US3886435A - V' be 'voltage voltage source temperature compensation network - Google Patents

V' be 'voltage voltage source temperature compensation network Download PDF

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US3886435A
US3886435A US38527173A US3886435A US 3886435 A US3886435 A US 3886435A US 38527173 A US38527173 A US 38527173A US 3886435 A US3886435 A US 3886435A
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transistor
current
coupled
voltage
constant current
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Steven Alan Steckler
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RCA Licensing Corp
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RCA Corp
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05FSYSTEMS FOR REGULATING ELECTRIC OR MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G05F3/00Non-retroactive systems for regulating electric variables by using an uncontrolled element, or an uncontrolled combination of elements, such element or such combination having self-regulating properties
    • G05F3/02Regulating voltage or current
    • G05F3/08Regulating voltage or current wherein the variable is dc
    • G05F3/10Regulating voltage or current wherein the variable is dc using uncontrolled devices with non-linear characteristics
    • G05F3/16Regulating voltage or current wherein the variable is dc using uncontrolled devices with non-linear characteristics being semiconductor devices
    • G05F3/20Regulating voltage or current wherein the variable is dc using uncontrolled devices with non-linear characteristics being semiconductor devices using diode- transistor combinations
    • G05F3/26Current mirrors
    • G05F3/265Current mirrors using bipolar transistors only
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S323/00Electricity: power supply or regulation systems
    • Y10S323/901Starting circuits
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S323/00Electricity: power supply or regulation systems
    • Y10S323/907Temperature compensation of semiconductor

Abstract

A semiconductor P-N junction voltage source temperature compensating network comprises a resistor coupled in parallel with a resistor and a semiconductor P-N junction device in series. The parallel combination is coupled across the terminals of a semiconductor P-N junction voltage source. The source voltage varies with temperature and current according to the diode equations. The voltage across the series coupled P-N junction device varies in the same manner, decreasing with increasing temperature over a substantial range of operating temperature so that the effective resistance of the series combination decreases in substantially direct proportion to the source voltage. Thus if the resistors in the parallel circuit are chosen according to a specific ratio a substantially constant current relatively independent of temperature over a broad range of operating temperature can be made to flow through the parallel combination.

Description

United States Patent [191 Steckler V VOLTAGE VOLTAGE SOURCE TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION NETWORK [75] Inventor: Steven Alan Steckler, Clark, NJ. [73] Assignee: RCA Corporation, New York, NY. [22] Filed: Aug. 3, 1973 [2]] Appl. No.: 385,271

[52] US. Cl. 323/4; 307/297; 307/310; 323/9; 323/68 [51] Int. Cl. G051 1/58 [58] Field of Search 323/4, 9, 19, 22 T, 68, 323/69; 307/270, 297, 310

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,383,612 5/1968 Harwood 323/22 T 3,573,504 4/1971 Breuer 323/4X 3,588,672 6/1971 Wilson 323/4 3,617,859 11/1971 Dobkin et al. 323/4 3,619,659 ll/l97l Meyer et a1 307/297 X 3,648,153 3/1972 Graf 323/19 X 3,683,270 8/1972 Mattis 323/4 3,753,079 8/1973 Trilling 323/22 T X 3,777,251 12/1973 Cecil et a1 323/4 3,794,861 2/1974 Bernacchi 307/297 [111 3,886,435 51 May 27, 1975 7/1974 Ahmed 323/4 X 8/1974 Nanba et a1. 323/4 X [57] ABSTRACT A semiconductor P-N junction voltage source temperature compensating network comprises a resistor coupled in parallel with a resistor and a semiconductor P-N junction device in series. The parallel combination is coupled across the terminals of a semiconductor P-N junction voltage source. The source voltage varies with temperature and current according to the diode equations. The voltage across the series coupled -N junction device varies in the same manner, decreasing with increasing temperature over a substantial range of operating temperature so that the effective resistance of the series combination decreases in substantially direct proportion to the source voltage. Thus if the resistors in the parallel circuit are chosen according to a specific ratio a substantially constant current relatively independent of temperature over a broad range of operating temperature can be made to flow through the parallel combination.

