US3901747A - Pyrotechnic composition with combined binder-coolant - Google Patents

Pyrotechnic composition with combined binder-coolant Download PDF

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Publication number
US3901747A
US3901747A US39548173A US3901747A US 3901747 A US3901747 A US 3901747A US 39548173 A US39548173 A US 39548173A US 3901747 A US3901747 A US 3901747A
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composition
magnesium hydroxide
magnesium
coolant
mixture
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Eugene F Garner
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Allied Corp
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Allied Corp
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Priority claimed from US50081074 external-priority patent/US3912562A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C06EXPLOSIVES; MATCHES
    • C06DMEANS FOR GENERATING SMOKE OR MIST; GAS-ATTACK COMPOSITIONS; GENERATION OF GAS FOR BLASTING OR PROPULSION (CHEMICAL PART)
    • C06D5/00Generation of pressure gas, e.g. for blasting cartridges, starting cartridges, rockets
    • C06D5/06Generation of pressure gas, e.g. for blasting cartridges, starting cartridges, rockets by reaction of two or more solids
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C06EXPLOSIVES; MATCHES
    • C06BEXPLOSIVES OR THERMIC COMPOSITIONS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS EXPLOSIVES
    • C06B23/00Compositions characterised by non-explosive or non-thermic constituents
    • C06B23/04Compositions characterised by non-explosive or non-thermic constituents for cooling the explosion gases including antifouling and flash suppressing agents

Abstract

This pyrotechnic composition is adapted, upon combustion, for generating a low-flame temperature, non-toxic gas for inflating a vehicle safety bag. The composition comprises: a fuel, such as a carbonaceous material, aluminum or magnesium; an inorganic oxidizer, such as a metal chlorate, a metal perchlorate, a metal nitrate, ammonium chlorate, ammonium perchlorate or ammonium nitrate; and a combined binder and coolant, such as magnesium hydroxide or a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate. A typical example of this composition comprises: carbon as the fuel; potassium chlorate as the oxidizer; and a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate as the binder-coolant. One may use as much of this binder-coolant as is necessary to obtain the desired binding properties in the composition, without raising the flame temperature of the gas to an unacceptable level.

Description

Unite Sttes Garner Aug. 26, 1975 PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION WITH COMBINED BINDER-COOLANT [75] Inventor: Eugene F. Garner, Saugus, Calif.

[73] Assignee: Allied Chemical Corporation, New

York, NY.

[22] Filed: Sept. 10, 1973 [21] Appl. No.: 395,481

[52] US. Cl. 149/42; 149/43; 149/45; 149/46; 149/61; 149/75; 149/76; 149/77; 280/150 AB [51] Int. Cl. C06B 29/00 [58] Field of Search 149/42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 149/76, 61, 82, 83, 77, 85; 280/150 AB [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,532,359 10/1970 Tcague et a1. 250/150 AB 3,647,393 3/1972 Lcising et al. 102/39 X Primary ExaminerStephen J. Lechert, Jr. Attorney, Agent, or Firm-John P. Kirby, Jr.

[5 7 ABSTRACT This pyrotechnic composition is adapted, upon combustion, for generating a low-flame temperature, nontoxic gas for inflating a vehicle safety bag. The composition comprises: a fuel, such as a carbonaceous material, aluminum or magnesium; an inorganic oxidizer, such as a metal chlorate, a metal perchlorate, a metal nitrate, ammonium chlorate, ammonium perchlorate or ammonium nitrate; and a combined binder and coolant, such as magnesium hydroxide or a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate. A typical example of this composition comprises: carbon as the fuel; potassium chlorate as the oxidizer; and a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate as the binder-coolant. One may use as much of this binder-coolant as is necessary to obtain the desired binding properties in the composition, without raising the flame temperature of the gas to an unacceptable level.

9 Claims, No Drawings PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION WITH COMBINED BINDER-COOLANT BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a pyrotechnic composition adapted, upon combustion, for generating a gas. In particular, this invention relates to a pyrotechnic composition which, upon combustion, generates a low-flame temperature, non-toxic gas. Among the uses for such a gas is to inflate a safety bag in a vehicle to restrain movement of an occupant in the vehicle in the event of collision.

