US3891817A - Hydronic heating system - Google Patents

Hydronic heating system Download PDF

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Publication number
US3891817A
US3891817A US43855574A US3891817A US 3891817 A US3891817 A US 3891817A US 43855574 A US43855574 A US 43855574A US 3891817 A US3891817 A US 3891817A
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container
water
means
heat exchanger
micro
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Harold Brown
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Harold Brown
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24DDOMESTIC- OR SPACE-HEATING SYSTEMS, e.g. CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEMS; DOMESTIC HOT-WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; ELEMENTS OR COMPONENTS THEREFOR
    • F24D3/00Hot-water central heating systems
    • F24D3/02Hot-water central heating systems with forced circulation, e.g. by pumps
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B6/00Heating by electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic fields
    • H05B6/64Heating using microwaves
    • H05B6/80Apparatus for specific applications
    • H05B6/802Apparatus for specific applications for heating fluids
    • H05B6/804Water heaters, water boilers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/10Combined combustion
    • Y02E20/14Combined heat and power generation [CHP]

Abstract

A hydronic heating system includes a heat exchanger, a container, and a micro-wave heating means associated with the container for heating water therein. The container and heat exchanges are connected by a closed circulation loop which includes a storage tank between the container and heat exchanger and a by-pass means to allow flow of water from the heat exchanger to flow directly to the storage tank without passing through the container. A valve is provided in the circulation loop downstream of the by-pass means. A temperature sensor in the storage tank controls operation of a switch in circuit with the valve and micro-wave heating means. When the temperature of the water in the storage tank is below a predetermined temperature, the switch is closed to simultaneously activate the micro-wave heating means and to open the valve to allow water to flow from the heat exchanger into the container. When the water temperature in the storage tank is above the predetermined temperature, the switch is opened to simultaneously de-activate the microwave heating means and to close the valve to divert water from the heat exchanger through the by-pass means into the storage tank. The by-pass means is provided with a check valve and a pump circulates the water through the closed circulation loop.

Description

United States Patent Brown 1 1 HYDRONIC HEATING SYSTEM Harold Brown, 3629 Suitland Rd. SE, Washington, DC. 20020 221 Filed: Feb. 1, 1974 2| App|.No.:438,555

[76] Inventor:

[52] US. Cl 219/1055 R; 126/101; 165/107; 219/341; 219/365; 237/8 C; 237/16 [51] Int. Cl. H0511 1/02; H05b 9/06; F24h 3/06 [58] Field of Search 219/1055, 10.65, 341, 219/365, 298, 297, 10.55 R, 10.55 A; 237/8 B, 8 A, 8 C, 59, 63, 62, 8 R, 16-19; 126/101;

[56] References Cited UNlTED STATES PATENTS 2,246,138 6/1941 Lum 237/8 R 2.599.033 6/1952 Wild 219/1055 2,833,657 5/1958 Copson 219/1055 UX 2,978,562 4/1961 Fox 219/1055 3,21 1,880 10/1965 Johns0n.... 219/1055 3,341,122 9/1967 Whittcll 237/62 X 3,495,648 2/1970 Amadom 219/1065 X 3.535.482 10/1970 Kluck 219/1055 3,668,358 6/1972 Stenstrom 219/1055 3,778,578 12/1973 Long et a1 219/1055 FORElGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 905,587 4/1945 France 237/8 C HEAT Primary E.taminerAnthony Bartis Attorney, Agent, or Firrn-Clelle W. Upchurch [57] ABSTRACT A hydronic heating system includes a heat exchanger, a container, and a micro-wave heating means associated with the container for heating water therein. The container and heat exchanges are connected by a closed circulation loop which includes a storage tank between the container and heat exchanger and a bypass means to allow flow of water from the heat exchanger to flow directly to the storage tank without passing through the container. A valve is provided in the circulation loop downstream of the by-pass means. A temperature sensor in the storage tank controls op eration of a switch in circuit with the valve and microwave heating means. When the temperature of the water in the storage tank is below a predetermined temperature, the switch is closed to simultaneously activate the micro-wave heating means and to open the valve to allow water to flow from the heat exchanger into the container. When the water temperature in the storage tank is above the predetermined temperature, the switch is opened to simultaneously de-activate the microwave heating means and to close the valve to divert water from the heat exchanger through the bypass means into the storage tank. The by-pass means is provided with a check valve and a pump circulates the water through the closed circulation loop.