19 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures PMBHEDEJAY 27 I975 VBE SUPPLY V BE VOLTAGE VOLTAGE SOURCE TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION NETWORK BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to constant current sources and more specifically to temperature independent constant current sources.

An aspect of some concern relating to the use of transistor integrated circuits in many applications is the temperature dependence of many of the operating parameters of the transistor device employed such as, for example, its collector current. The problem of temperature variation of operating parameters becomes more acute when such integrated circuits are subjected to the relatively broad temperature variations encountered in hostile environments or in uses in which large numbers of integrated circuits operate in relatively close proximity to one another prohibiting effective cooling of some of the devices on the integrated circuits. Under such circumstances, integrated circuit arrangements which provided temperature compensation to insure relatively temperature independent characteristics are of great aid to the designer.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the present invention a current regulator which supplies a substantially constant current comprises a source of temperature dependent voltage, wherein the temperature dependent voltage is proportional to the voltage established across a semiconductor P-N junction structure in the conductive state, first resistance means coupled in parallel with the source of temperature dependent voltage for drawing current equal to the voltage applied thereacross divided by the resistance of the first resistance means, and serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means coupled in parallel with the source of temperature dependent voltage and the first resistance means such that the potential across the serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means cquals the potential across the source of temperatu re dependent voltage, the current in the serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means thereby having a temperature coefficient which is proportional to the negative of the temperature coefficient of current in the first resistance means for substantially compensating for the temperature coefficient of current in the first resistance means over a substantial range of operating temperature.

The invention may best be understood by reference to the following explanation and drawings of which:

FIG. 1 illustrates a partly block and partly schematic circuit diagram of the first embodiment of a temperature compensated current regulator in accordance with the invention:

FIG. 2 illustrates a schematic diagram of a second embodiment of a temperature compensated current regulator in accordance with the invention; and

FIG. 3 illustrates a schematic diagram of a third embodiment of a temperature compensated current regulator in accordance with the invention.

In a first embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIG. 1, a source of voltage equal to the forward biased base-emitter voltage V of a semiconductor junction 8 is connected with its positive terminal connected through a resistor 29 to point G. The negative terminal of V voltage source 8 is connected to point G. A diode 26 has its anode connected to the positive terminal of V voltage supply 8 and its cathode connected to one terminal of a resistor 35. The other terminal of resistor 35 is connected to point G. A load circuit 60 which requires a substantially temperature invariant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is connected serially between a source of supply voltage B+ and the junction of the anode of diode 26,

the positive terminal of V voltage supply 8 and a terminal of resistor 29.

In the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIG. 1, V supply 8 is characterized by its forward biased base-emitter junction voltage which decreases with increasing temperature according to the relation,

in which V is the base-emitter junction voltage drop, V is the junction drop at absolute zero, V is the junction drop at the reference temperature T n is a constant relating to the construction of the device (typically 1.5 for a double diffused silicon transistor), k/q is a physical constant with a value of approximately 8.66 X 10 V/C, T is the temperature of the junction, I is the collector current at temperature T (in degrees Kelvin), I is the collector current at temperature T (in degrees Kelvin) and base-emitter voltage V and In indicates the natural or Napierian logarithm of the succeeding parenthetic expression. The formula, its derivation and applications are explained in some detail in, for example, R. .l. Widlar, An Exact Expression for the Thermal Variation of the Emitter-Base Voltage of Bipolar Transistors," Proc. IEEE (Letters), Vol. 55, pp. 96-97, January, 1967, and .l. S. Brugler, Silicon Transistor Biasing for Linear Collector Current Temperature Dependence, IEEE Journal ofSolid State Circuits (correspondence), Vol. SC-2, No. 2, pp. 57-58, June, 1967, and references cited therein.

