finite States Patent 1 Langenbach, Jr.
[4 1 Sept. 2, 1975 APPARATUS FOR AND METHOD OF SHORHNG A FOUNDATION  lnventor: George F. Langenbach, Jr., 9127 Pardee Spur, Crestwood, Mo. 63126  Filed: May 16, 1974 ] Appl. No.: 470,384
 US. Cl 61/51; 254/29  E02D 17/02; EO2D 3/08  Field of Search 61/51, 50, 535; 254/29  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,796,055 3/1974 Mahony 61/51 Primary Examiner.lacob Shapiro Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Koenig, Senniger, Powers and Leavitt such as bedrock. The means engaging the foundation receives and guides the piling member as the latter is driven into the ground and the apparatus further comprises means for driving the piling members into the ground until the latter strikes. the load-supporting underground strata and thus shores the foundation. The means engaging the foundation includes means for selectively securing the support means thereto upon the piling section engaging the load-supporting underground strata so as to shore the building. The driving means is removably mounted on the means engaging the foundation whereupon completing shoring of the foundation, the driving means may readily be removed.
The method of this invention of shoring and lifting the foundation of a building comprises securing means to the foundation below the level of the basement floor of the building, this means having a generally vertical guide for piling member. The piling member is then driven into the ground beneath the foundation until it engages load-supporting underground strata and is further driven into the ground until the foundation is shored. The piling member is then locked relative to the means secured to the foundation and thus the foundation is directly supported by the load-supporting underground strata.
15 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures PATENTED 21975 SHEET 1 of 3 PMENTEU SEP 2 I975 SEEZET 3 DE 3 APPARATUS FOR AND METHOD OF SI-IOIRING A FOUNDATION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to apparatus for and a method of shoring the foundation of a building, and more particularly to such apparatus and method in which the shored foundation is directly supported by loadsupporting underground strata.
Houses and other buildings are often erected on foundations which are not in direct contact with loadsupporting underground strata, such as bedrock or the like. If not properly constructed or if soil conditions change, the foundation footing may settle causing the building foundation to sag or crack. Unless the building is shored, continued settling may result in major structural damage to or collapse of the building. Typically, a building is shored by jacking the foundation to support the foundation and thus prevent further sagging or settling. However, with many of the shoring methods presently used, continued settling may occur after shoring since the foundation is not directly supported by bedrock or the like. Other known methods involve drilling holes into the ground under the foundation, installing grouting casings in these holes and forcing the concrete mix therethrough and into the soil where it hardens establishing a concrete table under the foundation so as to distribute the load of the foundation on the soft subsoil. A variation of this method includes excavating under the foundation to the depth of the hardpan therebelow, placing pipes on the base of the footing at the bottom of the excavation, reinforcing the excavation with steel bars and concrete, and forcing a concrete mix into the pipes. As the pressure builds within the pipes, the foundation rises to the desired height and thereafter hardens. These above-described hydraulic shoring methods and other known methods are expensive because they require extensive excavating and they also require that shrubbery, sidewalks and driveways around the house be dug up. Reference may be made to US. Pat. .No. 2,853,858 illustrating a typical hydraulic shoring system.
Other shoring methods are known which involve driving piling members into the subsoil below the foun dation until they contact bedrock. These lastmentioned methods require extensive excavation of the basement flooring for placing structural reinforcing members under the foundation walls. Also, after complction of the shoring job, the shoring structure is visible above the basement floor. Examples of such systems are shown in such U.S. Pat. Nos. as 1,906,136 and 2,982,103.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Among the several objects of the present invention may be noted the provision of an improved apparatus for shoring a building foundation which directly supports the foundation on loadsupporting underground strata to prevent further settling of the foundation; the provision of such apparatus which in one embodiment leaves no visible structure remaining after the shoring operation is completed; the provision of such apparatus which requires no major modifications to the building structure per se and no substantial exterior or interior excavation; the provision of such a method for shoring a building which permits the building to be evenly lifted to a predetermined level thereby eliminating sagging of the building; the provision of :a method of shoring the foundation of a building which requires a minimum of labor, equipment and site preparation; and the provision of such apparatus and method which are easy to use and which permit the shoring job to be completed as rapidly as possible at low cost.
