therein.

The cavities 52 and 54 in turn are separated by a central web 56 which extends from the shoulder 48 and blends in with the tip 22 whereat it terminates. Thus, as depicted in FIG. 6 of the drawings, a cross section of the reed taken in a sagittal plane in the area of the vamp 46 resembles the configuration of an archers bow but with a central web 56 being provided internally of the vamp 46.

It is therefore to be noted that the reed 12 constructed in accordance with the present invention so as to embody the bow tensioned configuration which is illustrated in FIGS. 3 6 of the drawings includes various structural elements which may be identified as being essential to the provision of the necessary function of the striking reed as employed with suitable embouchure pressure by the musician in biasing the tip 22 of the reed 12 to an optimal clearance with'the tip rail 57 of the embouchure 10 for a given air pressure differential across the inner surface of the vamp 46 of the reed 12. The vamp 46 is arched sagitally and in cross section has a bow-like configuration. The arches of the bow which extend between the rails 40 and 42, the rail 40 and the central web 58, and the rail 42 and the central web 56 distribute the embouchure force acting on the vamp 46 laterally to the edges of the vamp 48 as well as axially to constrain and position the spring biased tip 22 of ,the reed 12. The edges of the vamp 46 may be slightly thickened for sealing the opening 18 in the embouchure 10 at closure and for providing mass at a position with respect to the center line of the distribution of mass in the reed 12 in order to maximize the efficiency of the use of mass alternately in tension and compression as the various lengths of the responding reed flex in synchronization with the resonant cycling of the sound pressure wave in the tuned pipe of the musical instrument. One material, as noted above, which has been found suitable for forming the reed 12 therefrom is a glass coupled acetal copolymer G.C.25 marketed by Celanese Corporation and which has a flexural modulus of 11.0 X 10 psi and a specific gravity of 1.61 gm/cm This material provides a highly favorable stiffness to mass ratio in a reinforced thermal plastic which may be injection molded at low cost in the desired configuration. The latter configuration in turn is operable to enhance the incremental stiffness to mass ratio of the reed with respect to any vibratory or loaded length of the reed. Moreover, it should be noted that for any reed material chosen including the natural cane fiber, ivory, brass, or steel, the aforedescribed configuration embodied in the reed 12 will enhance the incremental stiffness to mass ratio as to reeds made of such materials which embody the conventional flatbottomed reed configuration. Finally, where it is desired to form the reed from a very stiff material, the reed may be configured in the shape of a compound arch (not shown). Namely, the reed may be configured so as to omit the central web 56 of the reed 12.

Turning now to a consideration of FIGS. 7 and 8 of the drawings, there is illustrated therein another embodiment of a reed, generally designated by reference numeral 58, constructed in accordance with the present invention. The reed 58 differs from the reed l2 primarily in the configuration of the under-surface of the vamp area 60 of the former. Otherwise, the reed 58 and the reed 12 embody essentially the same construction. Consequently, those portions of the reed l2 and the reed 58 which are common to both reeds have been identified in FIGS. 7 and 8 by the same reference numeral which has been used therefor in FIGS. 3 6 of the drawings. Thus, as illustrated in FIG. 7 of the drawings, the reed 58 also possesses a bow tension construction. More specifically, the reed 58 comprises a thin elastic tongue which is formed from a suitable synthetic material such as the same resin from which the reed 12 is preferably formed and to which reference has been had previously hereinabove. At one end, the reed 58 is provided with a relatively thin tip 22, while the other end 38, i.e., the root thereof, is relatively thick in cross section. Also, the side edges, i.e., the rails 40 and 42 of the reed 58 each are relatively thin in cross section and taper inwardly beginning at the outer end of the tip 22 and extending toward the root 38 of the reed 58. Along the length of the upper surface of the reed 58 intermediate the tip 22 and the root 38 thereof, there is provided a shoulder 44 extending transversely of the major axis of the reed 58 in a sagittal plane thereof so as to reach from the rail 40 to the rail 42. The shoulder 44 is operable to define a separation between the forward, i.e., the left end as viewed with reference to FIG. 7 of the drawings of the upper surface of the root 38 and the rear end of the vamp 60. Although not visible in the drawings, it is to be also understood that the reed 58 in a manner similar to that provided in the reed 12 includes a second shoulder, i.e., shoulder 48 formed on the undersurface of the reed 58 substantially equally distant from the tip 22 and the rear edge of the root 38. As in the case of the reed 12 the portion of the undersurface of the reed 58 extending rearwardly of the shoulder (not shown) comprises the table thereof. The latter is substantially flat so as to be capable of cooperating with the flattened side 14 of the embouchure when the reed 58 is fastened thereto by means of the screw ligature 26. Forward of the shoulder (not shown) formed on the under-surface of the reed 58 extending to the tip 22 there is to be found the under-surface of the vamp 60. As will be understood with reference to FIGS. 7 and 8 of the drawings, the under-surface of the vamp 60 is relieved in a manner which differs from that of the vamp 46. The configuration of the vamp 60 is intended to be employed where the reed 58 is formed from a synthetic material which has a lower flexural modulus than the resin which is preferably utilized in forming the reed 12. As such, the need 58 must have additional rigidity in order to be capable of storing the reed spring potential energy and to provide resistance to the closure of the tip 22 thereof. This additional rigidity is provided in the reed 58 by including therein additional webs, i.e., ribbing, located on the undersurface of the vamp 60. Namely, the under-surface of the vamp 60 is relieved so as to form four cavities 62, 64, 66 and 68 therein. The cavities 64 and 66 are separated by a central web 70 which extends from the shoulder (not shown) formed on the under-surface of the reed 58 and blends in with the tip 22 whereat it terminates. Separating the cavities 62 and 64, and the cavities 66 and 68, there is provided a web 72 and 74, respectively. As bestunderstood with reference to FIG. 7 of the drawings, each of the webs 72 and 74 is a lesser length than the central web 70. More specifically, each of the webs 72 and 74 has a length which is approximately two-thirds of the length of the vamp 60. In cross section, the vamp 60 therefor as depicted in FIG. 6 has a configuration which resembles that of an archers bow but with a plurality of webs, i.e., the webs 70, 72 and 74 being provided internally of the vamp 60. Consequently the vamp 60 embodies a construction wherein a multiplicity of arches are provided, namely, an arch extending from one side edge of the vamp 60 to the other side thereof, a second arch extending from the rail 40 to the web 72, a third arch extending from the web 72 to the central web 70, a fourth arch extending from the central web 70 to the Web 74, and finally a fifth arch extending from the web 74 to the rail 42.