As the voltage across V supply 8 varies, the current supplied to resistor 29 must vary so that the voltage across V supply 8 equals the resistance of resistor 29 multiplied by the current flowing through resistor 29. Hence, it can be seen from an examination of the foregoing expression that the current through resistor 29 will vary directly with the voltage across V supply 8.

It may also be seen from the foregoing relation that the voltage across V supply 8 varies inversely with the temperature of the base-emitter junction (the latter two terms of the equation are relatively small compared to the V,,, and V terms of the equation as shown in the first of the references hereinbefore cited).

Since the voltage across the anode-cathode junction of diode 26 is governed by the same equation as the voltage across V supply 8, it may be seen that as temperature increases, the anode-cathode junction voltage drop of diode 26 and hence the effective resistance of nKT the series combination of diode 26 and resistor 35 decreases with increasing temperature.

For a reasonably broad range of operating temperatures it is desired to make the current flowing through load impedance 60 substantially invariant with respect to temperature. Therefore, it is desired to make the change in the current drawn by the series combination of diode 26 and resistor 35 with respect to temperature equal the negative of the change in the current flowing through resistor 29 with respect to temperature.

From a consideration of the derivative of the foregoing V relation with respect to temperature, the fact that the voltage across V supply 8 approximately equals the current through load impedance 60 less the current through diode 26, divided by the value of resistor 29, the temperature about which compensation is desired, (for purposes of this discussion room temperature of 25 C or 298 K), the diode equation relating the junction voltage drop V of a forward biased semiconductor P-N junction to the saturation current I, of that junction (wherein all other symbols are as defined in the forego ing V equation), and the fact that it is desired to make the derivative of the current flowing through load impedance 60 with respect to temperature equal to zero, a relation involving the ratio of resistors 29 and 35 may be achieved.

For example, at room temperature the first V rela* tion can be approximated by 0.7 volt for silicon double diffused junction devices. The derivative with respect to temperature of the base-emitter junction voltage, V is approximately 2 millivolts per Centigrade (or Kelvin) degree for silicon junction devices.

It can be seen from the equation relating saturation current to forward biased base-emitterjunction voltage that the voltage across resistor 35 may be written as (assuming equal saturation currents for V voltage supply 8 and diode 26),

I k? LR q I" me where is the effective diode current of V source The derivative of this expression with respect to tern perature is 67 q In Centigrade degree, a ratio of the value of resistor 29 to the value of resistor 35 of approximately 16.6 results. Other circuit considerations. such as the voltage applied between terminals B+ and G and the desired current in load impedance set the maximum and minimum values of the resistors themselves. From these considerations, values for the resistors can be chosen which yield good results over the selected range of tem peratures.

In a second embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIG. 2, direct current operating voltage is supplied from a positive voltage source 8+ through point C to the junction of one terminal of each of three resistors 10,11, and 12.

The other terminal of resistor 10 is connected to the collector and base electrodes of a transistor 14. The other terminal of resistor 11 is connected to the collector and base electrodes of a transistor 15. The other terminal of resistor 12 is connected to the emitter of a transistor 23. The emitters of transistors 14 and 15 are both coupled to the base of transistor 23 and to the emitter of a transistor 21. It should be noted that the described connections of transistors 14 and 15 comprise one of many configurations representing a diode with its anode analogous to the collector-base connection of the transistor and its cathode represented by the emitter of the transistor. It may be noted that transistors l4 and 15 may be of either conductivity type since they will function only as diodes. When they are of the other conductivity type, their emitters will be the am odes of the diodes and their collector-base terminals will be the cathodes The base of transistor 2} is coupled to the collector of transistor 23 and this connection represents an input terminal, point D, of a current regulator. The collector of transistor 21, point A, is an output terminal of the current regulator.