1 Claim, 1 Drawing Figure ELECTRIC POWER SOURCE EXCHANGER PATENTEDJuu 24 ms mml q mm um All" M258 on $28 mm 258d HYDRONIC HEATING SYSTEM This invention relates generally to a heating system for indirect space and area heating and more particularly to an improved and practical central heating system employing hot water circulated through a heat exchanger.

Central heating systems employing hot water circulated through a heat exchanger such as a radiator or the like have been used for many years for room space heating in homes, offices and the like. Such systems have become known as hydronic heating systems. The hydronic system is preferred to hot-air systems because the heated air of hot-air systems discharged into the room space often carries dirt or picks-up dirt in the room and circulates it where it is inhaled by the occupants of the room. Hydronic heating has the disadvantage, however, of being slower to respond to sudden changes in temperature particularly if an electric heater is used to heat the water. Electric heating is preferable to gas, oil or other heating means for some purposes, however, particularly in rural areas where the other fuels are not readily available.

It is therefore an object of this invention to provide an improved hydronic heating system. Another object of the invention is to provide a central water heating system which includes a practical means for heating the water with an electric heater. Still another object of the invention is to provide a hydronic water system for space or area heating which is quickly responsive to decrease in temperature and is adapted to conserve electric power.

The foregoing objects are accomplished in accordance with the invention, generally speaking by providing a hydronic heating system having means for heating water with a magnetron oscillator for generation of micro-wave energy, a heat exchanger for indirect heating of an area or space and means for circulating the heated water between the heat exchanger and the heating means. More specifically, in a preferred embodiment of the invention, a closed central heating system is provided having one or more heat exchangers disposed in a space or spaces to be heated, a container for water associated with a magnetron oscillator for heating the water, a guide or horn for guiding micro-waves from the oscillator to the container, a wall transparent to micro-waves between the container and the horn, and a means for circulating heated water from the container to the heat exchanger. The means for circulating water between the heat exchanger and the container includes a water storage means adapted to permit escape of air from the system and expansion of the water in the system, and means for recirculating the water from the storage means to the heat exchanger without heating with micro-wave energy.

Other objects will become apparent from the following description with reference to the accompanying drawing wherein the only FIGURE is a schematic representation of one embodiment of the invention.

Referring now to the drawing, a heat exchanger 10 which may be a conventional radiator or a heat exchanger disposed in a base board or other suitable heat radiating means is connected by pipe 11 through pump 12 to a water storage tank 13 which is only partially filled with water so an air space is present above the water level. A magnetron oscillator I4, illustrated schematically, is disposed above horn l5 and water container 16 to heat water in container 16. Container 16 has plastic or other suitable end and bottom walls and fittings for connecting it to pipes l8, l9 and 36 to insulate it from metal. Container I6 is filled with water. Pipe 18 connects container 16 to storage tank 13 and pipe 19 connects heat exchanger 10 with container 16. Temperature sensor 20 is disposed in tank 13 for determining the temperature of the water in tank 13 and switch 21, connected to a suitable source of electricity, is opened and closed in response to the water temperature to activate or deactivate magnetron oscillator 14. Wall 17 between the space enclosed by horn 15 must be transparent to micro-waves and may be a vitrous material. Container 16 is electrically insulated from all metal pipes and the wall of horn 15.

In the embodiment shown in the drawing, a by-pass pipe 22 connects pipes 18 and 19. A valve 23 is in circuit with switch 21 and is closed when switch 2] is opened by temperature sensor 20 to direct water from pipe 19 through bypass 22 and check valve 24 to storage tank l3 and is opened when switch 21 is opened when switch 2] is closed by temperature sensor 20 to permit water to flow into container 16. Pressure responsive check valve 24 permits the flow of water from pipe 19 to pipe 18 when valve 23 is closed. A pressuresensitive valve 25 permits the escape of air from above the water in tank 13.