Briefly. apparatus of this invention for shoring the foundation of a building comprises means adapted to engage the foundation of the building below the basement floor level of the building. Support means including at least one piling member is drivable into the ground below the foundation for engagement with the load-bearing underground strata, such as bedrock. The above-mentioned means engaging the foundation has means for receiving and guiding the piling members as the latter are driven into the ground. The apparatus of this invention further comprises means for driving the support means or piling members into the ground until the latter engages the load-supporting underground strata so as to shore the foundation. The means engaging the foundation further includes means for selectively securing the support means thereto upon the lat ter engaging the load-supporting underground strata and shoring the foundation and means for removably mounting the driving means on the means engaging the foundation whereupon completing shoring the foundation the driving means may readily be removed.
The method of this invention for shoring the foundation of a building having a footing-supported foundation comprises securing means to the footing on the inside of the foundation, these means including means for guiding piling members as they are driven into the ground below the foundation. A power-operated drive means is removably mounted to the means secured to the footing and a piling member is placed in the guide means. This piling member is then driven into the ground to engage load-supporting underground strata, with driving of the piling continued until the foundation is shored against further settling. The piling member is then locked to the means secured to the footing while the piling member supports the load of the foundation thereby to permanently shore the foundation. After shoring, the drive means is removed from the means secured to the footing.
Other objects and features of this invention will be in part apparent and in part pointed out hereinafter.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a first embodiment of this invention secured to the footing of the foundation of a building;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged exploded view of a portion of the apparatus of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a partial perspective view illustrating a modification of apparatus of this invention; and
FIG. 4 is an enlarged exploded view of portions of the apparatus of FIG. 3.
Corresponding reference characters indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views of the drawings.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to the drawings, a foundation 1 of a dwelling house or other building is shown to include a poured concrete footing 3 and a basement wall 5 of poured concrete, cinder block. or other suitable material. The footing bears on prepared soil, such as hardpan, and it distributes the load of the foundation wall over a larger area than the cross-sectional area of the foundation wall. Typically, the building has a poured concrete basement floor 7 supported on the ground on the inside of the footing overlying the footing and being spaced somewhat thereabove. Oftentimes, the prepared soil for the footing is not sufficiently strong to support the load of the building or soil conditions change thus permitting the foundation to settle.
In accordance with this invention, apparatus, indicated in its entirety at 9, is provided for lifting and shoring foundation 1 in the event the foundation settles after construction of the building. More particularly, apparatus 9 comprises means, such as generally indicated at 11, adapted to engage footing 3 of foundation 1 below the level of basement floor 7 on the inside of the foundation wall 5. Support means, as indicated at 13, is drivable into the ground below the foundation for engagement with load-supporting (load-bearing) underground strata, such as bedrock BR. Foundationengaging means 11 has means 15 for receiving and guiding the support means as the latter is driven into the ground. Apparatus 9 further includes poweroperated means 17 for driving the support means into the ground until the latter engages the load-supporting underground strata so as to shore foundation 1. The foundation-engaging means 11 further includes means 19 for selectively securing the support means 13 thereto at any point along the support mens upon the support means being driven into the ground and engaging bedrock BR so as to permanently shore foundation 1 relative to the bedrock. Power-operated means 17 is removably mounted on the foundation-engaging means 11 by a connector collar 21.
More particularly, foundation-engaging means 11 is shown to comprise a C-shaped bracket 23 adapted to fit over the inner edge of footing 3 and to overlie the upper and lower surfaces thereof. In order to install the bracket, a small (2 feet X 2 feet) area 25 of basement floor 7 is removed and the soil adjacent footing 3 is dug away to expose the inner vertical face of the footing and to provide access to its lower face. Bracket 23 is of relatively heavy steel or the like and is sized to have a relatively close fit with the footing, but yet be readily installable on the footing. Bracket 23 has a first or lower horizontal leg 23a engaging the under surface of footing 3, a second or upper horizontal leg 23b overlying the upper surface of the footing and a vertical web 230 extending along the inner vertical face of the footing. On its upper leg 23b, bracket 23 carries a threaded set screw or bolt 27 for being threaded into engagement with the footing thereby to securely fasten the bracket to the footing. A vertically disposed, heavy wall tube 29 is secured, as by welding, to the outside of web 230. This tube has a bore 30 for slidably receiving support means 13 and thus constitutes guide means 15 for the support means.
Support means 13 is shown to comprise a plurality of piling sections 31 releasably secured together to form a piling member capable of being driven into the ground for engagement with bedrock BR and for supporting a load'sufficient to shore foundation 1 and to lift the foundation a predetermined distance so as to return the foundation to a desired level. The first or bottom piling section is pointed at its lower end, as indicatcd at 31a, to facilitate penetration into the ground.
Each piling section 31 is shown to be a length of piping and each has a threaded bore 33 at each end thereof. An adapter 35 having a body section 37 substantially the same diameter as piling sections 31 and threaded studs 39 at each end thereof is threaded into a bore 33 of adjacent piling section thereby to rigidly secure the piling sections together in abutting relation with the body section 37 of the adapter.