Referring again to FIGS. 3 8 of the drawings, a further advantageous feature of the construction of the reeds l2 and 58 resides in the arcuate shape of the tip 22. It has been found that excessive material at the outside edges of the tip 22 of the reeds 12 and 58 is undesirable. More specifically, being thin in section and being less supported relative to the center, the tip of a reed therefore possesses a poorer stiffness to mass ratio. Consequently, a reed embodying such a tip tends to have a lower natural frequency resulting in exaggerated cases in what is termed as buzz, i.e., undesired high partials or overtones. However, it has been found that by establishing a tip contour which shortens the reed length more at the side rails, the buzz disappears. This in effect involves locally tapering the vibrating beam-More specifically, since the normal vibrational mode for the reed is analogous to a diving, board, the natural frequency of the entire tip increases with a coincident increase in range of musical notes which may be played. Further, typically coincident with the buzz, a reed which includes a tip embodying excessive material is found to be stuffy and hard to play. Moreover, during release of the reed in tonguing" the former is slow to take up the overtone quality by delaying vibration. However, it has been found that a tip contour wherein the side edges of the tip are clipped so that the end of the tip approaches a full curved radius is effective to eliminate the undesired buzz as well as the stuffy and hard to play characteristics referred to above.

Namely, the effect of clipping the tip of the reed is to.

brighten the tone, eliminate buzz, eliminate stuffiness, and increase the range of the instrument. A further result is to effect an improvement in the stiffness to mass ratio of the reed. It should be noted that the aforedescribed clipping of the tip of the reed may be utilized with or without the bow-tensioned configuration embodied in the reed 12 and the reed 58 to produce beneficial results in either case. The extent to which the edges of the tip are clipped has been depicted in FIG. 7 of the drawings in connection with the illustration of the reed 58. Thus, comparing the curvature of the tip 22 of the reed 58 to that of the reed 12 shown in FIG. 3 of the drawings, it is readily apparent therefrom that the end of the tip 22 of the reed 58 approaches much more nearly a full curved radius than does the end of the tip 22 of the reed 12. Moreover, it is to be fully understood that although the tip 22 of the reed 58 has been depicted as having the aforereferenced configuration, the tip 22 of the reed 58 may also embody the configuration of the tip 22 of the reed 12 where due to the type of material selected for fabricating the reed, buzz is not a problem. Likewise, the tip 22 of the reed 12 may be provided with a configuration like that of the tip 22 of the reed 58 where buzz and/or stuffiness is encountered. In summary, when a reed clipped in the manner of the tip 22 of the reed 58 is fastened to the mouthpiece of a musical instrument with the tip of the reed covering the opening in the mouthpiece, the tip of the reed conforms in contour to the tip rail but the cor-. ner edge of the tip of the reed just covers the opening in the mouthpiece. Consequently, the Bemouli forces from blowing the reed are essentially unaffected, while at the same time the mouthpiece opening is properly gated as a valve by the reed. Thus, it can be seen that i the necessary reed function is retained by a reed and of the drawings, there will not be set forth a description of the nature of the construction of the double reed 76 and the manner in which the geometry thereof is arrived at. The principle of geometric stiffening to support the physical constants of any synthetic material substituted for natural cane fiber is valid for musical instruments which require double reeds, such as the oboe, bassoon, English horn, etc., as well as for single reed instruments such as the saxophone, clarinet, etc. Typically, the geometry of external configurations are more numerous in the case of double reed systems and the final touching up or finishing program in fabricating a double reed is more extensive than in the case of a single reed. In this regard, the latter coacts with a hard mouthpiece in which all the deflection to effect an opening or closure relative to the embouchure opening is permitted by the stiffness or compliance of a single flat spring system. However, the general purpose of a double reed is identical to that of a single reed when considered from the standpoint of responding to pressure differentials to time the bursts of air injected into an acoustic resonant wave to sustain resonance and generate overtones which give character to the voice of the particular musical instrument employed.

