US3902987A - Electrolytic cell means - Google Patents

Electrolytic cell means Download PDF

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US3902987A
US3902987A US49693074A US3902987A US 3902987 A US3902987 A US 3902987A US 49693074 A US49693074 A US 49693074A US 3902987 A US3902987 A US 3902987A
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cell
electrolytic
tray
portion
means
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Leo P Cawley
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Bioware Inc
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Bioware Inc
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N27/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means
    • G01N27/26Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating electrochemical variables; by using electrolysis or electrophoresis
    • G01N27/416Systems
    • G01N27/447Systems using electrophoresis
    • G01N27/44756Apparatus specially adapted therefor

Abstract

An electrolytic cell means for immunodiffusion comprising a tray with a bottom, a first side connected to the bottom and having a first annulus therein, and a second side attached to the bottom and including a second annulus therein. A pair of ends are attached to the sides and to the bottom, and at least one of the pair of ends includes a first opening. A heat transfer cartridge chamber is integrally bound to the first and second sides and is attached to the bottom. The heat transfer chamber additionally comprises a roof connected to the sides and a second pair of ends attached to the sides, bottom and roof. At least one of the second pair of ends has a second opening which is essentially in registry with the first opening and enables the insides of the heat transfer chamber to communicate with the outside atmosphere. A second tray slidably lodges within the chamber and through the first and second opening. A coolant cartridge is removably situated within the tray and is designed to conform to the shape of the roof which has a first and a second sloping portion. The first side and the first sloping portion define a trough which has an electrode secured therein, and the second side and the second sloping portion define another trough which has another electrode secured therein which is oppositely charged from the other electrode. An electrical source is connected to the two electrodes.

Description

United States Patent [1 1 Cawley [451 Sept. 2, 1975 ELECTROLYTIC CELL MEANS Leo P. Cawley, Wichita, Kans.

{73] Assignee: Bioware, lnc., Wichita, Kans.

[22] Filed: Aug. 13, 1974 [21] Appl. No.: 496,930

[75] Inventor:

Primary Examiner.lohn H. Mack Assistant Examiner-A. C. Prescott Attorney, Agent, or Firm-John H. Widdowson [57] ABSTRACT An electrolytic cell means for immunodiffusion comprising a tray with a bottom, a first side connected to the bottom and having a first annulus therein,, and a second side attached to the bottom and including a second annulus therein. A pair of ends are attached to the sides and to the bottom, and at least one of the pair of ends includes a first opening. A heat transfer cartridge chamber is integrally bound to the first and second sides and is attached to the bottom. The heat transfer chamber additionally comprises a roof connected to the sides and a second pair of ends attached to the sides, bottom and roof. At least one of the second pair of ends has a second opening which is essentially in registry with the first opening and enables the insides of the heat transfer chamber to communicate with the outside atmosphere. A second tray slidably lodges within the chamber and through the first and second opening. A coolant cartridge is removably situated within the tray and is designed to conform to the shape of the roof which has a first and a second sloping portion. The first side and the first sloping portion define a trough which has an electrode secured therein, and the second side and the second sloping portion define another trough which has another electrode secured therein which is oppositely charged from the other electrode. An electrical source is connected to the two electrodes.

8 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures PATENTED SEP 2 975 SHEET 1 [IF 2 FIG. 3

ELECTROLYTIC CELL MEANS This is a continuation-in-part application of my copending application Ser. No. 412.631, filed Nov. 2, 1973, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,829,375 a continuationinpart application of U.S. Pat. No. 3,798,152 (originally patent application Ser. No. 297,638, filed Oct. 16, 1972).

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention is related to an electrolytic cell. More specifically, this invention provides an electrolytic cell which is to be used in the field of electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, and the like.