It is necessary that such a pyrotechnic composition be able to meet certain criteria in order to be adapted for use with a vehicle safety bag. The pyrotechnic composition must be able to withstand storage in an environment from approximately 40F. to approximately +220F. It is also necessary that the composition be-capable of being ignited rapidly, for example, within a matter of milliseconds, and that it be capable of being totally ignited to produce gas. It is necessary that the gas produced have only a negligible amount of toxic gases, such as nitrogen oxides or carbon 'monoxide, at relatively low temperatures, such as less than 2000F. when burned at pressures of from 100 to 20,000 lbs./sq.in.

Previously used pyrotechnic compositions normally include the use of an organic binder. The organic binder also acts as a fuel and tends to raise the flame temperature of the gas to an unacceptable level. As a result, the temperature of the outer surface of the vehicle safety bag, using such prior art compositions, would be so high that it might burn the occupant of the vehicle or at least result in discomfort to the occupant. In order to keep the flame temperature of the gas as low as possible, one had to limit the amount of the organic binder-fuel used in such prior art compositions. As a result, there was a problem in not having enough binder for the composition. 9 V

This is understandable because the compositions using such binders were intended for applications, such as high-energy propellants for rockets, where lowflame temperature was not an objective. See: U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,929,697 to Perry and 2,994,598 to Dickey. In addition, many of the compositions disclosed in the prior art produce a toxic gas, such as some of the compositions in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,020,180 to Morello and 3,047,524 to Bowman.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION temperature, non-toxic gas. This gas is usefulfor inflating various devices, such as a safety bag in a vehicle. A safety bag is inflated to restrain the movement of an occupant of the vehicle in the event of collision. In general, the pyprotechnic composition comprises a fuel; an inorganic oxidizer; and 'a combined binder and coolant, which is selected from the group consisting of; magnesium hydroxide, and a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate. It has been found that one may use asmuch of this binder-coolant as is necessary in the pyrotechnic composition to obtain the desired binder properties for the composition without raising the flame temperature of the gas, generated upon combustion, to an unacceptable level. The fuel may be selected from the group consisting of: a carbonaceous material, aluminum andmagnesium. The inorganic oxidizer may be selected from the group consisting of: a metal chlorate, a metal perchlorate, a metal nitrate, ammonium chlorate, ammonium perchlorate and ammonium nitrate.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION This pyrotechnic composition is adapted for generating a low-flame temperature, non-toxic gas upon combustion for inflating a vehicle safety bag. In general, the composition comprises: a fuel selected from the group consisting of a carbonaceous material (such as carbon, carbon black or ,lamp black), aluminum and magnesium; an inorganic oxidizer selected from the group consisting of an alkali metal chlorate, such as potassium chlorate or sodium chlorate, an alkali metal perchlorate, such as potassium perchlorate or sodium perchlorate, an alkali metal nitrate, such as potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate, ammonium chlorate, ammonium perchlorate, and ammonium nitrate; and a combined binder and coolant selected from the group consisting of: magnesium hydroxide and a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate.

A typical formulation of this pyrotechnic composition comprises: carbon which acts as a fuel; potassium chlorate (KCIO or potassium perchlorate (KCIO which acts as an oxidizer; and magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) which acts as a coolant and a binder.

The pyrotechnic composition of this invention comprises by weight: from less than 1 to about 10% of one of the foregoing fuels, such as carbon; from about 30 to about 70% of one of the foregoing inorganic oxidizers, such as potassium chlorate; and from about 10 to about of one of the foregoing combined binders and coolants, such as a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate. Preferably, the pyrotechnic composition comprises by weight: about 3 to about 7% of one of the foregoing fuels, such as carbon; about 40 to about 60% of one of the foregoing inorganic oxidizers, such as potassium chlorate; and about 35 to about 55% of one of the foregoing combined binders and coolants, such as a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate.

When such compositions are burned in the presence of air, the magnesium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide (CO in the air to form magnesium carbonate (MgCO Magnesium carbonate is a highly oxygenated, cement-like material and, by itself, provides no binding properties. The conversion of magnesium hydroxide to magnesium carbonate provides the binding effect. Neither the magnesium hydroxide nor the magnesium carbonate acts as a fuel. Since magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate are both coolants, not fuels, one can use as much as necessary. As a result, one has enough binder for the composition without raising the flame temperature of the gas to unacceptable levels. The free oxygen formed from the inorganic oxidizer, such as potassium perchlorate, is consumed by the fuel, such as carbon, forming carbon dioxide and evolving heat which is cooled by the magnesium hydroxide.