As best understood with reference to FIG. 9 of the drawings, the spring back or compliance of the one reed 78 of a matched pair 78 80 thereof which together cooperate to comprise the double reed 76 differs in direction of stress somewhat in that the normally open reed of the pair 78 80 forms an arched orifice with respect to the center line of the double reed 76 about which the latter is symmetrical. Moreover, the open reed, be it either reed 78 or reed 80, must close progressively inward from the sides thereof as a rolling closure coacting with its twin reed, i.e., reed 80 or reed 78. The center of the open reed must not collapse before the sides thereof. This requirement dictates that the spine of the open reed must act in the same manner as the single reed which is employed in a saxophone or a clarinet, and the sides as well as the tip thereof must be thin just as the tip is in a single reed form of instrument. The sides of the matched pair of reeds 78 and 80 in the double reed 76 remain closed and the overall compliance permits an overall deformation of the fanlike double reed 76 which results in a progressive closure of the tips of the coacting 78 and 80.

As noted above, the same principles of reed physics apply in the case of the double reed 76 as in the single reeds l2 and 58 such that geometrical compensation for the increased specific gravity of high performance plastics may be made to make possible an increase in the stiffness to mass ratio of synthetic double reeds to equate their performance to the finest cane reeds with the added virtues of simplicity of fabrication and reduction in cost as well as an increase in life and consistency of character. It has also been found with reference to double reed 76 that forming arches in the surface facing the direction of loading by Bernouli forces which cause closure will increase stiffness and thereby permits a reduction in mass for the same stiffness as compared to a conventional reed embodying any conventional form of geometry. Moreover, it should be recognized that care must be taken to minimize volumetric changes in the dimensions of the double reed which would be reflected in flatness of pitch requiring shortening the length of the mouthpiece tube to calibrate the instrument with the wave length for resonance at the desired length. In this regard, some compensation may be designed into the double reed by adjusting the length of the latter.

With reference to FIGS. 9 and 10 of the drawings, it can be seen therefrom that the double reed 76 consists of a matched pair of single reeds 78 and 80 which are joined together to produce a single structure. Inasmuch as each of the reeds 78 and 80 have the identical construction, for purposes of obtaining an understanding of the nature of the construction thereof, it is deemed sufficient to merely set forth hereinafter a description of one of the reeds 78 and 80. Thus, employing the reed 78 by way of example in this regard, it can be seen with reference to FIGS. 9 and 10 that the reed 78 insofar as a portion thereof is concerned is generally similar in construction to a portion of the reed 12. More particularly, the forward portion of the reed 78, i.e, the portion thereof above the shoulders 82 as viewed with reference to FIG. 10 of the drawings, corresponds in construction generally to the portion of the reed 12 which extends to the left of the shoulder 44 as viewed with reference to FIG. 3 of the drawings. Namely, the reed 78 is provided with a vamp area 84 the upper surface of which is arched in the manner of the vamp 46 of the reed 12. Internally thereof, the vamp 84 has a central web 86 formed therein. The web 86 begins at a point outwardly of the portion whereat the shoulder 82 is formed on the outer surface of the vamp 84 and terminates short of the tip 88 of the reed 78. The web 86 is operable to form two cavities 90 and 92 in the undersurface of the vamp 84. Consequently, like the reed 12, the reed 78 is provided with a plurality of arches, namely, an arch extending between the two side edges of the vamp 84, an arch from one side of the vamp 84 to the central web 86, and another arch from the other side edge of the vamp 84 to the central web 86. The remaining portion of the reed 78 differs substantially from the root 38 of the reed 12. More particularly, the portion 94 of the reed 78 is substantially semicircular in shape and in structure comprises half of a cylindrical tube. When the reed 78 is joined to the reed 80 in the manner which is best understood with reference to FIG. 9 of the drawings, the portion 94 of the reed 78 cooperates with the like portion 94 of the reed 80 to form a hollow circular passage 96 through which air is capable of being passed into the musical instrument when the double reed 76 is mounted thereto. Finally, it is comtemplated that the double reed 76 will bee fabricated from the same material as that described hereinabove with particularity from which it is preferred to fabricate the reed 12.

