US3886837A - Musical horn acoustic path modifications - Google Patents

Musical horn acoustic path modifications Download PDF

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US3886837A
US3886837A US37112673A US3886837A US 3886837 A US3886837 A US 3886837A US 37112673 A US37112673 A US 37112673A US 3886837 A US3886837 A US 3886837A
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valve
loop
horn
crook
acoustic path
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Mark S Veneklasen
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D9/00Details of, or accessories for, wind musical instruments
    • G10D9/04Valves; Valve controls

Abstract

A wind instrument wherein the strength of acoustical resonances is made more nearly uniform and independent of the length of tubing, or specifically independent of the use or choice of one or more valves.

Description

United States Patent 11 1 Veneklasen 1 1 MUSICAL HORN ACOUSTIC PATH MODIFICATIONS [76] Inventor: Mark S. Veneklasen. 12338 Montana Ave. Apt. 1 1. Los- Angeles. Calif. 90049 [221 Filed: June 18, 1973 [211 App]. No.: 371.126
[52] U.S. C1 84/388; 84/397 Int. CI. Gl0d 7/10 [581 Field of Search 84/388, 397. 392394. 84/387. 390, 391
[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 49.925 9/1965 Schreiher 84/390 284,492 9/1883 Schweich 84/393 2.106.281 1/1938 Suttler 84/390 1 June 3, 1975 2.259.756 10/1941 Lindsay 84/388 2.320.203 5/1943 Thompson ct 211. 84/388 3.641.863 2/ 1972 Kanstul et a1 84/394 X FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1 13.766 3/1918 United Kingdom 84/390 1.284 5/1859 United Kingdom 84/388 262.300 9/1949 Switzerland 34/388 Primary Examiner-Stephen J. Tomsky Assistant Exuminer.1ohn F. Gonzales Attorney. Agent. or FirmWhite. Haefliger & Bachand [57] ABSTRACT A wind instrument wherein the strength of acoustical resonances is made more nearly uniform and independent of the length of tubing. or specifically independent of the use or choice of one or more valves.
29 Claims, 42 Drawing Figures MUSICAL HORN ACOUSTIC PATH MODIFICATIONS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates generally to the construction and operation of wind instruments, and more particularly concerns the solutions to age-old problems of playability and tonal production of such instruments, employing various air column configurations.
The instruments of the brass family are characterized by the following physical elements and acoustical system: the players lips contact the rim of a mouthpiece; the mouthpiece has a bowl-shaped cavity and a constricted opening leading into an expanding tubular section; the tubular section of the mouthpiece continues into an expanding section of the instrument; the tubing of the instrument continues and may be expanding in area or remain of constant bore for some length; at certain points along the length valves may be inserted which permit selective insertion of additional lengths of tubing; beyond the valves the tubing continues and generally expands in area, finally terminating in a more abrupt expansion forming the bell. The players breath is forced through pursed lips, creating a buzzing sound resulting from periodic bursts of air which pass down the'tubing and are reflected back and forth through the tubing by acoustic resonance in tune with and counterreacting upon the breath pulses from the lips. The instruments of this family are all generically known as horns, and more specifically as trumpets, cornet, French horn, Baritone horn, trombone, tuba, Sousaphone, and many others. The slide trombone is uniquely different in that changes of tubing length are accomplished by continuous sliding tubing instead of switched discrete lengths of tubing.
The functioning of this type of instrument musically is dependent upon the series of acoustical resonances of the lip/mouthpiece/tubing/bell system. Simply described: any given length of tubing system is capable of resonating at a series of frequencies that are harmonically related to the fundamental pitch being elicited; for example, if the note played is pitched at the third harmonic of the basic pipe length, then in addition to the third harmonic, the tone will contain the 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th, etc., harmonics of the fundamental pipe, which in turn are the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, etc., harmonics of the tone; these harmonics and their individual strengths determine the distinguishing tonal color of the tone being played; another length of tubing will provide another series of resonances whose frequencies will fall between those of the first series; by choosing a number of appropriate lengths, the aggregate of the series of frequencies may be made to match with the needed frequencies for the chromatic musical scale over a range of several octaves. In general, i.e., for the simplest instruments, three valves inserting three additional tube lengths, known as crooks, used either individually or in combination, will provide eight lengths of tubing and sufficient numbers of resonant frequencies to match with the frequencies of the musical scale.
There are many problems with such instruments; and the present invention is concerned with solutions to such problems as are described below.
The first type problem is as follows: when the length of the tubing is changed, the series of harmonics does not behave in quite the same way; in general, a longer length of tubing produces harmonic resonances that are less strong or sharp than the resonances of a shorter tube length, i.e., particularly lacking strength in'the higher partials of tone color; if, in making the tube longer, additional turns or bends are introduced along the length, as from passing through valves or around the turns of an added crook, these resonances will be still weaker than those of a straight tube of the same length. If these bends are sharp, though this contention is unsubstantiated in the laboratory. This effect is thought to be minimal on the lower of these partials and increasingly pronounced on the higher partials. Thru the evolution of brass design, convenient location of valves for finger actuation and other practical considerations of shape have tended to be dominant factors in layout of the necessary range of tube lengths. But design so prejudiced can result in many possible combinations wherein the effects of length and bends compound, act interchangeably, or are minimal at the same time. As the instruments have increased in desirable features and complexity, they have at the same time acquired increasingly non-homogeneous playing qualities as an unwelcome parasite. Notes one step apart musically, when played respectively on a short, straight tube and a long, twisted one vary somewhat in wound, while varying noticeably in feel to the player. The practical result of this circumstance is that the instruments are treacherous to play, especially the French horn, which is a long-pipe instrument utilizing higher order harmonic resonances which are closely spaced in frequency. Therefore, when a player aims for one note, it is too easy to momentarily hit the wrong not and bounce to the correct one. As a result, the mastery of these instruments is too largely a mastery of demon technical problems, rather than, and to the distraction from, the mastery of musical performance.