in operation, pump 12 withdraws water from storage tank 13 and pumps it through pipe 11, heat exchanger 10 and pipe 19 towards container 16. [n the embodiment provided with valve 23, the water passes to container 16 if the water in tank 13 is below normal temperature and is heated by micro-wave energy generated by magnetron oscillator 14. The heated water is drawn from container 16 into tank 13. Check valve 24 prevents water leaving container 16 from passing to pipe 22. If the temperature of the water in tank 13 is up to normal, valve 23 closes and water in pipe 19 is forced through pipe 22 and check valve 24 into tank 13 without passing through container 16. Magnetron oscillator 14 operates only when switch 21 is closed in response to temperature sensor 20 when the water temperature in tank 13 is below the preselected temperature to permit electric current to pass to oscillator 14. It is to be understood that both by-pass 22 and thermostatically responsive switch 21 may not be required in some embodiments and that only one or the other may be furnished to avoid unnecessary use of electricity by activation of the magnetron oscillator 14 when the water temperature in tank 13 is up to normal.

Storage tank 13 permits expansion of the water with temperature increase in the closed system. Tank 13 should be insulated with fiber glass, polyurethane foam or other suitable insulating material to reduce heat loss. Air dissolved in the water entering from a city water supply through pipe 36 into container 16 will escape from the heated water into the space above the water level in tank 13. Pressure responsive valve 25 permits air in the space in tank 13 to escape and prevents the development of dangerous pressures in the system.

Magnetron oscillator 14 may be of any conventional type having a tube with a strong magnet surrounding it. A klystron or other source of micro-wave energy may be substituted for the magnetron tube. The one illustrated schematically in the drawing has a cathode 30 surrounded by a conducting envelope 31 and a plurality of radially extending vanes 32 which are connected together to form an anode. Means is provided to supply a high voltage of say 3000 volts to 7000 volts to the magnetron. Such an oscillator is adapted to produce an output of high-frequency energy in the micro-wave range. A coaxial transmission line 33 is coupled to the magnetron oscillator by means of a suitable loop 34 disposed between a pair of vanes 32 and extends downwardly into horn l5 from the loop 34 through housing 35. The walls of horn are metal so micro-wave energy cannot pass therethrough. The micro-wave energy is reflected downwardly to plate 17 forming a common wall for horn is and container 16. Plate 17 is made from a material which permits micro-wave energy to pass therethrough such as a vitrous material. Plate 17 may be any material which is transparent to high frequency energy but will not permit water or steam to pass therethrough into the horn l5. For example, quartz may be used for plate 17.

it should be apparent from the foregoing description that the invention accomplishes its objects by providing a practical hydronic heating system adapted to use micro-wave energy for heating space in controlled amounts on an economical basis. Because the temperature of the water can be increased rapidly, the actual operation of the magnetron oscillator is held at a minimum and unnecessary waste of energy is avoided. The use of micro-wave energy permits the use of a small volume container, small volume storage tank and small volume heat exchanger with accompanying rapid increase in room temperature when space heating is required. The heating system of the invention not only provides for uniform temperature with less time lag when raising the temperature of a room but also provides electric heating at a practical cost.

The embodiment illustrated in the drawing has the storage tank l3 and water heating unit separated from each other. One of the advantages of the apparatus is that it can occupy a very small space. In fact, if desired the tank [3, container 16 with magnetron tube 14 can be disposed one over the other in a compact housing and sold as a unit. Container 16 may be provided with a plastic tube coil instead of the single reservoir or tank illustrated in the drawing.

Although the invention has been described in detail for the purpose of illustration, it is to be understood that such detail is solely for that purpose and that variations can be made therein by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention except as it may be limited by the claims.

I claim:

I. A hydronic heating system comprising a heat exchanger, a container for water, means for heating water in the container comprising a source of micro-wave energy, a guide means having walls which reflect microwave energy generated by the said source and direct the micro-waves towards the container, a wall common to said guide means and said container which is transparent to microwaves, means forming a closed circulation loop between the heat exchanger and the container, means for circulating the water in said closed loop between the heat exchanger and the container, a water storage means between the outlet of the container and the inlet of the heat exchanger and having means for accommodating expansion of water in the system and for the escape of air from the system, bypass means in the circulation loop between the heat exchanger and the container for by-passing the container to allow water flowing from the heat exchanger to flow directly to the storage means, a check valve in said bypass means which prevents flow of water from the container through the by-pass means, and means responsive to the temperature of the water in the system externally of the container for directing flow of water from the heat exchanger to the storage means while bypassing the container, said temperature responsive means comprising a valve in the circulation loop downstream of the by-pass means for diverting flow of water flowing from the heat exchanger towards the container into the by-pass, and thermostatic means for simultaneously activating the source of micro-wave energy and opening the last said valve for flow of water from the heat exchanger into the container when the temperature of the water in the system externally of the container is below a predetermined temperature and for simultaneously deactivating the source of micro-wave energy and closing said valve to divert the water from the heat exchanger through said by-pass means into the storage means when the temperature of the water in the system externally of the container is at least equal to said predetermined temperaturev

Claims (1)

1. A hydronic heating system comprising a heat exchanger, a container for water, means for heating water in the container comprising a source of micro-wave energy, a guide means having walls which reflect micro-wave energy generated by the said source and direct the micro-waves towards the container, a wall common to said guide means and said container whIch is transparent to microwaves, means forming a closed circulation loop between the heat exchanger and the container, means for circulating the water in said closed loop between the heat exchanger and the container, a water storage means between the outlet of the container and the inlet of the heat exchanger and having means for accommodating expansion of water in the system and for the escape of air from the system, by-pass means in the circulation loop between the heat exchanger and the container for by-passing the container to allow water flowing from the heat exchanger to flow directly to the storage means, a check valve in said by-pass means which prevents flow of water from the container through the by-pass means, and means responsive to the temperature of the water in the system externally of the container for directing flow of water from the heat exchanger to the storage means while by-passing the container, said temperature responsive means comprising a valve in the circulation loop downstream of the by-pass means for diverting flow of water flowing from the heat exchanger towards the container into the by-pass, and thermostatic means for simultaneously activating the source of micro-wave energy and opening the last said valve for flow of water from the heat exchanger into the container when the temperature of the water in the system externally of the container is below a predetermined temperature and for simultaneously deactivating the source of micro-wave energy and closing said valve to divert the water from the heat exchanger through said by-pass means into the storage means when the temperature of the water in the system externally of the container is at least equal to said predetermined temperature.
US43855574 1974-02-01 1974-02-01 Hydronic heating system Expired - Lifetime US3891817A (en)