Point I) is connected to the collector of a transistor 24. Point A is connected through a terminal A to the base of transistor 24 and to the collector ofa transistor 22. The emitter of transistor 24 is connected to the base of transistor 22 and to one terminal of a current monitoring resistor 29. The emitter of transistor 22 and the other terminal of resistor 29 are coupled to point G. Transistors 22 and 24 and resistor 29 comprise a V source which provides drive current to the current regulator and a path for its output current through point G.

The collector of a transistor 25 is connected to the junction of the base of transistor 22, the emitter of transistor 24 and resistor 29. The base of transistor 25 is also connected to the junction of resistor 29, the emitter of transistor 24 and the base of transistor 22. The emitter of transistor 25 is connected through a resistor 35 to point G. It can be seen that transistor 25 as con' nected in this configuration performs the same function as diode 26 in the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1.

Transistor 25 and resistor 35 in this configuration are the elements which supply the positive temperature co efficient drive current for the current regulator which, when added to the negative temperature coefficient drive current supplied by the V source by virtue of the decreasing V of transistor 22 with increasing temperature, yields a substantially temperature independent input current to the current regulator.

A starting transistor 50 is connected with its collector at the direct current supply voltage and its emitter at point A. It is not required to connect the base of transistor 50 in the circuit since its only function is to provide collector to emitter leakage current to start the circuit.

After transistor 24 has initially been placed in conduction by appropriate current supplied by the collector to emitter leakage current of starting transistor 50 (or by leakage currents in the circuit which may be sufficient to induce starting depending upon the transistors used, in which case transistor 50 may be omitted), collector current in transistor 24 will vary approximately as the value of V of transistor 22 divided by the value of resistor 29.

In the circuit illustrated in FIG. 2 the elements numbered 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 21, and 23 comprise a variation of a type of current regulator known as a current repeater. A current repeater is a device in which the ratio of the input current supplied to an input terminal (point D) to the resulting output current supplied to an output terminal (point A) is substantially constant, creating at the output terminal current equal to a constant ratio times the current supplied at the input terminal. It should be noted that the ratio may be altered simply by adding to or subtracting from the number of parallel connected diode and resistor series combinations coupled between the direct current operating voltage and the base of transistor 23. The ratio may also be changed by changing the ratio of the base-emitter areas of the one or more transistors which are being used as diodes (elements 14 and 15 in this circuit) in relation to the base-emitter area of the transistor 23 with whose baseemitter circuit they are coupled in parallel.

In the current repeater illustrated, the ratio of current flowing from the emitter of transistor 23, the input current, to that flowing from the collector of transistor 21, the output terminal of the current repeater, from the direct current voltage supply B+ through resistors 10 and 11 and diode connected transistors 14 and 15 is one to two assuming equal base-emitter areas and diffusion profiles of transistors 14, 15, and 23. This results from the fact that in the steady state the forward biased emitter-base junction of transistor 23 and the forward biased diode connected transistors 14 and 15, which are virtually identical to transistor 23, and resistors 10, I 1, and 12, which are all of equal value, represent substantially equal impedance paths for the direct current voltage supply B+. Resistors 10, 11, and 12 are added to decrease the effect of any differences which might occur in the fabrication of the devices 14, 15, and 23 and may be used or eliminated in this embodiment of the invention. Substantially equal currents flow in these three parallel paths from the supply, the currents flowing in diodes l4 and 15 flowing through the collector of transistor 21 and the emitter of transistor 23 supplying substantially all of a current equal in magnitude to the contribution of either diode 14 or 15 to the collector of transistor 23. For purposes of this discussion base currents have been ignored since the base currents are orders of magnitude smaller than the collector currents under discussion.

Transistors 22 and 24 and resistor 29 in FIG. 2 comprise a familiar V voltage source. The operation of this circuit is in accordance with well-known principles but it is discussed here to aid in understanding the invention.