2. Description of the Prior Art Numerous types of electrolytic cells are known in the prior art as operable in immunoelectrophoresis work for the passing of an electric current through a flexible gel coated slide. Some of the prior art devices utilize a closable container with the flexible slide having the opposite ends thereof supported in separate ionizing solutions wherein an electric current is passed into the ionizing solutions and in turn through the slides coating. Other electrophoresis devices utilize ionizing solutions into two separate portions of a container with the ionizing solutions held in absorbent material blocks on which the slide specimen rests wherein the electric current is passed through the solution held in the blocks and through specimen or slide and its coating. Generally. the electrophoresis devices in the prior art have no means for cooling or heating the apparatus and/or the specimen slide to maintain a constant temperature. Electrophoresis devices which do have cooling or heating capacity are constructed specifically to heat or cool a block like portion of gel material rather than a slide like specimen with a gel coating thereon.

In my previously mentioned co-pending application, I invented an electrolytic cell which comprised a tray with a bottom, a pair of sides and ends, and an enclosed heat transfer fluid reservoir having an inlet and an outlet integrally bound to the sides. The enclosed reservoir included a base and an essentially parabolic shaped roof connected to the base. The sides of the tray each had an enclosed elongated annulus therein which had communication with the roof and the inlet and the outlet of the enclosed reservoir. The purpose of this invention was to provide an electrolytic cell structure including an enclosed heat transfer fluid reservoir that was capable of being maintained at a substantially constant temperature by passing a fluid therethrough while simultaneously being superimposed by a conductive gel which had a structure defined by a pliable elongated strip with an electrolytic environment situated on the exterior thereof, Since this invention I have discovered that the aforementioned purpose was better attained by replacing the enclosed heat transfer fluid reservoir with a heat transfer cartridge chamber having a tray slidably mounted therein for disposing a coolant cartridge thereon to control the temperature of the chamber. Therefore. what is needed and what has been invented by me is an electrolytic cell structure for immumodiffu sion which does not include the previously mentioned disadvantages of the prior art, and is an improvement over my invention disclosedin my aforementioned copcnding application.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention accomplishes its desired objects by broadly providing an electrolytic cell means for immunodiffusion comprising a tray with a bottom, a first side connected to the bottom and having a first annulus therein, a second side attached to the bottom and including a second annulus therein, and a pair of ends attached to the sides and to the bottom. At least one of the pair of ends includes a first opening. A heat transfer cartridge chamber is integrally bound to the first and to the second sides and attached to the bottom. The heat transfer chamber additionally includes a roof connected to the sides and a second pair of ends attached to the sides, to the bottom, and to the roof. At least one of the second pair of ends includes a second opening. The first opening and the second opening are essentially in registry and enable the insides of the chamber to communicate with the outside atmosphere. A second tray slidably lodges Within the chamber and through the first and the second opening. A coolant cartridge is removably situated within the second tray and is designed to conform to the shape of the roof. The roof has a first sloping portion and a second sloping portion. The first side and the first sloping portion and the second side and the second sloping portion define a first trough and a second trough, respectively. A first electrode and a second electrode are respectively secured within the first and second troughs. An electrical source is connected to the first electrode and to the second electrode which is oppositely charged from the first electrode.

It is therefore an object of the invention to provide an electrolytic cell structure for immunodiffusion overcoming the aforementioned disadvantages of the prior devices.

It is another object of the invention to provide an electrolytic cell structure having a removable coolant cartridge to regulate the temperature of the cell structure and particularly ofa conductive gel specimen held in the cell structureduring the operation thereof.

It is still another object of the invention to provide an electrolytic cell structure which is adapted to receive and hold in a fixed position conductive gel specimen slides while the slides are positioned in contact with electrodes and in contact with a portion of the cell adjacent to a heat transfer cartridge chamber of the cell which is used as a heat source or heat sink.

It is still yet another object of the invention to provide an electrolytic cell structure which in operation is maintained at a substantially constant temperature by a coolant cartridge removably situated on a tray slidably mounted within a heat transfer chamber portion of the structure while simultaneously having a conductive gel and placed therein for purposes of electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, immunodiffusion, clectroimmunodiffusion, and other like purposes.