Power-o erated means 17 is shown to include a hydraulic ram 41 and a hydraulic power unit 43. More particularly, ram 41 is a conventional hydraulic cylinder 45 having a piston (not shown) movable within the Cylinder and a piston rod 47 extending endwise from the lower end of the cylinder. Cylinder 45 is secured (i.e., bolted) to the upper end of a half-cylindrical breech 49 having an opening 51 and a bore 52 therein for reception of a piling section 31. This breech is removably secured to guide tube 29 by collar 21 and thus upon driving piling sections 31 into the ground transfers the reaction force of the ram to the bracket which in turn transfers it to footing 3. With breech 49 secured to tube 29, bore 52 and the bore 30 of the tube are in axial alignment for guiding the piling sections 31 as the latter are driven into the ground. Piston and piston rod 47 are movable between a raised retracted position (as shown in FIG. 1) in which a piling section 31 with an adapter 35 secured thereto may be inserted in the breech and the outer adapter stud 39 of this adapter may be threaded into the bore 33 of a previously driven piling member, and a lowered extended position (not shown) for driving a piling section into the ground. Piston rod 47 is engageable with the upper end of the uppermost piling section for driving all of the piling sections constituting the support member downwardly into the ground. It will be understood that piston rod 47 may thrcadably engage the bore 33 of the uppermost piling section 31 whereby upon movement of the piston rod from its lowered to its raised position the support member 13 may be withdrawn from the ground.
Hydraulic power unit 43 includes a wheeled cart 53 supporting a hydraulic pump and motor unit 55. This pump supplies hydraulic fluid under pressure to a solenoid control valve 57 which in turn is connected by flexible hydraulic lines L1 and L2 to fittings (not shown) at opposite ends of cylinder 45 to direct pressurized fluid to one side of the piston and to vent fluid from the other side of the piston so that the hydraulic fluid expelled therefrom may return to a hydraulic fluid reservoir or sump. Preferably, lines L1 and L2 include quick-disconnect fittings 59 so that the lines may readily be connected to and disconnected from hydraulic cylinder 45 substantially without loss of hydraulic fluid from the lines. Operation of hydraulic cylinder 45 is controlled by a hand-held control switch assembly 61 which in turn actuatcs valve 57. it will be understood that the maximum force exerted by cylinder 45 may be regulated by adjusting the maximum pressure output of the pump.
As shown in FIG. 2, means 19 for selectively securing piling sections 31 to bracket 23 comprises an internally threaded boss 63, a stop bolt or set screw 65 threaded into the boss and a lock nut 67 carried on the stop bolt. Upon driving piling sections 31 into the ground and engaging bedroek BR and upon applying sufficient load to the piling sections with ram 41 to shore the building and. if desired, to lift the foundation a predetermined amount, stop bolt 65 may be threaded into boss 63 so as to securely engage a piling section 31 in tube 29 thereby securely to fix the piling sections to bracket 23 and to footing 3. It will be understood that other suitable means may be employed in place of stop bolt for selectively securing the piling sections to bracket 3.
The upper end of tube 29 has an upwardly facing flange 69 and breech 49 has a corresponding mating flange 71 on its lower end. With flanges 69 and 71 in face-to-face engagement, collar 21 may be placed around the flanges to relcasably secure breech 49 to bracket 23. More particularly, collar 21 is a split mem her having collar halves 73 and 75 hinged, as indicated at 77, and releasably secured (bolted) together, as indicatcdat 79. Each collar half is channel-shaped in cross section with the opening of the channel being sized to accommodate flanges 69 and 71 when the flanges are in face-to-face engagement and to prevent their axial separation when the collar is in place. Upon completion of driving of the piling sections 31 and upon securing the piling sections to bracket 23 by means of stop bolt 65, ram 41 and breech 49 may readily be removed from bracket 23 by removing bolt 79, opening collar 21 and then lifting the ram and breech free of the bracket. It will be noted in FIG. 1 that the upper surface of flange 69 is below the level of the upper surface of floor 7 so that upon completion of shoring of the foundation, concrete may be poured into opening 25 thereby to cover all the remaining shoring structure.
Referring now to FIGS. 3 and 4, a modification of the shoring apparatus of this invention is illustrated. More particularly, this modification is primarily a modification of foundation-engaging means 11, receiving and guiding means 15 and securement means 19. The above-mentioned modified means are indicated in FIGS. 3 and 4 as 11a, 15a and 190, respectively, while other parts of apparatus 9 have identical structure and function as heretofore described and thus have corresponding reference characters.
