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Human resistivity sensing device

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US3901214A
US3901214A US34465073A US3901214A US 3901214 A US3901214 A US 3901214A US 34465073 A US34465073 A US 34465073A US 3901214 A US3901214 A US 3901214A
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means
transistor
connected
resistor
frequency
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James L Taaffe
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BROTMAN PHILLIP
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BROTMAN PHILLIP
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/48Other medical applications
    • A61B5/486Bio-feedback
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/05Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields; Measuring using microwaves or radiowaves
    • A61B5/053Measuring electrical impedance or conductance of a portion of the body
    • A61B5/0531Measuring skin impedance
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/74Details of notification to user or communication with user or patient ; user input means
    • A61B5/7405Details of notification to user or communication with user or patient ; user input means using sound
    • A61B5/7415Sound rendering of measured values, e.g. by pitch or volume variation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S128/00Surgery
    • Y10S128/905Feedback to patient of biological signal other than brain electric signal

Abstract

An electrical circuit which is capable of producing a varying signal output, either in frequency or amplitude which is responsive to the changing resistivity sensed on the skin of a subject. Electrodes are placed on the subject''s body and as the surface resistance changes, an audible signal is produced which can aid the subject in relaxing.

Description

United States Patent 11 1 Taaffe HUMAN RESISTIVITY SENSING DEVICE Inventor: James L. Taaffe, Philadelphia, Pa, Assignee: Phillip Brotman, New York, N.Y,

Filed: Mar. 26, I973 Appl. No: 344,650

US. Cl. [ZS/2.1 Z; 324/62 R Int. Cl A6lb 5/05 Field of Search 128/21 Z, 241 R, 2.06 R;

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Mathison 128/21 Z Mathison it 128/21 Z Wcidingcr ct a1 U 128/206 R [4 1 Aug. 26, 1975 3,426,150 2/1969 Tygart 128/2106 R 3,556,083 [/1971 Grichnik 128/21 Z 3,614,651 10/1971 Pasquier 128/21 R 3,648,686 3/1972 Payne 128/21 Z Primary Examiner-Richard A. Gaudet Assistant Examiner-Lee S. Cohen Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Peter L. Berger 1 1 ABSTRACT An electrical circuit which is capable of producing a varying signal output, either in frequency or amplitude which is responsive to the changing resistivity sensed on the skin of a subject. Electrodes are placed on the subject's body and as the surface resistance changes, an audible signal is produced which can aid the subject in relaxing.

2 Claims, I Drawing Figure HUMAN RESISTIVITY SENSING DEVICE This invention relates to a bio-feedback type device used to gauge the level of tension of a subject.

It is proposed to provide a unique and improved electrical circuit having extremely good reliability and good utilization to sense the anxiety levels of a subject by producing an audible sound which is reflective of the subjects state. Biasing means are provided to set a norm about which the audible tone will vary.

The attached FIGURE illustrates an embodiment of this invention.

The electrical circuit is comprised of electrodes and 12 attached to a gripping member 14 which is capable of being either in a flat position so as to be attached to a flat surface of the body, or circular so as to be attached to an extremity. Electrode 10 is connected to the base of a transistor 16 through a resistor 18 and through a fixed resistor 20 and a biasing resistor 22 to the emitter of transistor 16. The collector of the transistor is connected through a resistor 24 to an emitter terminal of a unijunction transistor 26 as well as to one end of a capacitor 28, the other end of which is connected to ground. One base terminal of the unijunction transistor is connected through a resistor 30 to one end of a speaker 32 coil 34 and to the emitter of transistor 16. The other end of speaker coil 34 is connected to the collector ofa transistor 36, the emitter of which is connected to ground while the base thereof is connected to the second base terminal of unijunction transistor 26.

The circuit functions in the following manner: electrodes 10 and 12 connect to various places on the skin of the body. The person using the instrument adjusts the range or biasing control by varying resistance 22 to a desired tone, such as many-frequency. As his body resistance decreases, the frequency of the tone increases thus signalling greater anxiety for lesser body resistance. Capacitor 28 is charged through transistor 16 at a rate controlled by resistor 22 which controls the amount of current produced by current source means formed by transistor 16. Unijunction transistor 26 is a triggering device which is caused to trigger when its threshold rate is reached. The rate at which the level is reached is set by biasing resistor 22 but will be varied as the body resistance sensed at electrodes 10 and l2 varies. This is due to the voltage divider formed by the body resistance and resistors 20 and 22.