These, together with various ancillary objects and features which will become apparent as the following description proceeds are obtained by this novel electrolytic cell, a preferred embodiment being shown in the accompanying drawings, by way of example only, wherein:

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a perspective view of the electrolytic cell showing the slidably mounted tray with a coolant cartridge therein and having the cover in place and a slide specimen of conductive gel mounted in the cell;

FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the cell structure alone with the cover removed and the tray containing the coolant cartridge extended;

FIG. 3 is an end elevation view of the electrolytic cell structure taken from the end having an opening and with the tray removed;

FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view of the electrolytic cell structure having a bottom portion cut away to show an annulus and the tray lodged in the position for normal operation of the invention;

FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view of the electrolytic cell structure taken along the line 5--5 in FIG. 4; and

FIG. 6 is a vertical sectional view of the electrolytic cell structure taken along the line 66 in FIG. 4.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Referring in detail now to the drawings. wherein similar parts of the invention are identified by like reference numerals, an electrolytic cell structure, generally indicated as 10, includes a tray portion 12 with a cover 14 positioned over an open portion of the tray 12 that has an oppositely chargeable electrode means 16 in its side portions and a heat transfer cartridge chamber portion I8 in the center portion of the tray. As shown in FIG. 1 the electrolytic cell is adapted to mount at least one conductive gel slide specimens 20. Such slide specimens are used in immunoelectrophoresis work and are flexible plastic members with a conductive gel coating. The conductive gel slide specimens 20 are positioned to be in contact with the electrode means 16 on their end portions or in contact with an electrolyte which is in contact with the electrode means 16 and also in contact with the chamber portion 18. As it is shown the electrolytic cell 10 with a cover 14 in place on the tray I2 is ready for operation once an electrical source has been connected with the electrode means 18 to oppositely charge them and a fluid source connected .with a cavity means 18 as will be described hereinafter.

The tray portion 12 of the electrolytic cell 10 is preferably an integrally formed structure and has a heat transfer cartridge chamber portion 18 integrally constructed generally in the center portion thereof. As shown in the drawings the tray I2 is in its preferred form, namely an elongated rectangular structure. The tray portion 12 has a bottom 50 and elongated sidewalls 24 and 26 integrally joined with end walls 28 and 30 and has the interior thereof formed into two trough portions. indicated generally at 32 and 34, extending in the elongated direction thereof which are used to contain the electrolyte. Sidewalls 24 and 26 have annuli II and 13 therein. respectively. The interior of the tray portion 12 in its cross-sectional shape is shown in FIG. 5 and shown from the top or open portion thereof in FIG. 2. The upper portion of the tray portion I2 is preferably open for access to its interior and is closable by the cover 14.

The heat transfer chamber 18 is integrally formed between the troughs 32 and 34. The chamber portion 18 has a dome portion 44 (which is preferably parabolic in shape) extending upward from the trough bottoms 46 and 48 as shown clearly in FIG. 5. The bottom portion of the chamber 18 is the bottom of the tray. 50. The chamber portion 18 has end walls 52 and 54, 'oining the bottom and the dome portion 44. End wall 54, as well as end wall 28 oftray 12, each have an opening. generally illustrated as 56. wherethrough a tray 58 slidably lodges within the chamber 18. A coolant cartridge 60 is removably situated upon tray 58 and is designed to conform to the shape of the dome roof 44. Cartridge 60 preferably has a non-insulated shell which contains an inorganic chemical compound (well known within the art) formulated to maintain the temperature of the electrophoretic media and the buffer at between about 4C and 12C during electrophoresis and up to 12 hours afterwards. Cartridge 60 is conditioned in a freezer (not shown in the drawings) at minus 20 C (2()C) for a minimum of l2 to 15 hours prior to use and can be reused indefinitely. Cartridge tray 58 is designed to catch any condensation that forms on the coolant cartridge 60 and allows changing of cartridge 60 at any time without interruption of the electrophoresis run. Cartridge 60 may have any geometric shape that conforms to the shape of the dome roof 44 which may also have any geometric shape preferably including a pair of sloping portions.