Another problem involves condensation of moisture in the instrument. The players breath contains water vapor as a product of metabolism. Entering the metallic tubing which is cooler, the moisture condenses and accumulates in increasing quantity. It collects in the gravitational sumps of the tubing, i.e., the lowest level of crooks and bends. Eventually, depending on the continuity of playing enoughwater accumulates so that the passage through the tubing is obstructed, and tone production is impaired or garbled. Therefore, the player must stop from time to time, quickly withdraw specific crooks and empty out the water before he can continue playing. This necessity is an inconvenience, to say the least, and a disagreeable spectacle to the observer.
Additional problems include intonation and other homogeneity discrepancies arising from differences in acoustical properties of parallel horn sections, as for example in French horns. Provision of such multiple basic pitches greatly expands the total range of tubing lengths available to the player, but also exaggerates the compromise imposed by the conventional practice of using the same tapered tubing at the ends of cylindrical sections wherein the length change takes place. Tapers of differing length and profile are necessary to match intonation and other qualities of notes played interchangeably or in sequence on different lengths.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is a major object of the invention to provide solutions to the above described problems as well as others encountered in this field.
Addressing the first discussed problem, the objective is to make the strength of acoustical resonances more nearly uniform and independent of the length of tubing or specifically independent of the use or choice of one or more valves. This is accomplished in the following manner: when a valve is opened, the acoustic path is diverted through a given crook, and when the valve is closed, the path is direct, i.e., bypassing the crook. The length of the acoustic path is always greater through the crook, and therefore the resonances of sounded notes tend to be less strong, and conspicuously lacking in the higher partials of tone color. However, as explained previously, bends also tend to suppress resonance. Therefore, length or bends may be used interchangeably, i.e., a shorter path with more bends may resonate with similar strength to a longer length having fewer bends. Therefore, one aspect of the invention is to construct the horn with its valving and crook configuration so that the shorter direct path contains means for attenuating or weakening harmonic resonances, but particularly in the higher, assumed to be less afficient, partials of tone color, to approximate the resonance characteristic of the crook, where employment of bends has first been minimized and optimized to attenuate the higher resonances in preference to the lower. The latter are thought to be more efficient ones whose strength is being depleted by the crooks length. One example of this is to provide the direct path with bends intentionally introduced for these resonance matching purposes, thereby to achieve the intended more homogeneous behavior of the instrument and resulting relief technical playing technicalplaying problems.
Further, another aspect of the invention is considered to be a dividend of the above stated design feature. It is thought to accrue from the embodiment of a theory as yet unsubstantiated in the laboratory, but suggested by extensive field testing of instruments employing this feature whereon an otherwise difficult to explain free-blowing characteristic was encountered.
It is proposed that, in addition to the alleviation of tonal and playing discrepancies between notes, the features net effect is an instrument of enhanced freeblowing properties on all lengths. Where there is little or no improvement for the lowest notes played on a given length but a noticeable amount in the middle register and a considerable improvement in the highest register. Since air conduit lengths are provided either long and relatively straight or short and configured with many sharp bends, and because conduit length and sharp, tight bends are thought to have the parallel effect of attenuating the higher partials of tone color disproportionately, both long and short conduits are thus either long and straight enough or short and curved enough to resonate most readily in the lower partials of tone color. This last circumstance becomes a prime factor in the theory.
This is, however, contrary to the condition prevailing in the prior art wherein the longer conduits are increas ingly tortuously curved and the shorter conduits are increasingly straight. This consensus the inventor believes is due largely to the great value placed upon obtaining the straightest open path. With the tubing 50 arranged, it is thought that attenuating effects are either sufficiently combined in the long paths or sufficiently absent in the short paths so that the effect is an essentially uniform attenuation of the tonal partials and is thus contrary to the feature of this invention. This uniformity of attenuation remains the case, and is not desirable as will be seen, whether its degree is great for the longer conduits or minimal for the shorter ones.
However, in accordance with the present invention describing the principle of length and bends employed in inverse ratio, a condition of enhanced free-blowing characteristics is thought to accrue from its alleged property of favoring resonances in the lower partials of tone color on all length conduits. Such a condition is thought to shift the distribution of vibratory energy emanating from the pursed lips to a concentration more heavily in the lower partials, and away from the more uniform distribution thought to be characteristic of a corresponding instrument of conventional design. It has been proposed above that partials of lower harmonic number suffer less attenuation than for the same energy driving partials of higher number. Allowing this, more energy entering the horn in these lower partials and less in the higher would resolve into less total attenuation, or a net energy issueing from the horn in all frequencies greater than that from a source emitting more high and less low.
Thus, inherest in the above, is the proposed freer blowing dividend, above and beyond the more uniform playing and tonal properties previously ascribed to this general aspect of the invention. While this added contention opens a whole new dimension for the range and accuracy potential of these instruments, it has yet to be empirically or theoretically substantiated.