Transistor 22 is arranged in a common emitter configuration. When energizing potential B+ is supplied at point C, an equilibrium point is established at which an average one V voltage drop is developed across its base-emitter junction in the forward diode direction. The collector current conducted by transistor 22 by virtue of this average drop (which is approximately 0.7 volt for a silicon device at room temperature of 25 C) sets the conductivity of transistor 24 which is supplying current to resistor 29 to sustain this V drop.

As voltage across resistor 29 tends to decrease below this V value as, for example, when the collector voltage of transistor 24 decreases, transistor 22 tends to become less conductive, raising the voltage applied to the base, point A, of transistor 24, and hence increases the conductivity of transistor 24 so that more voltage is supplied at the base of transistor 22 to sustain the V drop. Should the voltage on the base of transistor 22 tend to rise substantially above the equilibrium value, transistor 22 becomes more conductive, lowering the base voltage of transistor 24 and hence its conductivity which in turn tends to bring the base voltage of transistor 22 back toward its equilibrium value.

This action tends to maintain a substantially constant current flow through resistor 29 and thus through the collector-emitter circuits of both transistors 22 and 24 even with substantial changes in the supply voltage B+, provided temperature remains substantially constant. However, variations in temperature have adverse effects on the performance of the circuit unless compensation is provided.

As the temperature of transistor 22 varies from some arbitrary reference temperature T its base-emitter forward voltage drop changes according to the relation for V stated previously.

As the base-emitter voltage of transistor 22 varies, the current supplied to resistor 29 must also vary. Since all of this current flows in the collector of transistor 24, transistor 22 has the effect of varying the collector current of transistor 24 inversely with temperature.

In order to compensate for this effect and to insure that constant current is drawn toward ground through point D, the input terminal of the current repeater, and thus through point A, the output terminal of the current repeater, transistor 25 is connected with its base to the sensing resistor 29 of the V voltage source. lts collector is connected to its base forming a diode configuration as previously explained. The positive and negative temperature coefficient currents are summed at the emitter of transistor 24. Its emitter current is approximately equal to its collector current (again the base currents of these devices have been assumed throughout the analysis to be much smaller than their respective collector currents).

In a similar manner to that outlined in the discussion directed toward FIG. 1 then, the change in the collector current drawn by transistor 25 with respect to temperature can be made to compensate for the change in the current flowing through resistor 29 with respect to temperature.

From considerations of the aforestated V equations, the fact that V of transistor 22 approximately equals the collector current of transistor 24 divided by the value of resistor 29, the temperature about which compensation is required and the fact that it is desired to make the derivative of the current flowing from point D or point D with respect to temperature equal to zero, relations involving the ratio of resistors 29 and 35 may again be achieved which determine the ratio as previously explained.

Other circuit considerations again determine the values for the resistors themselves. From these considerations, values for the resistors can be chosen which yield good results over the selected range of temperatures. A system constructed with silicon resistors 29 and 35, a value of resistor 29 of 4300 ohms and a value of resistor 35 of 250 ohms (for a ratio of 17.2) exhibited approximately a 1 percent current variation between 25 and 110 C with a current repeater output current of approximately 1.02 milliamperes at 25 C.

Over a chosen temperature range then, the current through points A, D, C, and G is held substantially constant with changing temperature by virtue of the compensation circuit in accordance with the invention. The input current to the current repeater flows through point D (note that in the illustrated circuit the input" current actually flows out of the current repeater toward reference potential since the transistors of the repeater are P-N-P types), the image" current of the repeater flows through point A, and the sum of the two, which is therefore also substantially temperature independent over a range of operating temperatures, flows from the direct current voltage supply B+ through point C and out of the circuit through point G. Therefore, load circuits which require constant currents can be connected between points A and A, C and C, D and D, and G and reference potential.

In another embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIG. 3 transistor 25 has an internal impedance that being the output impedance of transistor 25, in parallel with its collector to emitter connection.