The electrode means 16 includes a pair of elongated electrodes and 72 mounted in the troughs 32 and 34, a magnetically actuated switch means 74 and a pair of electrical connectors 76 and 78. The electrode means I6 is oppositely chargeable and provides the means of passing an electron flow into and in through the conductive gel. and is actuated by placing the cover I4 on the tray 12. The electrodes 70 and 72 are sup ported from the interior upright sidewalls of the troughs 32 and 34, the sidewalls are indicated at 80 and 82, respectively. Each of the electrodes 70 and 72 are constructed similarly from an electric conductive material and have support members 88 for mounting same with the trough sidewalls. In use. one of the electrodes is positively charged and the other is negatively charged. The intricate details of how to connect electrodes 70 and 72 to sidewalls 80 and 82 via lugs. support rods. etc. are well known within the art and have been disclosed by me in my co-pending application.

The micro switch is supported by a mount (not shown in the drawings) from an electrical connector 78 and is a normally open switch closed by allowing the actuator button 102 to extend from the body of the switch. The micro switch 100 has a pivotably mounted swinging arm 103 secured to one side thereof extending past the opposite side of the switch and having a magnetic element 104 on the extended end thereof. In the normal non-use position the swinging arm I03 rests on the body of the switch 100 pressing the actuator button 102 into the switch structure and maintaining an open circuit. The cover 14 has a magnetic element 106 on one end thereof positioned generally as shown in FIG. 6. This magnetic element 106 attracts the other magnetic element 104 on the switch means 74. In the operating position the cover 14 is in place on the tray and the swinging arm 103 is raised from theswitch bodyand the actuator button 102 allowed to extend from the switch body thereby closing the circuit. It is to be noted that switch means other than the specific micro switch and swinging arm arrangement shown and described herein can be used to affect a similar result. that being to connect the electrodes with a source of electrical power when the cover is in place on the tray 12. In use of the magnetically operable switch means it has been found that such functions Well and is effectively insulated from damage due to corrosion since it is substantially sealed within the electrolytic cell structure I0. The electrical connector 78 and an electrical connector 76, as shown. are conventional quick disconnect style connectors usable to attach a low voltage direct circuit source to the electrolytic cell It) for o posite charging of the electrodes 70 and 72.

It is to be noted that the fluid source and electrical source can be attached to the electrolyticcell in the removably attachable manner, as shown. However. in the alternative electrical source and the fluid source can be permanently attached to the electrolytic cell structure 10 without substantially departing from the scope of the invention. In the use and operation of the electrolytic cell 10 of this invention in primarily a laboratory atmosphere it has been found convenient to have the electrical and fluid sources removably attachable to the cell structure for convenience and ease in cleaning the structure and storage of same when it is not in use.

The cover portion I4 of the electrolytic cell structure I0 is preferably formed of a transparent material as illustrated in the drawings. A dome shaped cover 14 is provided having inwardly sloping end portions terminated at its elongated peripheral edges. The peripheral edges of the cover portion I4 rest on the top edges of the tray as shown in FIG. 5. The magnetic member 106 is attached to the cover end portion as shown in FIG. 6. When the cover 14 is in place on the tray portion 12 the magnetic member 106 must be at the end of the tray having the switch means 74, so the magnetic members I04 and X06 will attract each other thereby causing the micro switch 100 to be closed. The cover I4 is preferably constructed of a transparent material so that the user can watch and monitor the electrolytic process taking place in the electrolytic cell I0. In electrolytic work of the type described. the cover 14 has been found useful to prevent the gel specimens from drying during the diffusion process.