The second type of problem regarding moisture ejection is solved in the following manner. As a valve turns from one position to the other, its port must align exactly with the continuous tubing at both terminal positions. However, at some intermediate position, it is pos sible to have the port pass a vent opening through the casing of the valve, that vent opening to the outside space and situated to purge the passage as it moves past. Accordingly, certain valves are so placed in the layout of the instrument so that the water accumulates at the valve position where the passage is properly situated and otherwise formed to act as the gravitational sump for some portion of the instrument; thus, whenever that valve is cycled, any accumulated fluid will be discharged through the vent. In this matter, because of the frequent use of the valves, no large amount of fluid is permitted to accummulate and, instead, in unnoticeable and unobjectionable quantities, the instrument is being purged, in a manner not distracting to the player, or unsightly for an audience to watch.
Additional objects include the provision of formats and designs for types of valves employing the above principles; the provision of a horn incorporating at least two sections which are alternately played, as in a French horn, and wherein the shorter section contains turns or bends for equalization purposes as will be described; and the provision of complete inlet tapers and a large portion of the outlet tubing tapers exclusive to each such section, to improve intonation, uniformity and response.
These and other objects and advantages of the invention, as well as the details of illustrative embodiments, will be more fully understood from the following description and drawings, in which:
DRAWING DESCRIPTION FIG. 1 is a schematic showing of a conventional valve and crook assembly;
FIG. 2 is a schematic showing of one form of valve, crook and loop assembly embodying a partial employment of the invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic showing of another form of valve, crook and loop assembly fully embodying the invention;
FIGS. 4a, 4b 9a, 9b are schematic showings of rotary valves of new design, with independent passages for the different circuits, in non-rotated and rotated positions, FIGS. 40 and 4d are perspective showings of the FIG. 4 valve, with and without added crook; and FIGS. 8c and 9c are sections taken respectively on lines 8c-8c in FIGS. 8a and on lines 9c-9c in FIG. 9a;
FIGS. 10a and 10b, 11a and 11b are side and top plan views of other types of rotary valves with independent passages in non-rotated position;
FIGS. 10c and 10d, 11c and 11d, are side and top plan views of the FIG. 10a and 11a valves, in rotated position;
FIGS. 12a and 12b are sections through other rotary valve pairs in non-rotated and rotated position, situated back to back;
FIGS. 13a, 13b-17a, 17b are schematic showings of piston valves in alternate linear positions; section 160 being taken on FIG. 16a.
FIG. 18 is a side elevation of a schematic horn embodying the invention; and
FIG. 19 is a section through a playing valve incorporating a further feature of the invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring first to FIG. 1, a conventional valve and crook arrangement includes valve elements 10 and- 11 interconnecting tubing portions 12 and 13, a direct acoustic path through the valve internal section 14 and a crook section 15 of the tubing. The arrows at the valves indicate the alternate directions of the acoustical path. When the valve elements are positioned so that short, direct path section 14 interconnects tubing portions 12 and 13, there are no turns in the acoustic path; however, when the valve elements are positioned so that crook section 15 interconnects tubing portions 12 and 13, there are at least four turns in the longer acoustic path, i.e., at 15a, 15b, 15c, and 15d typically. Accordingly, the resonances are weaker than the diverted path through the crook section is used.
In accordance with one important aspect of the invention, both the direct acoustic path section and the crook section are provided with multiple bends, the number of bends in the relatively shorter direct path section exceeding the number of bends in the relatively longer crook section. In the FIG. 2 example, the diverted path 17 through the crook is made the necessary length and given the minimum number of turns, i.e., in this case two, at 17a, 17b. The direct path .18, while shorter, is provided with two turns, i.e., at 18a'18b, which, due to tubing portions 12 and 13 approaching in line with the diverted path section 17, are now added to path 18 at 18a and 18b instead of the diverted path of the conventional arrangement at 15a and 15d. While not compensating for the increased length of the diverted path in this first arrangement, the bends of the diverted path have been reduced and bends have been added to the direct path, thereby accommodating to the above principle. FIG. 3 shows another alternative wherein the relatively shorter length direct path section 19 contains eight turns, i.e., at 19a-19h, to the four and second through passage means movable into series communication with the tubing crook section. FIG. 40 shows a complete circuit of variation 4 and is typical. These are summarized in accordance with the following table, it being understood that the valve body is rotatable (as through between its two illustrated positions in each figure:
TABLEI First Passage Means Second Passage Figures Body (to external loop) Means (to crook) 4a & 4b 20 21,22 23, 24 5a & 5b 29 30, 31 32, 33 6a & 6b 38 39, 4O 41, 42 7a & 7b 43 44, 45 46, 47
In the above table and drawings it will be noted that through passages 21, 22, and 39 are generally U- shaped, that passages 23, 24, 32, 33, 41 and 42 are generally linear, and that passages 30, 31, 40, 44, 45, 46 and 47 are generally S-shaped.
FIGS. 8a, 8b, 9a and 9b show various form of rotary valve bodies which may alternatively be employed to perform function analogous to those of the described valve elements 10 and 11. In each of these examples, the body defines first through passage means movable into communication with external tubing, and second through passage means movable into series communication with the external tubing crook section. These are summarized in accordance with the following table, it being understood that the valve body is rotatable (as through 90) between its two illustrated positions in each Figure.
TABLE II First Passage Means Second Passage In the above table and drawings, it will be noted that through passage 35 is generally U-shaped, through passage 26 is generally S-shaped, and passages 27, 28, 36 and 37 are generally straight. Certain passages 26 and 35 each have cross-sections which vary from being substantially circular at their ends (which meet the external circular cross-section tubing) to substantially oval at locations 26a and 35a intermediate those ends.