The output of unijunction transistor 26 is coupled through amplifier means formed by transistor 36 to energize speaker 32 so as to produce an audible sound.

I claim:

1. Electrical circuit means capable of being connected to the human body and producing a changing signal in response to changes in the surface resistivity of the human skin comprising electrode means adapted to be placed on the skin, variable frequency means comprising a unijunction transistor having an emitter and a pair of base terminals, biasing means connected between said electrode means and said variable frequency means for setting a biasing level for said variable frequency means, said emitter being connected to said biasing means,

said biasing means comprising a transistor and a variable resistance controlling the amount of current produced by said transistor,

said transistor having a base resistor connected thereto, said electrode means being connected through said base resistor to the input of said transistor to control the amount of current produced thereby,

a collector resistor connected to the collector of said transistor, a capacitor connected through said collector resistor to receive said current of said transistor to be charged thereby, said capacitor connected to said emitter of said unijunction transistor to cause said unijunction transistor to be triggered into conduction,

said variable resistance and the resistance at the electrode means forming a voltage divider,

the connection between said voltage divider connected to said transistor through said base resistor and,

speaker means connected to receive the output of said variable frequency means to produce an audible signal representation of the frequency of the signal produced by said variable frequency means.

2. Electrical circuit means as set forth in claim 1, comprising amplifier means connected between the output of said unijunction transistor and said speaker means.

Claims (2)

1. Electrical circuit means capable of being connected to the human body and producing a changing signal in response to changes in the surface resistivity of the human skin comprising electrode means adapted to be placed on the skin, variable frequency means comprising a unijunction transistor having an emitter and a pair of base terminals, biasing means connected between said elEctrode means and said variable frequency means for setting a biasing level for said variable frequency means, said emitter being connected to said biasing means, said biasing means comprising a transistor and a variable resistance controlling the amount of current produced by said transistor, said transistor having a base resistor connected thereto, said electrode means being connected through said base resistor to the input of said transistor to control the amount of current produced thereby, a collector resistor connected to the collector of said transistor, a capacitor connected through said collector resistor to receive said current of said transistor to be charged thereby, said capacitor connected to said emitter of said unijunction transistor to cause said unijunction transistor to be triggered into conduction, said variable resistance and the resistance at the electrode means forming a voltage divider, the connection between said voltage divider connected to said transistor through said base resistor and, speaker means connected to receive the output of said variable frequency means to produce an audible signal representation of the frequency of the signal produced by said variable frequency means.
2. Electrical circuit means as set forth in claim 1, comprising amplifier means connected between the output of said unijunction transistor and said speaker means.
US3901214A 1973-03-26 1973-03-26 Human resistivity sensing device Expired - Lifetime US3901214A (en)

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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4052978A (en) * 1975-01-23 1977-10-11 Amado Eugenio Electro-therapy apparatus
US4088125A (en) * 1976-11-19 1978-05-09 Cyborg Corporation Method and apparatus for monitoring skin potential response
US4109645A (en) * 1975-05-23 1978-08-29 Sancio Bacchelli Development of instruments measuring body resistance to ion and ionophoresis applications
US4163936A (en) * 1977-09-19 1979-08-07 Shufro Richard B Audible tester for alarm circuits
US4173217A (en) * 1976-07-08 1979-11-06 Johnston Lyman C Massage apparatus
FR2447707A1 (en) * 1979-01-30 1980-08-29 Godefroy Christian Instrument measuring variations in skin temp. or electrical resistance - uses bio-feedback method for relaxation training or for locating acupuncture points
WO1981000045A1 (en) * 1979-07-05 1981-01-22 Dia Med Inc Perspiration indicating alarm for diabetics
US4365637A (en) * 1979-07-05 1982-12-28 Dia-Med, Inc. Perspiration indicating alarm for diabetics
WO1984001516A1 (en) * 1982-10-14 1984-04-26 Alan David Beale Transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation equipment
US4451781A (en) * 1981-05-20 1984-05-29 Sarah Anderson Moisture tester
US4580091A (en) * 1983-04-14 1986-04-01 Delta Research Limited Continuity tester
US4926880A (en) * 1988-11-08 1990-05-22 Microcurrents Method for relieving sinus and nasal congestion utilizing microcurrents
WO1990011751A1 (en) * 1989-04-05 1990-10-18 Keihachi Ishikawa Acupuncture locating device
US5064410A (en) * 1984-12-12 1991-11-12 Frenkel Richard E Stress control system and method
US6821254B2 (en) 2000-07-21 2004-11-23 Institute Of Critical Care Medicine Cardiac/respiratory arrest detector
US20160038055A1 (en) * 2014-08-06 2016-02-11 Google Inc. Sharing a single electrode between skin resistance and capacitance measurements