Although several embodiments of a synthetic reed constructed in accordance with the present invention have been shown in the drawings and described hereinabove, it is to be understood that still other modifications in the construction thereof may nevertheless be made thereto by those skilled in the art without departing from the essence of the invention. In this connection, some of the modifications which can be made in the synthetic reed alluded to hereinabove while others will become readily apparent to those skilled in the art when exposed to the present description and illustration of the construction of the single reeds 12 and 58, and the double reed 76. For example, although it has been found preferable to use the plastic resin described previously hereinabove as the material from which to fabricate the reeds 12, 58 and 76, it is to be understood that the principles of construction which are embodied in the reeds 12, 58 and 76 in accordance with the present invention from which beneficial results are obtained are equally applicable to reeds fabricated from other materials such as natural cane fiber, ivory, other plastics, etc. Also, depending upon the inherent stiffness of the material selected for fabricating reeds 12, 58 and 76, the ribbing, i.e., the web or webs which are provided on the inner surface, i.e., the underside of the corresponding vamp of the reed may be eliminated or increased as deemed necessary in order to provide the reed with the desired stiffness to mass ratio. In addition, the technique of clipping the corners of the tip of the reed to eliminate buzz and stuffiness may be utilized to produce beneficial results irrespective of whether the reed embodies the bowtensioned construction illustrated in the drawings as being possessed by the reeds 1'2, 58 and 76. More specifically, improvements in the manner in which the reed functions are obtainable from a reed embodying the bow-tensioned construction wherein the vamp is arched in a saggital plane and there exists a streamlined relieving of the under-surface thereof with the tip of the reed being configured in the conventional manner from a reed wherein the corners of the tip are clipped but the remainder of the reed is provided with the conventional reed construction as well as from a reed which embodies both the bowtensioned construction and a tip having clipped corners. Finally, it is to be understood that the concept of bowtensioned construction as applied to reeds used in musical instruments, in accordance with the present invention, is applicable to all reeds for all reed-blown musical instruments.

Thus, it can be seen that the present invention provides a novel and improved synthetic reed for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments which is capable of duplicating the sound characteristics of a natural cane reed while extending the useful life thereof. The synthetic reed for Saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments of the present invention can be manufactured in a simple manner in large quantities with a high degree of dimensional reproducibility at low cost. Moreover, in accord with the present invention a synthetic reed for Saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments has been provided which during the finishing stage of fabrication affords the musician the latitude of enhancing any particular desired range and depth of tonality within the physical limits of plastic modulus, material density and distribution of tension and compression elements. Furthermore, a synthetic reed for Saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments hasbeen provided in accordance with the present invention which will not readily oscillate in a squeal mode. Also in accord with the present invention a synthetic reed for Saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments has been provided which is contoured to coact with the mouthpiece of the musical instrument as a more efficient air foil so as to maximize the force acting upon the reed to displace it by maximizing the velocity pressure drop for a given pressure differential across the lip of the mouthpiece and tip face of the reed. In addition, the synthetic reed for Saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments of the present invention enjoys an increased capacity for the storage of potential energy, in the manner of a full working recurved archers bow for a given displacement which results in greater projection without loss of musical quality. Finally, in accord with the present invention there has been provided a synthetic reed for Saxophones, clarinets and other woodwind instruments which embodies a construction the principles of which may be applied to a natural reed to improve the latters range and quality of sound during its rather brief life, and which in addition may also be applied to all reds for all reed-blown musical instruments.

Having thus described the invention, I claim:

1. A reed for use in a reed blown musical instrument comprising a relatively thin, elongated member formed of synthetic material having a transversely extending shoulder formed intermediate the ends thereof along the top surface thereof, said member including a heel portion formed at one end thereof extending from said shoulder to one of the free ends of said member and a vamp section formed at the other end thereof extending from said shoulder to the other one of the free ends of said member, said heel portion including a substantially fiat, planar surface cooperable with the mouthpiece of the musical instrument for mounting the reed thereto, said vamp section including a lower surface operable as the face of the reed and a curved upper surface cooperable with said lower surface to provide said vamp section with an arched shape in cross section taken substantially perpendicular to the major axis of said vamp section, said upper surface of said vamp section being tapered so as to provide said vamp section with a decreasing thickness and a corresponding diminishing mass extending from said shoulder to a point spaced therefrom whereat said lower surface and said upper surface blend together to define the tip of said vamp section, said lower surface of said vamp section having a pair of spaced relieved portions formed therein in substantially parallel relation to each other and extending longitudinally substantially the entire length of said lower surface of said vamp section from substantially the point therealong whereat said vamp section is joined to said heel portion to said tip of said vamp section wherein said pair of relieved portions blend into said lower surface of said vamp section, each of said pair of relieved portions embodying the configuration of an arch, said lower surface of said vamp section further including a central web formed between said pair of relieved portions and extending substantially the entire length thereof and a pair of side rails formed along the edges of the long sides of said lower surface of said vamp section for substantially the entire length thereof, said central web and said pair of side rails each extending from substantially the point whereat said vamp section is joined to said heel portion to said tip of said vamp section, said central web and said pair of side rails each embodying a uniformly decreasing taper so as to blend into said lower surface of said vamp section at said tip thereof, said pair of relieved portions, said central web and said pair of side rails all cooperating mutually together to provide the reed with an area moment of inertia that decreases uniformly from said shoulder of said member to said tip of said vamp section and with the predominant distribution of inertial mass of the reed which is coincident with the predominant axial stiffness thereof being located centrally of the longitudinal axis of said vamp section.