At intermediate location 35b (between two locations 35a) passage 35 is also circular in cross section, and at intermediate location 26b (between locations 26a) passage 26 is also circular. FIGS. 8c and 90 show the laterally elongated oval shape of passage 26 and 35 at locations 26a and 35a, and which act to attenuate or weaken the harmonic resonances within the valve passages.
FIGS. 10a, 10b, 10c and 10d show a modified rotary valve body 140 having a U-shaped first passage 141 providing an internal loop connected with the horn tubing in one body position (FIGS. 10a and 10b), and generally straight through second passage means 142 and 143 providing communication with an external crook in a rotated position of the body. If desired, two extra bends may be provided in passage 141, as indicated at 141a in FIG. 10b, and the internal U-shaped loop 141 may have non-circular cross sectional configuration intermediate its circular end ports. FIGS. Ila-11d show another modified rotary valve body 146 having U- shaped first passages 147 connectable with an external tubing loop (direct path) in one body position (FIGS. 11a and 11b), and generally straight through second passage means 148 and 149 providing communication with an external crook in a rotated position of the body. FIGS. 12a and 12b show rotary valves 50 and 51 moditied with inlet and outlet tubing portions entering the casings in line with the crook section outlet and inlet. These are located back to back, so that the long path (crook) has no more bends than the short path, since it is thought that the approximately one-half diameter joggles through the valves in the long path nearly cancel their effect by having immediate and equal reverses in direction. In FIG. 12a, the valve bodies are located so that first passages 52 and 53 are in series communication (direct path); and in FIG. 12b, the valve bodies are rotated so that second passages 54 and 55 are also in series communication with the first passages via external crooks, as indicated (long path).
FIGS. 13a, 13b-17a, 17b show various forms oflinear or double piston (Vienna) valve bodies of unusually ad vantageous construction, which may be employed to perform the functions of the aforementioned valve elements 10 and 11. In each of FIGS. 13a, 14a, 15a, 16a and 170, the valve bodies 60, 61, 62, 63 and 64 have been moved relatively endwise upwardly to connected the first passages 65-71, as shown, with external tubing, which may or may not include external loops, as indicated (short paths); whereas, in each of FIGS. 13b, 14b, 15b, 16b and 17b, the valve bodies have been moved relatively endwise downwardly to connect the second passages 72-81 in series with external crooks, as indicated (long paths). Note the U-shaped configurations of passages 65, 68, and 69, and the S-shaped configurations of passages 66 and 70, these also having optional oval shaped cross sections at some points intermediate their circular cross section end ports. Passage 71 (short path) may be augmented, as shown, with tubing containing multiple bends and or oval cross sectional changes, these additions being made between the operatively interconnected sections of the body 64.
When the above principles are applied to a double or triple type French horn, or other instrument of similar principle, still greater benefit is derived. Such instruments are really two (or three) horns in one: in the case of the standard double French horn the lower pitched horn is generally tuned in F (also Eb), and the higher pitched is generally tuned in B-flat (also F alto, etc.). Both horns share the same initial portion of pipe, and the same terminal pipe leading to and including the bell. Switching from one horn to the other is accomplished by a pair of valves which interchange the entire central section of the two instruments, each of which has its own playing valves and crooks. The problem is that the B-flat horn, having a shorter length, has stronger resonances particularly in the higher partials of tone color, and therefore plays differently and more brilliantly. In accordance with the invention, the B-flat horn is constructed so that its acoustical path entails many more turns than the longer F horn. As a result, the added acoustic dissipation of the turns, most effective at the higher tonal partials, can so compensate that when switching from one horn section to the other, there is relatively little change in tone quality and the playing characteristics are similar (excepting changes in the proximity of adjacent partials). The result of the equalization from one horn to the other, plus the equalization of the crooks for both horns, is a much more homogeneous behavior of the instrument and accordingly, a moderation of technical playing problems.
FIG. 18 illustrates a horn 60 which includes multiple sections 61 and 62 and which may be considered to schematically represent a French horn with horn longer section 61 tuned in F barione (lower pitch) and horn shorter section 62 tuned in F alto (higher pitch). Both sections may also be considered to employ multiple loops and crooks, as illustrated only with respect to section 61. In the latter, rotary valve body 63 in one position (as shown) connects tubing point 64 with tubing point 65 via a short path including valve body passage 66, loop 67 and valve body passage 68 (see FIG. 5 for example), whereas in another (rotated) body position, point 64 is connected with point 65 via a long" path including through passages shown rotated 90 and crook 69. Rotary valve body 70 in the position shown connects tubing point 65 with tubing point 71 via a short path including valve body U-shaped passage 72 (similar to passage 36 in FIG. 9), whereas in another (rotated) position of body 70 the points 65 and 71 are interconnected via essentially straight through passages shown rotated 90 and crook 73. Rotary valve body 74 in the position shown connects tubing points 71 and 75 via a short path including body U-shaped passage 76, loop 77 and U-shaped body passage 78, (similar to passages 21 and 22 in FIG. 4), whereas in body rotated position, the points 71 and 75 are interconnected via substantially straight through passages (shown rotated 90, but like passages 23 and 24 in FIG. 4) and crook 79. Rotary valve body 181 in the position shown connects tubing point 75 with point 82 via a short path including body U-shaped passage 83, loop 84 and body S-shaped passage 85 (see for example passages 39 and 40 in FIG. 6), whereas in body rotated position, the points 75 and 82 are interconnected via substantially straight through passages shown rotated and crook 86. Finally, rotary valve body 87 in the position shown interconnects tubing points 82 and 88 via a short path including body S-shaped passage 89 (like passage 26 in FIG. 8), whereas in body rotated position, the points 82 and 88 are interconnected via essentially straight through passages (shown rotated 90") and crook 90. Accordingly, the paired loop (short path) and crook (long path) combinations are equalized, as previously described. Further, the horn shorter section 62 is constructed to contain more turns that the horn longer section 61, so that when switching between the sections there is relatively little change in tone quality and the playing characteristics are similar (excepting changes in the proximity of adjacent partials). Such extra tubing turns in section 62 may be introduced at the tubing locations between the rotary valves, or in the case of multiple horns where only tubing of like diameter is exchanged between sides, by selecting the Configuration of change" valves according to the equalizing effect desired.