It is preferable, in most instances, to start with a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate, rather than magnesium hydroxide without magnesium carbonate. One should use enough magnesium hydroxide in the mixture to obtain the desired binding effeet caused by the carbonation of the magnesii' :1 hydroxide. But, one should use only enough magnesium hydroxide to obtain the necessary physical properties as a binder because in compositions using a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate, it has been found that the higher the proportion of magnesium hydroxide to magnesium carbonate that is used in the composition, the longer the reaction time will take.

More specifically, the magnesium hydroxide in the pyrotechnic composition should comprise by weight not less than about of the entire composition and preferably from about 10 to about 30% of the entire composition. In instances where a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate is used as the combined binder and coolant, the composition may comprise: from about 10 to about 30% magnesium hydroxide as compared to the entire composition and from about to about 40% magnesium carbonate as compared to the entire composition. In many compositions it has been found advantageous for the mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate to comprise about one-half magnesium hydroxide and about one-half magnesium carbonate.

The following examples, in which percent is by weight, are provided for purposes of illustration:

EXAMPLE 1 The composition used comprised: 5% carbon as the fuel, 50% potassium chlorate as the inorganic oxidizer, and 45% of a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate as the binder-coolant. The proportion of this mixture was approximately one-half magnesium hydroxide and one-half magnesium carbon-' ate so that the magnesium hydroxide and the magnesium carbonate each formed 22 A2% of the total composition.

EXAMPLE 2 The composition comprised: 5% carbon; 50% potassium chlorate; and 45% magnesium hydroxide.

EXAMPLE 3 The composition comprised: 5% carbon; 51% potassium chlorate; and 44% magnesium hydroxide.

EXAMPLE 4 The composition comprised: 6% carbon; 50% potassium chlorate; and 44% magnesium hydroxide.

EXAMPLE 5 The composition comprised: 5% carbon; 50% potassium chlorate; and 45% magnesium hydroxide.

The compositions in the foregoing examples each produce a gas having a flame temperature from about l500F. to less than 2000F.

The pyrotechnic compositions of this invention achieve flexibility in reference to the amount of binder which may be used, consistent with the object of producing a gas having a low-flame temperature and a negligible amount of toxic gases, such as nitrogen oxides or carbon monoxide.

It has been found useful to pelletize the pyrotechnic composition of this invention in order to achieve a predictable combustion performance of the composition, rather than to use the composition in powder form. Pelletizing can be achieved by severelymixing the powdered ingredients and then using a pill press to produce pellets, or by granulating the powdered mixture, extruding it through a screen and forming noodles. Pelletizing has been found advantageous because of the following undesirable characteristics of a mixed powder. The powder tends to separate, with the oxidizer at the bottom and the fuel at the top. When the powder burns, it burns with different characteristics depending upon the degree to which the powder mixture is homogeneous. In addition, the powder may be loosely packed or it may become tightly packed which also affects its burning or combustion characteristics. The result is that inconsistent results are sometimes obtained when using the composition in powder form. When using the composition in pellet form, more consistent results are generally produced. Optionally, an organic lubricant, such as stearic acid or Carbowax (a trade name of Union Carbide Corporation for polyethylene glycols), may be added for pelletizing.

I claim:

1. A pyrotechnic composition adapted, upon combustion, for generating a low-flame temperature, nontoxic gas, said composition comprising:

7 a fuel selected from the group consisting of a carbonaceous material, aluminum and magnesium;

an inorganic oxidizer selected from the group consisting of a metal chlorate, a metal perchlorate, a metalnitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chlorate, and ammonium perchlorate; and

a combined binder and coolant selected from the group consisting of magnesium hydroxide and a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate.

2. The pyrotechnic composition according to claim 1 comprising by weight: less than 1 to about 10% of said fuel; about 30 to about of said inorganic oxidizer; and about 10 to about 60% of said combined binder and coolant.

3. The pyrotechnic composition according to claim 1 comprising by weight: about 3 to about 7% of said fuel; about 40 to about 60% of said inorganic oxidizer; and about 35 to about 55% of said combined binder and coolant.

4. The pyrotechnic composition according to claim 1 wherein said magnesium hydroxide comprises by weight about 10 to about 30% of the entire composition.

5. The pyrotechnic composition according to claim 1 wherein said combined binder and coolant consists of a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate.

6. The pyrotechnic composition according to claim 5 wherein said combined binder and coolant comprises about 10 to about 30% magnesium hydroxide as compared to the entire composition and about 20 to about 40% magnesium carbonate as compared to the entire composition.

7. The pyrotechnic composition according to claim 6 wherein said mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate comprises about equal amounts of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate.