When the electrolytic cell 10 of this invention is in use the conductive gel slide specimens are placed within the tray portion 12 as shown in FIG. I and FIG. 5. The articles or slide specimens 20 usually used in immunoelcctrophoresis and immunodiffusion work are elongated strips of a transparent plastic material which have been coated on one side with an agar gel material and are placed in the tray portion with the gel coated slide thereof upward. FIG. 5 shows in detail the specific position of the slide segments 20 when properly in place in the cell structure 10. In this position the slide segments have the ends thereof 130 and I31 in the lower portion of the troughs with the coated side thereof being in contact with the electrode rods 72 and 70. respectively. or the electrolyte in the troughs 32 and 34a and having the center portion of the slide 20 in contact with the dome surface 44 of the chamber portion 18. In this position substantially all the surface of the slide specimen 20 is in contact with the exterior chamber surface so a maximum heat transfer between the slide strip and the heat transfer chamber portion 18 is achieved. It is not necessary for the slide specimens to touch the electrodes, they must only be in contact with the electrolyte or buffer solution in the troughs. 'I'he predetermined temperature which passes from the chamber portion I8, can be either used to heat or to cool the electrolytic cell structure I0 depending upon the desire ofthe user and more specifically the particular requirements of the test or type of tests to be performed with the electrolytic cell structure 10. In practice it has been found that in immunoelectrophoresis work the cell structure 10 must be cooled during its operation and this can be achieved by conditioning in a freezer at minus 20C the coolant cartridge for a minimum of 12 to 15 hours and subsequently placing the cooled cartridge 60 into the tray 58 and sliding the same into position (as shown in FIG. 4) for cooling the chamber 18. The cartridge contains a shell constructed of any material (e.g., tin-like material) which is capable of conducting cold (or heat). The shell contains within any of the various suitable eutectic solution forming, inorganic chemical compounds in water such as copper sulfate, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate, potassium nitrate, and mixtures thereof, which are capable of being formulated to maintain the temperature of the chamber 18 at 4C for up to 12 .hours. Also, the eutectic of ice and water can also be employeed, if desired.

In the manufacture of the electrolytic cell structure of this invention, it is obvious the cell structure can be easily produced from a plastic material to achieve the end product. The tray portion of the electrolytic cell structure 10 can be molded or formed in substantially one piece. The cover portion 14 can be easily molded or formed from transparent plastic material and have the magnetic element 106 attached thereto. The electrode means 16 consists of standard elements and easily fabricatable elements which can be mounted with and attached to the tray structure 12.

In the use and operation of the electrolytic cell structure of. this invention, it is seen that same provides an electrolytic cell with means to regulate the temperature thereof by using a coolant cartridge 60 enclosed in a cartridge chamber 18, and which has an electrode means with a switch means to connect the electrodes thereof to a source of electrical power when the cover of the cell structure is in place. When the electrolytic cell 10 is in use a pre-cooled or pre-heated coolant cartridge 60 is enclosed in the chamber 18 of the cell structure thereby raising or lowering the temperature of the cell structure and the gel slide specimens therein as desired by the user. Enclosed chamber portion 18 is delineated by end 54, bottom 50, sides 94 and 96, and parabolic or dome shaped roof 44. The magnetically operable switch is a convenience to the user in that the electrodes of the cell are not connected to the power source until the cover is in place on the tray. The electrolytic cell structure of this invention is' particularly adapted for use in the areas of electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, electroimmunodiffusion and immunodiffusion although it may be used for other electrolytic operations and areas of endeavor.

As will become apparent from the foregoing descrip tion of the applicants electrolytic cell structure, relatively simple. and inexpensive means have been provided to regulate the temperature of an electrolytic cell that is adapted for holding articles such as conductive gel slide specimens. The electrolytic cell structure 10 is provided with a magnetically operable switch means to connect the electrodes thereof to a power source when the cover is placed on the tray. as it is when in normal operation. The cooling or heating apparatus of the electrolytic cell structure has a chamber portion enclosed in the tray portion of the structure which is easily capable of holding a cooled or heated cartridge so that the electrolytic cell can be heated or cooled as desired.

While the invention has been described in conjunction with preferred specific embodiments thereof, it will be understood that this description is intended to illustrate and not limit the scope of the invention, which is defined by the following claims.