Keys to rotate the valve bodies in FIG. 18 are schematically indicated at 120 126. Keys 120 125 would generally operate their respective valve bodies 63, 70, 74, 81, and 87 in parallelwith valve bodies of similar musical function located in section 62 (and a third section if present). Key 126 operates valve body 102 and 106 in parallel.
A further feature of the invention concerns the fact that the amount of tubingshared by the sections 61 and 62 is minimized in order to counteract playing problems and difficulties manifested by poor intonation and unequal tone quality and response. For this purpose terminal inlet tubing tapers 100 and 101 extend from a change valve 102 proximate the mouthpiece 103 toward the valving sections, and terminal outlet tapers 104 and 105 extend after the valving sections to ajunction, change valve 106, proximate the bell 107. Merely as an example, tapers 100 and 101 may be about 23 and 12 inches respectively in length for an F octave F pitched French horn.
Finally, another aspect of the invention concerns the provision of means for automatically discharging water or saliva accumulation within the horn in response to operation of playing valves, thereby theoretically making water keys and grotesque rotations of the entire horn un-necessary, and greatly extending the intervals wherein removable crooks need by emptied.
As seen in FIG. 19, a bleed port 110 is provided in the housing or enclosure 111 for the rotary valve body 112, and at a location to be traversed by a port of a transfer passage 113 (see 35 in FIG. 9a or 22 in FIG. 4a for example) in the body as the body is rotated between positions in which the passage is connected with either the crook or the short path as described. The enclosure 111 is so situated in the structure of the horn that passage 113, in its counterclockwise position, is a sump for all fluid draining from all tubing inclusive of tubing section 114. Accumulated fluid will thus flow out automatically each time the valve is rotated; however, the passage 113 does not communicate with the port in playing position of the body during which the passage is in the acoustic transmission path. Tubing sections 114 and 115 are shown as connected with the valve body housing. Passage 118 is analagous in this example to 36 in FIG. 9b. Bleed port locations 116 and 117 noted on FIG. 12b, together with proper physical orientation, provide alternatives in application of this principle to conventional style rotary valves.
I claim:
1. In a horn having a mouthpiece and a bell,.the combination comprising;
a. tubing and valving providing a direct relatively shorter acoustic path between said mouthpiece and said bell and including a loop section, and an alternate acoustic path longer than the direct path and including a crook section, both of said acoustic paths having multiple bends,
b. the valving movable to control which of said sections is connected inthe acoustic path between 6 said mouthpiece and bell, c. the relatively shorter acoustic path including said loop section having at least as many bends as the relatively longer acoustic path including said crook section, and wherein (1. said valving has separate loop and crook passages for the shorter and longer acoustic paths respec- 5 tively, the loop passages being substantially tortuous and the crook passages being substantially straight.
2. The combination of claim 1 wherein said valving loop passages and the loop section in the shorter acouslO tic path filter transmitted harmonic resonances tending to match the harmonic resonance attenuation imposed by the associated crook section.
3. The combination of claim 1 together with a second like set of tubing and valving tuned to a different musi- 15 cal key, and control valves for connecting eitherof said LII 30 8. The combination of claim 5 wherein said loop passage itself isthe entire loop section for the shorter acoustic path.
9. The combination of claim 5 wherein said valve body contains a pair of loop passages that connect a 5 loop section external to said valve body into the shorter acoustic path.
10. The combination of claim 1 wherein the valving includes a valve having a movable body containing a first tortuous passage means movable into series communication with the main horn tubing, and a second non-tortuous passage means movable into series communication with said crook section.
11. The combination of claim 10 wherein said loop section consists of said first tortuous passage means.
12. The combination of claim 10 wherein said first tortuous passage means includes a pair of through passages each of which is generally U-shaped lengthwise thereof.
13. The combination of claim 10 wherein said first tortuous passage means includes a through passage which is generally S-shaped lengthwise thereof.
14. In a horn having multiple sections, a mouthpiece, playing valves and crooks, and a bell,
a. a switching valve immediately adjacent the mouthpiece terminus and initiating entirely separate leadpipe tapers communicating with the respective passages of the valve, and joining with the respective horn sections,
b. separate terminal tapered tubing branches leading from the respective horn sections toward the horn bell, and communicating with the bell via another switching valve.
15. The embodiment of any horn, wherein at least one playing valve includes a valve body and a housing therefor relative to which the body is movable, wherein a. the body contains at least one acoustical passage located in one or more of its playing positions, relative to the normal orientation of the instrument for playing, to act as a reservoir for condensation in adjacent tubing,
b. the housing containing a bleed port traversed by the aforementioned passage during valve body movement in the course of playing.