2. The reed as set forth in claim 1 wherein said tip of said vamp section has the corner edges thereof clippped to eliminate buzz and stuffiness when the musical instrument is played.

3. The reed as set forth in claim 1 wherein said memher is formed of synthetic material wherein the fibers thereof are polarized.

4. A reed for use in a reed blown musical instrument comprising a relatively thin, elongated member having a transversely extending shoulder formed intermediate the ends thereof, said member including a heel portion formed at one end thereof extending from said shoulder to one of the free ends of said member and a vamp section formed at the other end thereof extending from said shoulder to the other one of the free ends of said member, said heel portion embodying a configuration enabling said heel portion to cooperate with a portion of the musical instrument for mounting the reed thereto, said vamp section including one surface operable as the face of the reed, said one surface having a first pair of spaced, longitudinally extending relieved portions formed therein, each of said first pair of relieved portions embodying the configuration of an arch, said one surface also including a central web formed between said first pair of relieved portions and extending substantially the entire length thereof and a pair of side rails formed along the edges of the long sides of said one surface for substantially the entire length thereof, said central web and said pair of side rails each extending substantially from the point whereat said vamp section is joined to said heel portion towards the tip of said vamp section and embodying a uniformly decreasing taper so as to blend into said one surface adjacent said tip of said vamp section, said one surface of said vamp section further including a second pair of spaced, longitudinally extending relieved portions formed therein in parallel spaced relation to said first pair of relieved portions, a second web formed between one of said first pair of relieved portions and one of said second pair of relieved portions and extending substantially the entire length thereof and a third web formed between the other of said first pair of relieved portions and the other of said second pair of relieved portions and extending substantially the entire length thereof, said second web and said third web formed in said one surface of said vamp section each embodying a uniformly decreasing taper from the end thereof most closely located to the point whereat said vamp section is joined to said heel portion to the other end thereof so as to blend into said one surface adjacent said tip to said vamp section, said first and second pairs of relieved portions, said central web, said first and second webs and said pair of side rails all cooperating mutually together to provide the reed with a diminishing mass measured from said shoulder to said tip of said vamp section so as to provide the reed with an area moment of inertia that decreases uniformly from said shoulder of said member to said tip of said vamp section and with the predominant distribution of inertial mass of the reed which is coincident with the predominant axial stiffness thereof being located centrally of the longitudinal axis of said vamp section.

5. A reed for use in a reed blown musical instrument comprising an elongated member including a heel portion formed at one end thereof and a vamp section formed at the other end thereof, said heel portion and said vamp section being joined together intermediate the ends of said member, said heel portion consisting of a first pair of segments extending the length of said heel portion and joined together along the edges of the long sides thereof, each of said first pair of segments of said heel portion having a semicircular recess formed therein extending the length thereof, said semicircular recess formed in one of said first pair of segments of said heel portion cooperating with said semicircular recess formed in the other of said first pair of segments of said heel portion to form a circular through opening in said heel portion operable for purposes of mounting the reed to a portion of the musical instrument, said vamp section consisting of a second pair of segments each including a curved outer surface of decreasing taper and an inner surface blending together at one end thereof to define the tip of said vamp section, each of said second pair of segments having formed in said inner surface thereof a pair of relieved portions extending substantially the entire length thereof and a pair of side rails formed along the edges of the long sides of each of said second pair of segments, said pair of side rails of one of said pair of segments being joined along the outer edges thereof to said pair of side rails of the other of said second pair of segments so as to form a through opening between said second pair of segments having one end thereof communicating with said circular through opening formed in said heel portion, said second pair of segments of said vamp section each further including a central web formed in said inner surface thereof between said pair of relieved portions therein so as to extend substantially theentire length thereof, said pair of side rails and said central web formed in said inner surface of each of said second pair of segments embodying a uniformly decreasing taper so as to blend into said inner surface adjacent said tip of said vamp section.