8. The composition according to claim 1 comprising by weight: about 5% carbon; about 50% potassium chlorate; and about 45% of a mixture of about equal amounts of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate.

9. The pyrotechnic composition according to claim 1 in the form of pellets.

* it i

Claims (9)

1. A PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION ADAPTED, UPON COMBUSTION, FOR GENERATING A LOW-FLAME TEMPERATURE, NON-TOXIC GAS, SAID COMPOSITION COMPRISING: A FUEL SELECTED FROM THE GROUP CONSISTING OF A CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, ALUMINUM AND MAGNESIUM AN INORGANIC OXIDIZER SELECTED FROM THE GROUP CONSISTING OF A METAL CHLORATE, A METAL PERCHLORATE, A METAL NITRATE, AMMONIUM NITRATE, AMMONIUM CHLORATE, AND AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE, AND A COMBINED BINDER AND COLANT SELECTED FROM THE GROUP CONSISTING OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE AND A MIXTURE OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE AND MAGNESIUM CARBONATE.
2. The pyrotechnic composition according to claim 1 comprising by weight: less than 1 to about 10% of said fuel; about 30 to about 70% of said inorganic oxidizer; and about 10 to about 60% of said combined binder and coolant.
3. The pyrotechnic composition according to claim 1 comprising by weight: about 3 to about 7% of said fuel; about 40 to about 60% of said inorganic oxidizer; and about 35 to about 55% of said combined binder and coolant.
4. The pyrotechnic composition according to claim 1 wherein said magnesium hydroxide comprises by weight about 10 to about 30% of the entire composition.
5. The pyrotechnic composition according to claim 1 wherein said combined binder and coolant consists of a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate.
6. The pyrotechnic composition according to claim 5 wherein said combined binder and coolant comprises about 10 to about 30% magnesium hydroxide as compared to the entire composition and about 20 to about 40% magnesium carbonate as compared to the entire composition.
7. The pyrotechnic composition according to claim 6 wherein said mixture of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate comprises about equal amounts of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate.
8. The composition according to claim 1 comprising by weight: about 5% carbon; about 50% potassium chlorate; and about 45% of a mixture of about equal amounts of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate.
9. The pyrotechnic composition according to claim 1 in the form of pellets.
US39548173 1973-09-10 1973-09-10 Pyrotechnic composition with combined binder-coolant Expired - Lifetime US3901747A (en)