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Cited By (43)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2715637A1 (en) * 1976-05-17 1977-11-24 Litton Industries Inc Combination Stove
US4114011A (en) * 1976-07-12 1978-09-12 Thermatron, Inc. Microwave heating method and apparatus
US4130753A (en) * 1975-07-15 1978-12-19 Pactrol Controls Limited Control systems
US4152567A (en) * 1977-03-07 1979-05-01 Mayfield Esther O Microwave water heater
US4178494A (en) * 1977-11-10 1979-12-11 Bottalico Frank P Micro-wave air heater
US4236056A (en) * 1979-01-29 1980-11-25 Allen Donald D Microwave heater
US4288674A (en) * 1980-04-21 1981-09-08 Councell Graham D Microwave actuated steam generator
US4310739A (en) * 1980-05-19 1982-01-12 Hatem John P Fluid heater powered by microwave energy
US4378806A (en) * 1980-08-12 1983-04-05 Henley Cohn Julian L Gapped resonant microwave apparatus for producing hyperthermia therapy of tumors
USRE31241E (en) * 1976-06-14 1983-05-17 Electromagnetic Energy Corporation Method and apparatus for controlling fluency of high viscosity hydrocarbon fluids
WO1987007466A1 (en) * 1986-05-29 1987-12-03 Thomas Perry W Water heater
US4967052A (en) * 1990-05-21 1990-10-30 Krapf Edward J Microwave heat pipe heating system
US5055180A (en) * 1984-04-20 1991-10-08 Electromagnetic Energy Corporation Method and apparatus for recovering fractions from hydrocarbon materials, facilitating the removal and cleansing of hydrocarbon fluids, insulating storage vessels, and cleansing storage vessels and pipelines
US5115491A (en) * 1990-12-17 1992-05-19 Maier Perlman Tempering system for storage tank water heaters utilizing inlet and outlet heat exchanger
GB2254406A (en) * 1991-02-19 1992-10-07 Ali Askar Shirazi Microwave water heating system
US5210386A (en) * 1990-04-24 1993-05-11 Sprunger Powell L Device for making and warming coffee by a microwave heating device
US5417941A (en) * 1994-01-14 1995-05-23 E/H Technologies, Inc. Microwave powered steam pressure generator
US5512734A (en) * 1994-09-20 1996-04-30 Microwave Research Corp. Apparatus and method for heating using microwave energy
WO1997009076A1 (en) * 1995-09-06 1997-03-13 Microwave Medical Systems, Inc. Microwave apparatus for warming low flow rate infusates
US5898818A (en) * 1997-09-09 1999-04-27 Chen; Chun-Liang Water feed system at constant temperature keeping the hot water from mixing with the cold water fed during use of the hot water in a single tank
US6064047A (en) * 1996-12-16 2000-05-16 Izzo; Daniel R. Microwave hot water boiler heating system
US6062174A (en) * 1994-11-02 2000-05-16 Kabushiki Kaisha Kopuran Reduced-pressure steam heating device and method for preventing banging noise generated therein
WO2001031977A1 (en) * 1999-10-26 2001-05-03 Level 1 Inc. Apparatus for regulating the temperature of fluid
US6259074B1 (en) * 1999-10-26 2001-07-10 Sims Level 1, Inc. Apparatus for regulating the temperature of a fluid
US6334411B1 (en) * 1998-10-21 2002-01-01 Giant Factories Inc. High efficiency, glass-lined, combination space and hot water heater
US6858824B1 (en) 2003-12-29 2005-02-22 Alfred Monteleone Microwave heating system to provide radiation heat and domestic hot water
US20060027571A1 (en) * 2004-08-05 2006-02-09 Matsushita Electric Industrial, Co., Ltd. Liquid heating apparatus and cleaning apparatus and method
US20060049184A1 (en) * 2004-08-23 2006-03-09 Dti Innovations, Llc Microwave-based hydronics heating system
US7109453B1 (en) 2005-02-01 2006-09-19 Keith A Nadolski Microwave hot water system
US20070246555A1 (en) * 2004-07-09 2007-10-25 Tadafumi Nishimura Heat Conveyance System
US20080271881A1 (en) * 2007-05-01 2008-11-06 Blecker Joseph G Automatic Switching Two Pipe Hydronic System
US7465907B1 (en) 2007-08-13 2008-12-16 Raymond Martino Microwave boiler and hot water heater
US20090114732A1 (en) * 2007-11-02 2009-05-07 Tube Fabrication Design, Inc. Multiple cell liquid heat pump system and method
US20090217666A1 (en) * 2007-06-08 2009-09-03 Farkaly Stephen J Rankine engine with efficient heat exchange system
US20100005802A1 (en) * 2008-07-14 2010-01-14 Eric Francis System for Producing Mechanical Energy from Electrical Energy
US20110192164A1 (en) * 2008-05-06 2011-08-11 Farkaly Stephen J Rankine engine with efficient heat exchange system
CN102755102A (en) * 2011-04-28 2012-10-31 三星电子株式会社 Steam cooking apparatus and water level sensor control method
US20130270262A1 (en) * 2012-04-12 2013-10-17 Vincent A. Bravo Electromagnetic energy heating system
US20150313400A1 (en) * 2011-11-09 2015-11-05 Bigland Electric Appliance Co.,Ltd. Vacuum low-temperature cooker
US20150330662A1 (en) * 2012-12-13 2015-11-19 Robert Bosch Gmbh Heating device and method for operating the same
US9222371B2 (en) 2007-06-08 2015-12-29 Stephen J. Farkaly Efficient heat exchange system for storing energy
US9405304B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-08-02 A. O. Smith Corporation Water heater and method of operating a water heater
US20160356276A1 (en) * 2015-06-04 2016-12-08 Fluid Handling Llc. Direct numeric affinity pumps sensorless converter