Claims (5)

1. A reed for use in a reed blown musical instrument comprising a relatively thin, elongated member formed of synthetic material having a transversely extending shoulder formed intermediate the ends thereof along the top surface thereof, said member including a heel portion formed at one end thereof extending from said shoulder to one of the free ends of said member and a vamp section formed at the other end thereof extending from said shoulder to the other one of the free ends of said member, said heel portion including a substantially flat, planar surface cooperable with the mouthpiece of the musical instrument for mounting the reed thereto, said vamp section including a lower surface operable as the face of the reed and a curved upper surface coOperable with said lower surface to provide said vamp section with an arched shape in cross section taken substantially perpendicular to the major axis of said vamp section, said upper surface of said vamp section being tapered so as to provide said vamp section with a decreasing thickness and a corresponding diminishing mass extending from said shoulder to a point spaced therefrom whereat said lower surface and said upper surface blend together to define the tip of said vamp section, said lower surface of said vamp section having a pair of spaced relieved portions formed therein in substantially parallel relation to each other and extending longitudinally substantially the entire length of said lower surface of said vamp section from substantially the point therealong whereat said vamp section is joined to said heel portion to said tip of said vamp section wherein said pair of relieved portions blend into said lower surface of said vamp section, each of said pair of relieved portions embodying the configuration of an arch, said lower surface of said vamp section further including a central web formed between said pair of relieved portions and extending substantially the entire length thereof and a pair of side rails formed along the edges of the long sides of said lower surface of said vamp section for substantially the entire length thereof, said central web and said pair of side rails each extending from substantially the point whereat said vamp section is joined to said heel portion to said tip of said vamp section, said central web and said pair of side rails each embodying a uniformly decreasing taper so as to blend into said lower surface of said vamp section at said tip thereof, said pair of relieved portions, said central web and said pair of side rails all cooperating mutually together to provide the reed with an area moment of inertia that decreases uniformly from said shoulder of said member to said tip of said vamp section and with the predominant distribution of inertial mass of the reed which is coincident with the predominant axial stiffness thereof being located centrally of the longitudinal axis of said vamp section.
2. The reed as set forth in claim 1 wherein said tip of said vamp section has the corner edges thereof clippped to eliminate buzz and stuffiness when the musical instrument is played.
3. The reed as set forth in claim 1 wherein said member is formed of synthetic material wherein the fibers thereof are polarized.
4. A reed for use in a reed blown musical instrument comprising a relatively thin, elongated member having a transversely extending shoulder formed intermediate the ends thereof, said member including a heel portion formed at one end thereof extending from said shoulder to one of the free ends of said member and a vamp section formed at the other end thereof extending from said shoulder to the other one of the free ends of said member, said heel portion embodying a configuration enabling said heel portion to cooperate with a portion of the musical instrument for mounting the reed thereto, said vamp section including one surface operable as the face of the reed, said one surface having a first pair of spaced, longitudinally extending relieved portions formed therein, each of said first pair of relieved portions embodying the configuration of an arch, said one surface also including a central web formed between said first pair of relieved portions and extending substantially the entire length thereof and a pair of side rails formed along the edges of the long sides of said one surface for substantially the entire length thereof, said central web and said pair of side rails each extending substantially from the point whereat said vamp section is joined to said heel portion towards the tip of said vamp section and embodying a uniformly decreasing taper so as to blend into said one surface adjacent said tip of said vamp section, said one surface of said vamp section further including a second pair of spaced, longitudinally extending relievEd portions formed therein in parallel spaced relation to said first pair of relieved portions, a second web formed between one of said first pair of relieved portions and one of said second pair of relieved portions and extending substantially the entire length thereof and a third web formed between the other of said first pair of relieved portions and the other of said second pair of relieved portions and extending substantially the entire length thereof, said second web and said third web formed in said one surface of said vamp section each embodying a uniformly decreasing taper from the end thereof most closely located to the point whereat said vamp section is joined to said heel portion to the other end thereof so as to blend into said one surface adjacent said tip to said vamp section, said first and second pairs of relieved portions, said central web, said first and second webs and said pair of side rails all cooperating mutually together to provide the reed with a diminishing mass measured from said shoulder to said tip of said vamp section so as to provide the reed with an area moment of inertia that decreases uniformly from said shoulder of said member to said tip of said vamp section and with the predominant distribution of inertial mass of the reed which is coincident with the predominant axial stiffness thereof being located centrally of the longitudinal axis of said vamp section.
5. A reed for use in a reed blown musical instrument comprising an elongated member including a heel portion formed at one end thereof and a vamp section formed at the other end thereof, said heel portion and said vamp section being joined together intermediate the ends of said member, said heel portion consisting of a first pair of segments extending the length of said heel portion and joined together along the edges of the long sides thereof, each of said first pair of segments of said heel portion having a semicircular recess formed therein extending the length thereof, said semicircular recess formed in one of said first pair of segments of said heel portion cooperating with said semicircular recess formed in the other of said first pair of segments of said heel portion to form a circular through opening in said heel portion operable for purposes of mounting the reed to a portion of the musical instrument, said vamp section consisting of a second pair of segments each including a curved outer surface of decreasing taper and an inner surface blending together at one end thereof to define the tip of said vamp section, each of said second pair of segments having formed in said inner surface thereof a pair of relieved portions extending substantially the entire length thereof and a pair of side rails formed along the edges of the long sides of each of said second pair of segments, said pair of side rails of one of said pair of segments being joined along the outer edges thereof to said pair of side rails of the other of said second pair of segments so as to form a through opening between said second pair of segments having one end thereof communicating with said circular through opening formed in said heel portion, said second pair of segments of said vamp section each further including a central web formed in said inner surface thereof between said pair of relieved portions therein so as to extend substantially the entire length thereof, said pair of side rails and said central web formed in said inner surface of each of said second pair of segments embodying a uniformly decreasing taper so as to blend into said inner surface adjacent said tip of said vamp section.
US3905268A 1974-05-14 1974-05-14 Reeds for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwinds Expired - Lifetime US3905268A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3905268A US3905268A (en) 1974-05-14 1974-05-14 Reeds for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwinds