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Cited By (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4062288A (en) * 1975-03-03 1977-12-13 Allied Chemical Corporation Initiator for tire inflator
US4062287A (en) * 1977-01-07 1977-12-13 Allied Chemical Corporation Resilient insert for tire inflator
US4097241A (en) * 1974-11-04 1978-06-27 Allied Chemical Corporation Pyrotechnic tire inflator
US4128996A (en) * 1977-12-05 1978-12-12 Allied Chemical Corporation Chlorite containing pyrotechnic composition and method of inflating an inflatable automobile safety restraint
US4200615A (en) * 1976-03-29 1980-04-29 Allied Chemical Corporation All-pyrotechnic inflator
US4356768A (en) * 1979-09-06 1982-11-02 Societe Nationale Des Poudres Et Explosifs Delay fuse with a slow rate of combustion and a small diameter
US4604151A (en) * 1985-01-30 1986-08-05 Talley Defense Systems, Inc. Method and compositions for generating nitrogen gas
US4981534A (en) * 1990-03-07 1991-01-01 Atlantic Research Corporation Occupant restraint system and composition useful therein
US5060973A (en) * 1990-07-23 1991-10-29 General Electric Company Liquid propellant inflator for vehicle occupant restraint apparatus
WO1995000205A1 (en) * 1993-06-24 1995-01-05 Olin Corporation Apparatus and method for suppressing a fire
US5401340A (en) * 1993-08-10 1995-03-28 Thiokol Corporation Borohydride fuels in gas generant compositions
US5429691A (en) * 1993-08-10 1995-07-04 Thiokol Corporation Thermite compositions for use as gas generants comprising basic metal carbonates and/or basic metal nitrates
US5439537A (en) * 1993-08-10 1995-08-08 Thiokol Corporation Thermite compositions for use as gas generants
US5449041A (en) * 1993-06-24 1995-09-12 Olin Corporation Apparatus and method for suppressing a fire
US5486248A (en) * 1994-05-31 1996-01-23 Morton International, Inc. Extrudable gas generant for hybrid air bag inflation system
US5531845A (en) * 1994-01-10 1996-07-02 Thiokol Corporation Methods of preparing gas generant formulations
US5584507A (en) * 1994-10-31 1996-12-17 Automotive Systems Laboratory, Inc. Coated fabric for reducing toxicity of effluent gases produced by nonazide gas generants
US5592812A (en) * 1994-01-19 1997-01-14 Thiokol Corporation Metal complexes for use as gas generants
EP0779260A2 (en) 1995-12-13 1997-06-18 Morton International, Inc. Fuel compositions for use in hybrid inflators containing stored oxidizing gas
US5682013A (en) * 1992-08-24 1997-10-28 Morton International, Inc. Gas generant body having pressed-on burn inhibitor layer
US5725699A (en) * 1994-01-19 1998-03-10 Thiokol Corporation Metal complexes for use as gas generants
US5738374A (en) * 1995-02-23 1998-04-14 Snc Livbag Pyrotechnic gas generator for inflatable air-bag of a motor vehicle
US5756928A (en) * 1993-12-28 1998-05-26 Sensor Technology Co., Ltd. Spontaneously-firing explosive composition
EP0972757A1 (en) * 1998-07-13 2000-01-19 Nof Corporation Gas generating compositions
US6051158A (en) * 1998-07-30 2000-04-18 Autoliv Asp, Inc. Treatment of airbag inflation gases
US6053110A (en) * 1998-01-16 2000-04-25 Autoliv Asp, Inc. Airbag generant wafer design with I-beam construction
US6095559A (en) * 1998-07-23 2000-08-01 Autoliv Asp, Inc. Chemical cooling of airbag inflation gases
WO2003016098A2 (en) * 2001-08-17 2003-02-27 Autoliv Asp, Inc. Elemental carbon in inflation gas generation
US6818082B2 (en) 2001-04-17 2004-11-16 Autoliv Asp, Inc. Airbag inflation gas generation
US6969435B1 (en) 1994-01-19 2005-11-29 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Metal complexes for use as gas generants
US20100084060A1 (en) * 1994-01-19 2010-04-08 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Metal complexes for use as gas generants
WO2012108764A1 (en) * 2011-02-07 2012-08-16 Nederlandse Organisatie Voor Toegepast-Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek Tno Chemical carbon dioxide gas generator

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US3532359A (en) * 1968-07-22 1970-10-06 Chrysler Corp Inflatable device
US3647393A (en) * 1970-05-11 1972-03-07 Chrysler Corp Gas-generating apparatus

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US3532359A (en) * 1968-07-22 1970-10-06 Chrysler Corp Inflatable device
US3647393A (en) * 1970-05-11 1972-03-07 Chrysler Corp Gas-generating apparatus