16. In a horn-type musical instrument wherein notes are selected by valves that insert additional crooksections into series with the tubing that forms an acoustic path between the horn mouthpiece and bell, the improvement comprising:
configuring the note selection valves so that when not depressed the shorter length acoustic path includes plural convolutions that attenuate higher harmonic components, and so that when depressed, the inserted crook sections form a longer acoustic path with fewer convolutions, said longer path attenuating approximately equally the same harmonic components that are attenuated by the plural convolutions in the shorter path, whereby uniform tonal quality and playing characteristics are achieved for all notes.
17. A horn according to claim 16 wherein said note selection valves each include an internal tortuous passageway that is within the acoustic path only when that note selection valve is not depressed.
18. A horn according to claim 16 including a pair of note selection valves, each valve having a rotatable body containing a pair of generally straight parallel through passageways, said valves being mounted in offset relationship to each other so that when either valve body is in a first orientation the acoustic path includes a generally U-shaped passage of which the tubing to the inlet and outlet of the valve comprises the legs of the U-shaped passage and one of the through passageways in the valve body comprises the base of the U-shaped passage, and that when the valve body is in a second orientation approximately at a right angle to said first orientation a crook is inserted into the acoustic path via both parallel through passageways of said valve body.
19. A horn comprising:
tubing and valve means together forming a convoluted acoustic path of minimum length,
additional crook sections of tubing,
said valve means, when actuated, operatively inserting said crook sections into said acoustic path to increase the effective length thereof to produce notes of lower fundamental frequency while decreasing the total number of bends in the acoustic path, so that generally equal harmonic content of all notes results.
20. A horn according to claim 19 wherein each of said valve means comprises a valve having an inlet and an outlet and having a movable valve body, said volve body having a first internal passageway of tortuous configuration, said first passageway interconnecting said inlet and outlet so as to be inserting in said acoustic path when said valve body is in a first orientation, said valve body also having a pair of direct, non-tortuous passageways that interconnect one of said crooks into said acoustic path via said inlet and outlet when said valve means is actuated to place said valve body in a second orientation.
21. A horn according to claim 20 wherein said tortuous first internal passageway is generally S-shaped.
22. A horn according to claim 20 wherein said tortuous first internal passageway is generally U-shaped.
23. A horn according to claim 20 wherein said tortuous first internal passageway is of non-uniform crosssection lengthwise thereof.
24. A horn according to claim 20 wherein said tortuous first internal passageway includes a completely interior generally U-shaped loop, the ends of said loop being connected to first and second passageway sections leading respectively to said inlet and outlet and forming extra bends with the legs of said loop, so that said internal passageway includes in the following order a first extra bend between said inlet and the loop, the bends of the loop, and a second extra bend between the loop and said outlet.
25. A horn according to claim 20 wherein said valve is of the Vienna double piston type and wherein said valve body consists of two pistons that move in unison, each of said pistons containing a respective one of said pair of direct, non-tortuous passageways, each of said two pistons also containing a generally L-shaped passageway, said two L-shaped passageways being connected together to form said tortuous first internal passageway.
26. In a brass musical instrument of the type in which the fundamental frequency of the note being played is established by the length of the tubing in the acoustic path, and wherein notes are selected by valved insertion of loop or crook sections or tubing, the improvement for obtaining more uniform tonal quality and easier excitation of all notes, comprising:
tubing forming a path between the horn mouthpiece and bell, and
valves for alternately inserting a loop or a crook into said path, insertion of a loop providing a relatively shorter but more convoluted acoustic path, insertion of a crook providing a relatively longer but less convoluted path, the harmonic attentuation of either path being approximately equal.
27. A musical instrument according to claim 26 wherein each of said valves includes a movable valve body having a pair of convoluted through passages via which said loop is inserted into said acoustic path when said valve body is in a first orientation, and having a pair of straight passages via which said crook is inserted into said acoustic path when said valve body is in a second orientation.
28. In a horn having multiple sections each including its own playing valves and crooks, said sections sharing the same mouthpiece and bell, the improvement comprising;
a switching valve immediately adjacent the mouthpiece terminus, and
entirely separate tapered leadpipes connecting the outlets of said switching valve with the respective horn sections.
29. In a horn of the type in which the fundamental frequency of the note being played is established by the length of the tubing in the acoustic path, and wherein the tonal quality and playing characteristics are established by the relative amplitude of the harmonics also excited in said tubing, the improvement comprising:
at least one note selection valve,
tubing sections forming a direct acoustic path of shorter length between the mouthpiece and the bell of said horn, said tubing sections including an inlet and an outlet to each note-selection valve,
a crook section of tubing associated with each valve,
and inserted by depression of the associated valve into series with the direct acoustic path formed by the tubing sections,
each valve having alternate passageways therethrough, a first tortuous passageway connecting said tubing inlet to said outlet when the valve is released, so that the acoustic path of shorter length includes plural convolutions, each valve having a less tortuous second passageway, depression of said valve inserting the associated crook section in series with said inlet and outlet via said second pasmately equal.

Claims (29)

1. In a horn having a mouthpiece and a bell, he combination comprising; a. tubing and valving providing a direct relatively shorter acoustic path between said mouthpiece and said bell and including a loop section, and an alternate acoustic path longer than the direct path and including a crook section, both of said acoustic paths having multiple bends, b. the valving movable to control which of said sections is connected in the acoustic path between said mouthpiece and bell, c. the relatively shorter acoustic path including said loop section having at least as many bends as the relatively longer acoustic path including said crook section, and wherein d. said valving has separate loop and crook passages for the shorter and longer acoustic paths respectively, the loop passages being substantially tortuous and the crook passages being substantially straight.