Applications Claiming Priority (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3905268A US3905268A (en) 1974-05-14 1974-05-14 Reeds for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwinds
CA 226229 CA1019176A (en) 1974-05-14 1975-05-05 Reeds for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwinds
GB1914175A GB1465252A (en) 1974-05-14 1975-05-07 Reeds for woodwind instruments
JP5587075A JPS50156921A (en) 1974-05-14 1975-05-12
DE19752521472 DE2521472B2 (en) 1974-05-14 1975-05-14 Tongue or sheet for use in a musical wind instrument
FR7515064A FR2271627B1 (en) 1974-05-14 1975-05-14

Publications (1)

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US3905268A true US3905268A (en) 1975-09-16

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US3905268A Expired - Lifetime US3905268A (en) 1974-05-14 1974-05-14 Reeds for saxophones, clarinets and other woodwinds

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US (1) US3905268A (en)
JP (1) JPS50156921A (en)
CA (1) CA1019176A (en)
DE (1) DE2521472B2 (en)
FR (1) FR2271627B1 (en)
GB (1) GB1465252A (en)

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4014241A (en) * 1976-02-11 1977-03-29 Gamble George W Synthetic woodwind reed
US4337683A (en) * 1980-07-22 1982-07-06 Backus John G Synthetic woodwind instrument reed and method for its manufacture
US4355560A (en) * 1979-06-12 1982-10-26 Shaffer David W Reed construction
EP0509963A2 (en) * 1991-04-18 1992-10-21 Friedrich Paul Haferkorn Calculation and construction method of reed profile, pipe and mouth piece for clarinet and saxophone
FR2679366A1 (en) * 1991-07-15 1993-01-22 Getin Claude Pipe for bagpipe drone
US6087571A (en) * 1998-02-19 2000-07-11 Legere Reeds Ltd. Oriented polymer reeds for musical instruments
US6501010B2 (en) 2000-07-10 2002-12-31 George V. Sullivan Reed and mouthpiece assembly
US6664454B1 (en) * 1999-06-30 2003-12-16 Mark A. Johnson Musical instrument
US7220903B1 (en) 2005-02-28 2007-05-22 Andrew Bronen Reed mount for woodwind mouthpiece
US20090217798A1 (en) * 2008-03-03 2009-09-03 Philip Lee Rovner Mass-Loaded Ligature for Woodwind Instruments
US20090217800A1 (en) * 2008-03-03 2009-09-03 Philip Lee Rovner Ligature for Woodwind Instruments
US20090301284A1 (en) * 2008-06-04 2009-12-10 Guy Legere Oriented polymer reeds for woodwind instruments
US20100043621A1 (en) * 2008-03-03 2010-02-25 Philip Lee Rovner Ligature for Woodwind Instruments
US20110162508A1 (en) * 2008-03-03 2011-07-07 Philip Lee Rovner Ligature For Woodwind Instruments
EP2450875A1 (en) * 2010-11-03 2012-05-09 Firma Carbon Reed, Inh. Helga Haben Double reed for wind instruments
US8410344B2 (en) 2010-12-17 2013-04-02 Philip Lee Rovner Mouthpiece for woodwind instruments with venturi aperture
US8586845B2 (en) 2008-03-03 2013-11-19 Philip Lee Rovner Reed warp mouthpiece system
KR200473389Y1 (en) * 2013-06-11 2014-07-02 권석순 Saxophone reed
KR101430601B1 (en) * 2013-02-11 2014-08-18 박혜인 Volume increased device for lead of wood-wind instrument
US8841529B2 (en) 2012-11-21 2014-09-23 Philip Lee Rovner Clarinet mouthpiece and barrel system
US9570052B1 (en) 2015-08-21 2017-02-14 Shun-Hwa Chang Apparatus for enhancing sounds produced out of single-reed wind music instruments
US10079007B2 (en) 2015-05-20 2018-09-18 Rovner Products Incorporated Woodwind mouthpiece with V-notch table and tone chamber insert