Cited By (47)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4097241A (en) * 1974-11-04 1978-06-27 Allied Chemical Corporation Pyrotechnic tire inflator
US4062288A (en) * 1975-03-03 1977-12-13 Allied Chemical Corporation Initiator for tire inflator
US4200615A (en) * 1976-03-29 1980-04-29 Allied Chemical Corporation All-pyrotechnic inflator
US4062287A (en) * 1977-01-07 1977-12-13 Allied Chemical Corporation Resilient insert for tire inflator
US4128996A (en) * 1977-12-05 1978-12-12 Allied Chemical Corporation Chlorite containing pyrotechnic composition and method of inflating an inflatable automobile safety restraint
US4356768A (en) * 1979-09-06 1982-11-02 Societe Nationale Des Poudres Et Explosifs Delay fuse with a slow rate of combustion and a small diameter
US4604151A (en) * 1985-01-30 1986-08-05 Talley Defense Systems, Inc. Method and compositions for generating nitrogen gas
US4981534A (en) * 1990-03-07 1991-01-01 Atlantic Research Corporation Occupant restraint system and composition useful therein
US5060973A (en) * 1990-07-23 1991-10-29 General Electric Company Liquid propellant inflator for vehicle occupant restraint apparatus
US5682013A (en) * 1992-08-24 1997-10-28 Morton International, Inc. Gas generant body having pressed-on burn inhibitor layer
US5449041A (en) * 1993-06-24 1995-09-12 Olin Corporation Apparatus and method for suppressing a fire
US5609210A (en) * 1993-06-24 1997-03-11 Olin Corporation Apparatus and method for suppressing a fire
WO1995000205A1 (en) * 1993-06-24 1995-01-05 Olin Corporation Apparatus and method for suppressing a fire
US5465795A (en) * 1993-06-24 1995-11-14 Olin Corporation Fire suppressing apparatus for generating steam from a water-ice mixture
US5423384A (en) * 1993-06-24 1995-06-13 Olin Corporation Apparatus for suppressing a fire
US5613562A (en) * 1993-06-24 1997-03-25 Olin Aerospace Company Apparatus for suppressing a fire
US5429691A (en) * 1993-08-10 1995-07-04 Thiokol Corporation Thermite compositions for use as gas generants comprising basic metal carbonates and/or basic metal nitrates
US5401340A (en) * 1993-08-10 1995-03-28 Thiokol Corporation Borohydride fuels in gas generant compositions
US5439537A (en) * 1993-08-10 1995-08-08 Thiokol Corporation Thermite compositions for use as gas generants
US5756928A (en) * 1993-12-28 1998-05-26 Sensor Technology Co., Ltd. Spontaneously-firing explosive composition
US5531845A (en) * 1994-01-10 1996-07-02 Thiokol Corporation Methods of preparing gas generant formulations
US5731540A (en) * 1994-01-10 1998-03-24 Thiokol Corporation Methods of preparing gas generant formulations
US6481746B1 (en) 1994-01-19 2002-11-19 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Metal hydrazine complexes for use as gas generants
US9199886B2 (en) 1994-01-19 2015-12-01 Orbital Atk, Inc. Metal complexes for use as gas generants
US5592812A (en) * 1994-01-19 1997-01-14 Thiokol Corporation Metal complexes for use as gas generants
US5725699A (en) * 1994-01-19 1998-03-10 Thiokol Corporation Metal complexes for use as gas generants
US5673935A (en) * 1994-01-19 1997-10-07 Thiokol Corporation Metal complexes for use as gas generants
US5735118A (en) * 1994-01-19 1998-04-07 Thiokol Corporation Using metal complex compositions as gas generants
US20100084060A1 (en) * 1994-01-19 2010-04-08 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Metal complexes for use as gas generants
US6969435B1 (en) 1994-01-19 2005-11-29 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Metal complexes for use as gas generants
US5486248A (en) * 1994-05-31 1996-01-23 Morton International, Inc. Extrudable gas generant for hybrid air bag inflation system
US5584507A (en) * 1994-10-31 1996-12-17 Automotive Systems Laboratory, Inc. Coated fabric for reducing toxicity of effluent gases produced by nonazide gas generants
US5738374A (en) * 1995-02-23 1998-04-14 Snc Livbag Pyrotechnic gas generator for inflatable air-bag of a motor vehicle
EP0779260A2 (en) 1995-12-13 1997-06-18 Morton International, Inc. Fuel compositions for use in hybrid inflators containing stored oxidizing gas
US6053110A (en) * 1998-01-16 2000-04-25 Autoliv Asp, Inc. Airbag generant wafer design with I-beam construction
US6368432B2 (en) 1998-07-13 2002-04-09 Nof Corporation Gas generating compositions
EP0972757A1 (en) * 1998-07-13 2000-01-19 Nof Corporation Gas generating compositions
US6095559A (en) * 1998-07-23 2000-08-01 Autoliv Asp, Inc. Chemical cooling of airbag inflation gases
US6051158A (en) * 1998-07-30 2000-04-18 Autoliv Asp, Inc. Treatment of airbag inflation gases
US6818082B2 (en) 2001-04-17 2004-11-16 Autoliv Asp, Inc. Airbag inflation gas generation
WO2003016098A2 (en) * 2001-08-17 2003-02-27 Autoliv Asp, Inc. Elemental carbon in inflation gas generation
WO2003016098A3 (en) * 2001-08-17 2003-12-18 Autoliv Asp Inc Elemental carbon in inflation gas generation
US9744509B2 (en) 2011-02-07 2017-08-29 Nederlandse Organisatie Voor Toegepast-Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek Tno Chemical carbon dioxide gas generator
CN103429556A (en) * 2011-02-07 2013-12-04 荷兰应用自然科技研究组织Tno Chemical carbon dioxide gas generator
CN103429556B (en) * 2011-02-07 2016-10-26 荷兰应用自然科技研究组织Tno Chemistry carbon dioxide gas generator
AU2012214899B2 (en) * 2011-02-07 2016-10-27 Nederlandse Organisatie Voor Toegepast- Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek Tno Chemical carbon dioxide gas generator
WO2012108764A1 (en) * 2011-02-07 2012-08-16 Nederlandse Organisatie Voor Toegepast-Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek Tno Chemical carbon dioxide gas generator

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