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2684670A (en) * 1951-08-01 1954-07-27 Volney G Mathison Electropsychometer or bioelectronic instrument
US2736313A (en) * 1954-10-05 1956-02-28 Muriel N Warkentin Electropsychometer or bioelectronic instrument
US3316897A (en) * 1963-12-21 1967-05-02 Teldix Luftfahrt Ausruestung Heart monitoring device with filter for suppressing the frequency of an ambient a.c.power source
US3426150A (en) * 1965-09-27 1969-02-04 Lockheed Aircraft Corp System for fm transmission of cardiological data over telephone lines
US3556083A (en) * 1968-05-02 1971-01-19 Beckman Instruments Inc Apparatus for measurement of electrodermal phenomena
US3614651A (en) * 1969-06-27 1971-10-19 Claude Marie Pasquier External control of variable frequency oscillator
US3648686A (en) * 1969-07-03 1972-03-14 Burlyl R Payne Audible psychogalvonometer

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2684670A (en) * 1951-08-01 1954-07-27 Volney G Mathison Electropsychometer or bioelectronic instrument
US2736313A (en) * 1954-10-05 1956-02-28 Muriel N Warkentin Electropsychometer or bioelectronic instrument
US3316897A (en) * 1963-12-21 1967-05-02 Teldix Luftfahrt Ausruestung Heart monitoring device with filter for suppressing the frequency of an ambient a.c.power source
US3426150A (en) * 1965-09-27 1969-02-04 Lockheed Aircraft Corp System for fm transmission of cardiological data over telephone lines
US3556083A (en) * 1968-05-02 1971-01-19 Beckman Instruments Inc Apparatus for measurement of electrodermal phenomena
US3614651A (en) * 1969-06-27 1971-10-19 Claude Marie Pasquier External control of variable frequency oscillator
US3648686A (en) * 1969-07-03 1972-03-14 Burlyl R Payne Audible psychogalvonometer

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4052978A (en) * 1975-01-23 1977-10-11 Amado Eugenio Electro-therapy apparatus
US4109645A (en) * 1975-05-23 1978-08-29 Sancio Bacchelli Development of instruments measuring body resistance to ion and ionophoresis applications
US4173217A (en) * 1976-07-08 1979-11-06 Johnston Lyman C Massage apparatus
US4088125A (en) * 1976-11-19 1978-05-09 Cyborg Corporation Method and apparatus for monitoring skin potential response
US4163936A (en) * 1977-09-19 1979-08-07 Shufro Richard B Audible tester for alarm circuits
FR2447707A1 (en) * 1979-01-30 1980-08-29 Godefroy Christian Instrument measuring variations in skin temp. or electrical resistance - uses bio-feedback method for relaxation training or for locating acupuncture points
WO1981000045A1 (en) * 1979-07-05 1981-01-22 Dia Med Inc Perspiration indicating alarm for diabetics
US4365637A (en) * 1979-07-05 1982-12-28 Dia-Med, Inc. Perspiration indicating alarm for diabetics
US4451781A (en) * 1981-05-20 1984-05-29 Sarah Anderson Moisture tester
WO1984001516A1 (en) * 1982-10-14 1984-04-26 Alan David Beale Transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation equipment
US4580091A (en) * 1983-04-14 1986-04-01 Delta Research Limited Continuity tester
US5064410A (en) * 1984-12-12 1991-11-12 Frenkel Richard E Stress control system and method
US4926880A (en) * 1988-11-08 1990-05-22 Microcurrents Method for relieving sinus and nasal congestion utilizing microcurrents
WO1990011751A1 (en) * 1989-04-05 1990-10-18 Keihachi Ishikawa Acupuncture locating device
US5385150A (en) * 1989-04-05 1995-01-31 Ishikawa; Keihachi Acupuncture device
US6821254B2 (en) 2000-07-21 2004-11-23 Institute Of Critical Care Medicine Cardiac/respiratory arrest detector
US20160038055A1 (en) * 2014-08-06 2016-02-11 Google Inc. Sharing a single electrode between skin resistance and capacitance measurements
US9770185B2 (en) * 2014-08-06 2017-09-26 Verily Life Sciences Llc Sharing a single electrode between skin resistance and capacitance measurements

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