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP4864351B2 (en) * 2005-06-06 2012-02-01 株式会社タダノ Work vehicle

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2224308A (en) * 1940-01-02 1940-12-10 Maccaferri Mario Reed
US3165963A (en) * 1961-05-04 1965-01-19 Burns John Keith Anthony Reeds for musical instruments

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2224308A (en) * 1940-01-02 1940-12-10 Maccaferri Mario Reed
US3165963A (en) * 1961-05-04 1965-01-19 Burns John Keith Anthony Reeds for musical instruments

Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4014241A (en) * 1976-02-11 1977-03-29 Gamble George W Synthetic woodwind reed
US4355560A (en) * 1979-06-12 1982-10-26 Shaffer David W Reed construction
US4337683A (en) * 1980-07-22 1982-07-06 Backus John G Synthetic woodwind instrument reed and method for its manufacture
EP0509963A2 (en) * 1991-04-18 1992-10-21 Friedrich Paul Haferkorn Calculation and construction method of reed profile, pipe and mouth piece for clarinet and saxophone
EP0509963A3 (en) * 1991-04-18 1993-11-18 Friedrich Paul Haferkorn Calculation and construction method of reed profile, pipe and mouth piece for clarinet and saxophone
FR2679366A1 (en) * 1991-07-15 1993-01-22 Getin Claude Pipe for bagpipe drone
US6087571A (en) * 1998-02-19 2000-07-11 Legere Reeds Ltd. Oriented polymer reeds for musical instruments
US6664454B1 (en) * 1999-06-30 2003-12-16 Mark A. Johnson Musical instrument
US6501010B2 (en) 2000-07-10 2002-12-31 George V. Sullivan Reed and mouthpiece assembly
US7220903B1 (en) 2005-02-28 2007-05-22 Andrew Bronen Reed mount for woodwind mouthpiece
US7982112B2 (en) 2008-03-03 2011-07-19 Philip Lee Rovner Ligature for woodwind instruments
US20090217800A1 (en) * 2008-03-03 2009-09-03 Philip Lee Rovner Ligature for Woodwind Instruments
US8586845B2 (en) 2008-03-03 2013-11-19 Philip Lee Rovner Reed warp mouthpiece system
US20100043621A1 (en) * 2008-03-03 2010-02-25 Philip Lee Rovner Ligature for Woodwind Instruments
US20090217798A1 (en) * 2008-03-03 2009-09-03 Philip Lee Rovner Mass-Loaded Ligature for Woodwind Instruments
US8283541B2 (en) 2008-03-03 2012-10-09 Philip Lee Rovner Ligature for woodwind instruments
US7939738B2 (en) 2008-03-03 2011-05-10 Philip Lee Rovner Ligature for woodwind instruments
US20110162508A1 (en) * 2008-03-03 2011-07-07 Philip Lee Rovner Ligature For Woodwind Instruments
US7863509B2 (en) * 2008-03-03 2011-01-04 Philip Lee Rovner Mass-loaded ligature for woodwind instruments
US7902443B2 (en) 2008-06-04 2011-03-08 Guy Legere Oriented polymer reeds for woodwind instruments
US20090301284A1 (en) * 2008-06-04 2009-12-10 Guy Legere Oriented polymer reeds for woodwind instruments
EP2450875A1 (en) * 2010-11-03 2012-05-09 Firma Carbon Reed, Inh. Helga Haben Double reed for wind instruments
US8410344B2 (en) 2010-12-17 2013-04-02 Philip Lee Rovner Mouthpiece for woodwind instruments with venturi aperture
US8841529B2 (en) 2012-11-21 2014-09-23 Philip Lee Rovner Clarinet mouthpiece and barrel system
KR101430601B1 (en) * 2013-02-11 2014-08-18 박혜인 Volume increased device for lead of wood-wind instrument
KR200473389Y1 (en) * 2013-06-11 2014-07-02 권석순 Saxophone reed
US10079007B2 (en) 2015-05-20 2018-09-18 Rovner Products Incorporated Woodwind mouthpiece with V-notch table and tone chamber insert
US9570052B1 (en) 2015-08-21 2017-02-14 Shun-Hwa Chang Apparatus for enhancing sounds produced out of single-reed wind music instruments

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
DE2521472A1 (en) 1975-11-27 application
JPS50156921A (en) 1975-12-18 application
CA1019176A1 (en) grant
GB1465252A (en) 1977-02-23 application
DE2521472B2 (en) 1976-11-11 application
FR2271627A1 (en) 1975-12-12 application
CA1019176A (en) 1977-10-18 grant
FR2271627B1 (en) 1979-06-22 grant

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