1. In a horn having a mouthpiece and a bell, he combination comprising; a. tubing and valving providing a direct relatively shorter acoustic path between said mouthpiece and said bell and including a loop section, and an alternate acoustic path longer than the direct path and including a crook section, both of said acoustic paths having multiple bends, b. the valving movable to control which of said sections is connected in the acoustic path between said mouthpiece and bell, c. the relatively shorter acoustic path including said loop section having at least as many bends as the relatively longer acoustic path including said crook section, and wherein d. said valving has separate loop and crook passages for the shorter and longer acoustic paths respectively, the loop passages being substantially tortuous and the crook passages being substantially straight.
2. The combination of claim 1 wherein said valving loop passages and the loop section in the shorter acoustic path filter transmitted harmonic resonances tending to match the harmonic resonance attenuation imposed by the associated crook section.
3. The combination of claim 1 together with a second like set of tubing and valving tuned to a different musical key, and control valves for connecting either of said sets of tubing and valving into operative communication between said mouthpiece and said bell.
4. The combination of claim 2 wherein each valving loop passage has a cross section progressing from substantially circular at the interfaces with the adjacent tubing to substantially non-circular within said valving mediate said interfaces.
5. The combination of claim 1 wherein said valving comprises a movable valve body containing said separate passages.
6. The combination of claim 5 wherein said loop passage is substantially U-shaped.
7. The combination of claim 5 wherein said loop passage is substantially S-shaped.
8. The combination of claim 5 wherein said loop passage itself is the entire loop section for the shorter acoustic path.
9. The combination of claim 5 wherein said valve body contains a pair of loop passages that connect a loop section external to said valve body into the shorter acoustic path.
10. The combination of claim 1 wherein the valving includes a valve having a movable body containing a first tortuous passage means movable into series communication with the main horn tubing, and a second non-tortuous passage means movable into series communication with said crook section.
11. The combination of claim 10 wherein said loop section consists of said first tortuous passage means.
12. The combination of claim 10 wherein said first tortuous passage means includes a pair of through passages each of which is generally U-shaped lengthwise thereof.
13. The combination of claim 10 wherein said first tortuous passage means includes a through passage which is generally S-shaped lengthwise thereof.
14. In a horn having multiple sections, a mouthpiece, playing valves and crooks, and a bell, a. a switching valve immediately adjacent the mouthpiece terminus and initiating entirely separate leadpipe tapers communicating with the respective passages of the valve, and joining with the respective horn sections, b. separate terminal tapered tubing branches leading from the respective horn sections toward the horn bell, and communicating with the bell via another switching valve.
15. The embodiment of any horn, wherein at least one playing valve includes a valve body and a housing therefor relative to which the body is movable, wherein a. the body contains at least one acoustical passage located in one or more of its playing positions, relative to the normal orientation of the instrument for playing, to act as a reservoir for condensation in adjacent tubing, b. the housing containing a bleed port traversed by the aforementioned passage durinG valve body movement in the course of playing.
16. In a horn-type musical instrument wherein notes are selected by valves that insert additional crooksections into series with the tubing that forms an acoustic path between the horn mouthpiece and bell, the improvement comprising: configuring the note selection valves so that when not depressed the shorter length acoustic path includes plural convolutions that attenuate higher harmonic components, and so that when depressed, the inserted crook sections form a longer acoustic path with fewer convolutions, said longer path attenuating approximately equally the same harmonic components that are attenuated by the plural convolutions in the shorter path, whereby uniform tonal quality and playing characteristics are achieved for all notes.
17. A horn according to claim 16 wherein said note selection valves each include an internal tortuous passageway that is within the acoustic path only when that note selection valve is not depressed.
18. A horn according to claim 16 including a pair of note selection valves, each valve having a rotatable body containing a pair of generally straight parallel through passageways, said valves being mounted in offset relationship to each other so that when either valve body is in a first orientation the acoustic path includes a generally U-shaped passage of which the tubing to the inlet and outlet of the valve comprises the legs of the U-shaped passage and one of the through passageways in the valve body comprises the base of the U-shaped passage, and that when the valve body is in a second orientation approximately at a right angle to said first orientation a crook is inserted into the acoustic path via both parallel through passageways of said valve body.
19. A horn comprising: tubing and valve means together forming a convoluted acoustic path of minimum length, additional crook sections of tubing, said valve means, when actuated, operatively inserting said crook sections into said acoustic path to increase the effective length thereof to produce notes of lower fundamental frequency while decreasing the total number of bends in the acoustic path, so that generally equal harmonic content of all notes results.
20. A horn according to claim 19 wherein each of said valve means comprises a valve having an inlet and an outlet and having a movable valve body, said volve body having a first internal passageway of tortuous configuration, said first passageway interconnecting said inlet and outlet so as to be inserting in said acoustic path when said valve body is in a first orientation, said valve body also having a pair of direct, non-tortuous passageways that interconnect one of said crooks into said acoustic path via said inlet and outlet when said valve means is actuated to place said valve body in a second orientation.
21. A horn according to claim 20 wherein said tortuous first internal passageway is generally S-shaped.
22. A horn according to claim 20 wherein said tortuous first internal passageway is generally U-shaped.
23. A horn according to claim 20 wherein said tortuous first internal passageway is of non-uniform cross-section lengthwise thereof.