In FIG. 3, a hole 81 is drilled through basement floor 7 and footing 3 adjacent the inside face of foundation wall 5. It will be understood that hole 81 may be drilled with a conventional concrete core drill or the like and is preferably about 4-5 inches in diameter. As best shown in FIG. 4, foundation-engaging means 11a is shown to comprise a (3) piece split tubular member generally indicated at 83 having identical sections 85. Each section 85 has an outwardly extending flange 87 at its lower end, an intermediate flange 89 and an upper flange 91 at its upper end. Sections 85, when assembled with their vertical sides adjacent one another, form a tubular member having a bore 93 therein which constitute the guide means 150. Also, flanges 87, 89 and 91 extend around the periphery of the member when the member is in its assembled position. Each section 85 and its lower flange 87 are sized such that the sections may be inserted, one at a time, into hole 81 and assembled in the hole so as to form the above-mentioned tube member with the lower flanges 87 of each section extending out beyond hole 81 for underlying and engaging portions of footing 3. A clamp ring 95 is secured, as by bolting. in place between intermediate flange 89 and upper flange 91 thereby to securely hold sections 85 in their assembled position in hole 81 so as to form member 83.
Lower flange 71 of breech 49 may be placed in faceto-face engagement with the upper faces of upper flanges 91 and secured thereto by means of collar 21 as heretofore described. Securcment means 19a is essentially the same as securement means 19 heretofore described, but for means being carried by clamp ring 95. After installation of foundation-engaging means 11, operation of the shoring apparatus is essentially identical with the operation as described above. Of course, it will be appreciated that with foundationcngaging means 11a, basement floor 7 need not be dug up to accommodate the modified foundation-engaging means.
It will be further understood that upon shoring and lifting foundation 1 and upon locking support means 13 to the foundation-engaging means 11a and upon removal of breech 49 from means 11a, the upper portion of member 83 remains exposed above the surface of basement floor 7. However, this remaining support structure is of relatively low profile and is positioned adjacent the foundation wall and does not require substantial space in the basement.
In some instances upon completing a shoring job, the building may continue to settle. This may be true regardless of the shoring method and apparatus used. However, with the shoring apparatus of this invention and particularly with such apparatus utilizing foundation-engaging means 11a, the foundation may again be -readily and inexpensively re-shored and again lifted to its desired position merely by re-attaching breech 49 and hydraulic ram 41 thereto, loosening stop bolt 65, applying an additional load to support means 13 thereby to shore and to lift the foundation. The support means may then be locked relative to bracket 23 thereby to maintain the support means in shoring relation to the bracket.
The method of this invention of shoring the foundation of a building which is embodied in the abovedcscribed apparatus involves securing means 11 or 11a to footing 3 on the inside of foundation wall 5, this means including means 15 or 15a for guiding piling sections 31 as they are driven into the ground. A piling section is placed in guiding means 15 or 15a and is forcefully driven into the ground until it engages loadsupporting underground strata (e.g., bedrock BR) and is then further driven downwardly until the foundation is shored. Upon shoring the foundation, the piling members are locked relative: to footing 3 thereby to permanently shore the foundation relative to bedrock BR.
In accordance with the method of this invention, foundation 1 may be lifted to its original or desired position by continuing to drive piling sections 31 downwardly and thus applying a lifting force to the foundation. Upon lifting the foundation a predetermined amount, the piling members are locked in position relative to the foundation thereby to support the building at its desired height.
It will be understood that the plurality of supports 13 may be driven into the ground at spaced intervals around the foundation to uniformly shore the foundation. It may also be desirable to drive the various support members in a predetermined sequence, applying a relatively small increment of shoring or lifting load to a first support, locking the first support relative to the foundation, then applying a similar load to a second support, etc. until all the supports around the foundation carry an equal load. The first-mentioned support is then unlocked relative to the foundation and an additional load is applied thereto and then this first support is then locked with respect to the foundation. The other supports are then again sequentially loaded. This proeedurc is repeated until all the support members carry the substantially equal shoring load or until the foundation has been uniformly lifted to its predetermined position.
In view of the above, it will be seen that the several objects of the invention are achieved and other advantageous results attained.