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US2833657A (en) * 1954-01-08 1958-05-06 Raytheon Mfg Co Microwave irradiation of fruit juices
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Cited By (48)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4130753A (en) * 1975-07-15 1978-12-19 Pactrol Controls Limited Control systems
DE2715637A1 (en) * 1976-05-17 1977-11-24 Litton Industries Inc Combination Stove
USRE31241E (en) * 1976-06-14 1983-05-17 Electromagnetic Energy Corporation Method and apparatus for controlling fluency of high viscosity hydrocarbon fluids
US4114011A (en) * 1976-07-12 1978-09-12 Thermatron, Inc. Microwave heating method and apparatus
US4152567A (en) * 1977-03-07 1979-05-01 Mayfield Esther O Microwave water heater
US4178494A (en) * 1977-11-10 1979-12-11 Bottalico Frank P Micro-wave air heater
US4236056A (en) * 1979-01-29 1980-11-25 Allen Donald D Microwave heater
US4288674A (en) * 1980-04-21 1981-09-08 Councell Graham D Microwave actuated steam generator
US4310739A (en) * 1980-05-19 1982-01-12 Hatem John P Fluid heater powered by microwave energy
US4378806A (en) * 1980-08-12 1983-04-05 Henley Cohn Julian L Gapped resonant microwave apparatus for producing hyperthermia therapy of tumors
US5055180A (en) * 1984-04-20 1991-10-08 Electromagnetic Energy Corporation Method and apparatus for recovering fractions from hydrocarbon materials, facilitating the removal and cleansing of hydrocarbon fluids, insulating storage vessels, and cleansing storage vessels and pipelines
WO1987007466A1 (en) * 1986-05-29 1987-12-03 Thomas Perry W Water heater
US5210386A (en) * 1990-04-24 1993-05-11 Sprunger Powell L Device for making and warming coffee by a microwave heating device
US4967052A (en) * 1990-05-21 1990-10-30 Krapf Edward J Microwave heat pipe heating system
US5115491A (en) * 1990-12-17 1992-05-19 Maier Perlman Tempering system for storage tank water heaters utilizing inlet and outlet heat exchanger
GB2254406A (en) * 1991-02-19 1992-10-07 Ali Askar Shirazi Microwave water heating system
US5417941A (en) * 1994-01-14 1995-05-23 E/H Technologies, Inc. Microwave powered steam pressure generator
US5512734A (en) * 1994-09-20 1996-04-30 Microwave Research Corp. Apparatus and method for heating using microwave energy
US6062174A (en) * 1994-11-02 2000-05-16 Kabushiki Kaisha Kopuran Reduced-pressure steam heating device and method for preventing banging noise generated therein
WO1997009076A1 (en) * 1995-09-06 1997-03-13 Microwave Medical Systems, Inc. Microwave apparatus for warming low flow rate infusates
US6064047A (en) * 1996-12-16 2000-05-16 Izzo; Daniel R. Microwave hot water boiler heating system
US5898818A (en) * 1997-09-09 1999-04-27 Chen; Chun-Liang Water feed system at constant temperature keeping the hot water from mixing with the cold water fed during use of the hot water in a single tank
US6334411B1 (en) * 1998-10-21 2002-01-01 Giant Factories Inc. High efficiency, glass-lined, combination space and hot water heater
US6259074B1 (en) * 1999-10-26 2001-07-10 Sims Level 1, Inc. Apparatus for regulating the temperature of a fluid
WO2001031977A1 (en) * 1999-10-26 2001-05-03 Level 1 Inc. Apparatus for regulating the temperature of fluid
US6858824B1 (en) 2003-12-29 2005-02-22 Alfred Monteleone Microwave heating system to provide radiation heat and domestic hot water
US20070246555A1 (en) * 2004-07-09 2007-10-25 Tadafumi Nishimura Heat Conveyance System
US20060027571A1 (en) * 2004-08-05 2006-02-09 Matsushita Electric Industrial, Co., Ltd. Liquid heating apparatus and cleaning apparatus and method
US20060049184A1 (en) * 2004-08-23 2006-03-09 Dti Innovations, Llc Microwave-based hydronics heating system
US7109453B1 (en) 2005-02-01 2006-09-19 Keith A Nadolski Microwave hot water system
US20080271881A1 (en) * 2007-05-01 2008-11-06 Blecker Joseph G Automatic Switching Two Pipe Hydronic System
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