24. A horn according to claim 20 wherein said tortuous first internal passageway includes a completely interior generally U-shaped loop, the ends of said loop being connected to first and second passageway sections leading respectively to said inlet and outlet and forming extra bends with the legs of said loop, so that said internal passageway includes in the following order a first extra bend between said inlet and the loop, the bends of the loop, and a second extra bend between the loop and said outlet.
25. A horn according to claim 20 wherein said valve is of the Vienna double piston type and wherein said valve body consists of two pistons that move in unison, each of said pistons containing a respective one of said pair of direct, non-tortuous passageways, each of said two pistoNs also containing a generally L-shaped passageway, said two L-shaped passageways being connected together to form said tortuous first internal passageway.
26. In a brass musical instrument of the type in which the fundamental frequency of the note being played is established by the length of the tubing in the acoustic path, and wherein notes are selected by valved insertion of loop or crook sections or tubing, the improvement for obtaining more uniform tonal quality and easier excitation of all notes, comprising: tubing forming a path between the horn mouthpiece and bell, and valves for alternately inserting a loop or a crook into said path, insertion of a loop providing a relatively shorter but more convoluted acoustic path, insertion of a crook providing a relatively longer but less convoluted path, the harmonic attentuation of either path being approximately equal.
27. A musical instrument according to claim 26 wherein each of said valves includes a movable valve body having a pair of convoluted through passages via which said loop is inserted into said acoustic path when said valve body is in a first orientation, and having a pair of straight passages via which said crook is inserted into said acoustic path when said valve body is in a second orientation.
28. In a horn having multiple sections each including its own playing valves and crooks, said sections sharing the same mouthpiece and bell, the improvement comprising; a switching valve immediately adjacent the mouthpiece terminus, and entirely separate tapered leadpipes connecting the outlets of said switching valve with the respective horn sections.
US37112673 1973-06-18 1973-06-18 Musical horn acoustic path modifications Expired - Lifetime US3886837A (en)

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Cited By (11)

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US4112806A (en) * 1977-01-31 1978-09-12 Thayer Orla E Axial flow valve
US4127050A (en) * 1976-12-22 1978-11-28 Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha Brass wind musical instrument
US4213371A (en) * 1977-01-31 1980-07-22 Thayer Orla E Axial flow valve
US4469002A (en) * 1977-01-31 1984-09-04 Thayer Orla E Axial flow valve
GB2209087A (en) * 1987-08-27 1989-04-26 Malcolm Skeels Valve assembly for a musical instrument
US4905564A (en) * 1988-11-08 1990-03-06 Thayer Orla E Rotary sound path selector valve with biased rotor
US5435222A (en) * 1993-05-18 1995-07-25 Leonard; B. P. Single trigger minor third attachment short reach slide trombone
DE202009003036U1 (en) 2009-03-03 2009-07-16 Rauch, Christian Bow for wind instruments
DE102009011400A1 (en) 2009-03-03 2010-09-09 Christian Rauch Retainer for wind instrument, particularly bassoon casting for bassoon, has U-shaped tube bend, where tube cross section of tube bend is approximately oval in curved area
US20100236379A1 (en) * 2009-03-18 2010-09-23 Wilk Martin A Valve for wind instrument
US20180192633A1 (en) * 2017-01-06 2018-07-12 II Roderick Stanford Truax Multiplex Waterfowl Call

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US284492A (en) * 1883-09-04 Cornet
US2106281A (en) * 1935-11-01 1938-01-25 Sattler Johann Wind musical instrument
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US2106281A (en) * 1935-11-01 1938-01-25 Sattler Johann Wind musical instrument
US2259756A (en) * 1940-10-21 1941-10-21 Lindsay Engineering & Mfg Corp Valve structure
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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4127050A (en) * 1976-12-22 1978-11-28 Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha Brass wind musical instrument
US4213371A (en) * 1977-01-31 1980-07-22 Thayer Orla E Axial flow valve
US4469002A (en) * 1977-01-31 1984-09-04 Thayer Orla E Axial flow valve
US4112806A (en) * 1977-01-31 1978-09-12 Thayer Orla E Axial flow valve
GB2209087B (en) * 1987-08-27 1991-10-09 Malcolm Skeels Valve assembly for a musical instrument
GB2209087A (en) * 1987-08-27 1989-04-26 Malcolm Skeels Valve assembly for a musical instrument
US4905564A (en) * 1988-11-08 1990-03-06 Thayer Orla E Rotary sound path selector valve with biased rotor
US5435222A (en) * 1993-05-18 1995-07-25 Leonard; B. P. Single trigger minor third attachment short reach slide trombone
DE102009011400A1 (en) 2009-03-03 2010-09-09 Christian Rauch Retainer for wind instrument, particularly bassoon casting for bassoon, has U-shaped tube bend, where tube cross section of tube bend is approximately oval in curved area
DE202009003036U1 (en) 2009-03-03 2009-07-16 Rauch, Christian Bow for wind instruments
US20100236379A1 (en) * 2009-03-18 2010-09-23 Wilk Martin A Valve for wind instrument
WO2010107465A3 (en) * 2009-03-18 2010-12-02 Wilk Martin A Valve for wind instrument
CN102369566A (en) * 2009-03-18 2012-03-07 马丁·A·威尔克 Valve for wind instrument
US8227677B2 (en) 2009-03-18 2012-07-24 Wilk Martin A Valve for wind instrument
CN102369566B (en) * 2009-03-18 2017-09-22 马丁·A·威尔克 Valve for wind instrument
US20180192633A1 (en) * 2017-01-06 2018-07-12 II Roderick Stanford Truax Multiplex Waterfowl Call

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