As various changes could be made in the above constructions and methods without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
What is claimed is:
1. Apparatus for shoring the foundation of a building comprising means adapted to engage the foundation of the building below the basement floor level of the building, support means driveable into the ground below said foundation for engagement with loadbcaring underground strata, such as bedrock, said means engaging the foundation having means for receiving and guiding said support means as the latter is driven into the ground, and said apparatus further comprising means for driving said support means into the ground until the latter engages said load-bearing underground strata and for further applying downward force to said support means thereby to shore said foundation, said means engaging the foundation including means for selectively securing said support means thereto upon the latter engaging said load-bearing underground strata and shoring said foundation, and means for removably mounting said driving means on said means engaging the foundation whereupon, upon completing shoring of the foundation, said driving means may be removed.
2. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein said support means further comprises a plurality of said piling sections secured together in end-to-end relation.
3. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein said driving means further comprises a breech for receiving one of said piling sections and for permitting said one piling section to be secured to the upper end of the next adjacent piling section constituting said support means, said breech being removably secured to said receiving and guiding means, and power-operated means interconnected to said means adapted to engage the foundation, said poweroperatcd.means being movable between a retracted position in which one of said piling sections may be placed in the breech and secured to its next adjacent piling section and an extended position in which said one section along with others of said sections con= stituting said support means is driven into the ground.
4. Apparatus as set forth in claim 3 wherein said securing means comprises a stop carried by said receiving and guiding means selectively movable between a retractcd position in which said piling members may be driven into the ground and a stop position engagcable with said piling members thereby to fix the piling members relative to said means engageable with the foundation.
5. Apparatus as set forth in claim 4 wherein said securing means comprises a set screw threadably carried by said receiving and guiding means, said set screw being operable to engage said piling section at any point along the piling section.
6. Apparatus as set forth in claim 3 wherein said means removably mounting the driving means on said receiving and guiding means comprises a first flange on said receiving and guiding means and a mating second flange on the lower end of said breech, and a removable flangc clamp surroundingsaid first and second flanges for holding them in face-to-face mating relation thereby to removably interconnect said driving means with said means secured to said foundation.
7. Apparatus as set forth in claim 3 wherein said foundation includes a footing underlying the foundation wall and extending horizontally beyond the wall, said means for engaging the foundation comprising a generally C-shaped bracket having a first or lower leg engaging the under surface of said footing, a web extending generally vertically along one vertical edge of the footing, and a second leg extending generally horizontally along the top footing, and means for securing the bracket to the footing.
8. Apparatus as set forth in claim 7 wherein said means for receiving and guiding said piling member comprises a generally vertically disposed member having a bore therethrough for receiving said piling member, said guide member being secured to said C-shaped bracket.
9. Apparatus as set forth in claim 7 wherein said means securing said bracket to the footing comprises a set screw threadably carried by one of said legs, said set screw being engageable with said footing thereby positively to clamp said bracket to said footing.
10. Apparatus as set forth in claim 3 wherein said foundation includes a footing underlying the foundation walls and extending generally horizontally beyond said Walls, said footing having a generally vertical hole therethrough, said means for engaging the foundation comprising a plurality of sections adapted to be inserted through said hole from above and to be positioned relative to one another in said hole so as to define a bore constituting said means for receiving and guiding said support means, said members each having a portion thereof at their lower ends extending therefrom for engagement with the under surface of said footing adjacent said hole when said members are in their assembled position.
11. Apparatus as set forth in claim .10 wherein said means for engaging the foundation further comprises means for holding said vertical members in their assembled position.
12. Apparatus for shoring and lifting the foundation of a building comprising means adapted for engagement with the footing of the foundation of the building on the inside of the building below the basement floor of the building, said floor level being above the uppermost portion of said foundation engaging means, support means driveable into the ground below said foundation for engagement with load-supporting underground strata. said foundation engaging means having means for receiving and guiding said support means as it is driven into the ground, and means including a hydraulic ram adapted to be removably secured to said foundation engaging means for driving said support means into the ground until the latter engages said load-supporting strata and for further applying downward force to said support means thereby to shore the foundation and to lift it a predetermined distance. said foundation engaging means including selectively operable locking means for securing said support means thereto so as to lock said support means to said foundation and to maintain the foundation in its shored or lifted position. said driving means being removable from said foundation engaging means leaving no visible support structure above said basement floor level.
13. The method of shoring the foundation of a building, such the foundation of a house, having a footingsupported foundation in the basement floor comprising the steps of:
securing means to the footing on the inside of the foundation, said means including means for guiding piling sections as they are driven downwardly into the ground;
placing a piling member into said guide means;
driving one or more of said piling members into the ground until said piling members engage loadsupporting underground strata. such as bedrock,
and continuing to drive the piling members into the ground until the foundation is shorcd; and locking said piling members to said means secured to the footing while said piling member is shoringly supporting the foundation.