I claim:

1. An electrolytic cell means for immunodiffusion comprising a tray with a bottom, a first side connected to said bottom and having a first annulus therein. a second side attached to said bottom and including a second annulus therein, and a pair of ends attached to said sides and to said bottom, at least one of said pair of ends includes a first opening, a heat transfer cartridge chamber integrally bound to said first and to said second sides and attached to said bottom, and heat transfer chamber additionally including a roof connected to said sides and a second pair of ends attached to said sides, to said bottom, and to said roof, at least one of said second pair of ends includes a second opening, said first opening and said second opening are essentially in registry and enable the insides of said heat transfer chamber to communicate with the outside atmosphere, a second tray slidably lodged within said chamber and through said first and second opening, a coolant cartridge removably situated within said second tray, said cartridge being designed to conform to the shape of said roof,'said roof of said chamber includes a first sloping portion and a second sloping portion, said first side and said first sloping portion defining a first trough and said second side and said second sloping portion defining a second trough, a first elec trode secured in said first trough, a second electrode oppositely charged from said first electrode attached in said second trough. and an electrical source connected to said first electrode and to said second electrode.

2. The elecytrolytic cell means of claim I wherein said roof of said heat transfer cartridge chamber has the definition of being generally parabolic.

3. The electrolytic cell means of claim 2 additionally including a cover removably engaging with said tray.

4. The electrolytic cell means of claim 3 additionally including means attached within said tray for actuating the flow of electrical current from said electrical source.

5. The electrolytic cell means of claim 4 wherein said means for actuating said flow of said electrical current from said electrical source comprises a first magnetic member attached to said cover. a switch connected within said tray, and said first magnetic member magnetically closes said switch when said cover engages with said tray.

6. The electrolytic cell means of claim 1 wherein said first and said second troughs include an electrolytic fluid which immerses said first and said second electrodes.

7. The electrolytic cell means of claim 6 additionally including at least one conductive gel having a structure defined by a pliable elongated strip having an electrolytic environment mounted thereon and superimposed on said roof such that the structure thereof contours said roof and has one end immersed in said electrolytic fluid of said first trough and the opposite end immersed in said electrolytic fluid of said second trough.

8. The electrolytic cell means of claim 7 wherein said first electrode and said second electrode are rcmovably connected to said electrical source.

* l l= l

Claims (8)

1. AN ELECTROLYTIC CELL MEANS FOR IMMUNODIFFUSION COMPRISING A TRAY WITH A BOTTOM, A FIRST SIDE CONNECTED TO SAID BOTTOM AND HAVING A FIRST ANNULUS THEREIN, A SECOND SIDE ATTACHED TO SAID BOTTOM AND INCLUDING A SECOND ANNULUS THEREIN, AND A PAIR OF ENDS ATTACHED TO SAID SIDES AND TO SAID BOTTOM, AT LEAST ONE OF SAID PAIR OF ENDS INCLUDES A FIRST OPENING, A HEAT TRANSFER CARTRIDGE CHAMBER INTEGRALLY BOUND TO SAID FIRST AND TO SAID SECOND SIDES AND ATTACHED TO SAID BOTTOM, AND HEAT TRANSFER CHAMBER ADDITIONALLY INCLUDING A ROOF CONNECTED TO SAID SIDES AND A SECOND PAIR OF ENDS ATTACHED TO SAID SIDES, TO SAID BOTTOM, AND TO SAID ROOF, AT LEAST ONE OF SAID SECOND PAIR OF ENDS INCLUDES A SECOND OPENING, SAID FIRST OPENING AND SAID SECOND OPENING ARE ESSENTIALLY IN REGISTRY AND ENABLE THE INSIDES OF SAID HEAT TRANSFER CHAMBER TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE OUTSIDE ATMOSPHERE, A SECOND TRAY SLIDABLY LODGED WITHIN SAID CHAMBER AND THROUGH SAID FIRST AND SECOND OPENING, A COOLANT CARTRIDGE REMOVABLY SITUATED WITHIN SAID SECOND TRAY, SAID CARTRIDGE BEING DESIGNED TO CONFORM TO THE SHAPE OF SAID ROOF, SAID ROOF
2. The elecytrolytic cell means of claim 1 wherein said roof of said heat transfer cartridge chamber has the definition of being generally parabolic.
3. The electrolytic cell means of claim 2 additionally including a cover removably engaging with said tray.
4. The electrolytic cell means of claim 3 additionally including means attached within said tray for actuating the flow of electrical current from said electrical source.
5. The electrolytic cell means of claim 4 wherein said means for actuating said flow of said electrical current from said electrical source comprises a first magnetic member attached to said cover, a switch connected within said tray, and said first magnetic member magnetically closes said switch when said cover engages with said tray.
6. The electrolytic cell means of claim 1 wherein said first and said second troughs include an electrolytic fluid which immerses said first and said second electrodes.
7. The electrolytic cell means of claim 6 additionally including at least one conductive gel having a structure defined by a pliable elongated strip having an electrolytic environment mounted thereon and superimposed on said roof such that the structure thereof contours said roof and has one end immersed in said electrolytic fluid of said first trough and the opposite end immersed in said electrolytic fluid of said second trough.
8. The electrolytic cell means of claim 7 wherein said first electrode and said second electrode are removably connected to said electrical source.
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GB2908975A GB1461718A (en) 1974-08-13 1975-07-10 Electrolytic cell
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US4164464A (en) * 1977-03-25 1979-08-14 Instrumentation Specialties Company Sample concentrator
US4190517A (en) * 1978-08-16 1980-02-26 Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. Electrophoresis apparatus
US4194963A (en) * 1977-11-04 1980-03-25 Denckla W D Electrophoresis apparatus
US4608146A (en) * 1985-04-09 1986-08-26 Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. Horizontal electrophoresis cell for rapid assembly
US4814057A (en) * 1987-01-16 1989-03-21 Hideyuki Nishizawa Electrophoretic apparatus
US4865714A (en) * 1987-07-17 1989-09-12 Beckman Instruments, Inc. Electrophoretic gel cooled cell
US5074981A (en) * 1989-04-26 1991-12-24 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation High speed gel electrophoresis
EP0872731A2 (en) * 1997-04-11 1998-10-21 Toyo Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha Apparatus for electrophoresis

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JPS62172609U (en) * 1986-04-23 1987-11-02
JPS62172607U (en) * 1986-04-23 1987-11-02
JPS644519A (en) * 1987-06-27 1989-01-09 Kanzaki Kokyukoki Mfg Co Ltd Hst integral type axle driving device
US20110024293A1 (en) * 2008-04-14 2011-02-03 Hafid Mezdour Apparatus and method for non immersed gel electrophoresis

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US3407133A (en) * 1965-06-18 1968-10-22 Baxter Laboratories Inc Expendable electrophoresis apparatus
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US3407133A (en) * 1965-06-18 1968-10-22 Baxter Laboratories Inc Expendable electrophoresis apparatus
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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4164464A (en) * 1977-03-25 1979-08-14 Instrumentation Specialties Company Sample concentrator
US4194963A (en) * 1977-11-04 1980-03-25 Denckla W D Electrophoresis apparatus
US4190517A (en) * 1978-08-16 1980-02-26 Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. Electrophoresis apparatus
US4608146A (en) * 1985-04-09 1986-08-26 Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. Horizontal electrophoresis cell for rapid assembly
US4814057A (en) * 1987-01-16 1989-03-21 Hideyuki Nishizawa Electrophoretic apparatus
US4865714A (en) * 1987-07-17 1989-09-12 Beckman Instruments, Inc. Electrophoretic gel cooled cell
US5074981A (en) * 1989-04-26 1991-12-24 The University Of Tennessee Research Corporation High speed gel electrophoresis
EP0872731A2 (en) * 1997-04-11 1998-10-21 Toyo Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha Apparatus for electrophoresis
EP0872731A3 (en) * 1997-04-11 2001-08-16 Toyo Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha Apparatus for electrophoresis

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
FR2281789B3 (en) 1978-11-10 grant
GB1461718A (en) 1977-01-19 application
JPS5120782A (en) 1976-02-19 application
FR2281789A1 (en) 1976-03-12 application
JPS5723215B2 (en) 1982-05-18 grant
DE2532320A1 (en) 1976-02-26 application

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