In recognition of this fact, a third embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIG. 3 disconnects the collector of transistor 25 from its base and connects the collector of a transistor 30 to point D. The base of transistor 30 is connected to the base of transistor 25. The emitter of transistor 30 is coupled to the collector of transistor 25. All other points, elements, and connections remain as described in the discussion of FIG. 2 and the functions there described are unchanged for purposes of the discussion of FIG. 3.

To decrease the effect of collector to emitter output resistance of transistor 25 on the temperature compensation component of current under discussion, the collector voltage of transistor 25 may be controlled at some low direct current voltage. This is done by connecting transistor 30 in a cascode configuration with transistor 24 as shown in FIG. 3. In this manner the collector voltage of transistor 25 is thereby controlled at one base-emitter voltage drop. In FIG. 3 the voltage drop will be the sum of the base-emitter voltage drops across either transistor 22 or 25 and transistor 24 minus the base-emitter voltage drop of transistor 30. Since the collector voltage of transistor 25 is not allowed to float at some higher direct current voltage level but is constrained to be one base-emitter voltage drop, the effect of its output resistance is minimized.

The difference between the circuit of FIG. 3 and that shown in FIG. 2 is that in FIG. 3 the positive and negative temperature coefficient currents are summed at point D rather than at the emitter of transistor 24. In all other respects. the operation of th two circuits is substantially the same.

It should also be noted that this positive temperature coefficient compensating arrangement may be used to control constant currents drawn by a number of transistors connected in cascode configurations with transistors 21, 22, 23, or 24 of FIGS. 2 and 3 since the collector currents of all of these transistors will be temperature compensated. This effectively divides the output current of the current repeater through the collector of each cascoded device by the number of cascoded devices. The cascoded transistors could also have different base-emitter junction areas providing non-integral current division.

What is claimed is:

l. A current regulator which supplies a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures, comprising:

a source of temperature dependent voltage, said temperature dependent voltage being proportional to the voltage established across a semiconductor P-N junction structure in the conductive state,

first resistance means coupled in parallel with said source of temperature dependent voltage for drawing current equal to the voltage applied thereacross divided by the resistance of said first resistance means; and

serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means coupled in parallel with said source of temperature dependent voltage and said first resistance means such that the potential across said serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means equals the potential across said source of temperature dependent voltage, the current in said serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means thereby having a temperature coefficient which is proportional to the negative of the temperature coefficient of current in said first resistance means for substantially compensating for said temperature coefficient of current in said first resistance means over a substantial range of operating temperature.

2, A current regulator according to claim 1 wherein:

a load impedance requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperature is serially coupled between a source of operating potential and a junction of said source of temperature dependent voltage, said first resistance means, and said serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means.

3. A current regulator according to claim 1 wherein:

a load impedance requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperature is serially coupled between a junction of said source of temperature dependent voltage, said first resistance means, and said serially coupled second P-N junction structure and second resistance means and a point of reference potential.

4. A current regulator according to claim 1 wherein:

said source of temperature dependent voltage is a second P-N junction structure biased so as to be in a state of conduction.

5. A current regulator which supplies a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperature comprising:

a first transistor, the emitter of which is coupled to a point of reference potential and the collector of which is coupled to a source of direct current voltage;

a second transistor, the emitter of which is coupled to the base of said first transistor, the base of which is coupled to the collector of said first transistor, and the collector of which is coupled to said source of direct current voltage;

first resistance means serially coupled between the junction of the base of said first transistor and emitter of said second transistor and a point of reference potential for allowing operating current to flow between the main current conducting path of said second transistor and said point of reference potential in response to the base to emitter potential drop across said first transistor; and

serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means coupled in parallel with said first resistance means, the ratio of the resistance of said first resistance means to the resistance of said second resistance means being selected for allowing current flow through said serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means to increase with increasing temperature in such a manner as to substantially compensate for decreasing current through said first resistance means in response to the decreasing base to emitter voltage across said first transistor with increasing temperature and thereby allow substantially constant current to flow in the main current conducting path of said second transistor over a substantial range of temperature.

6. A current regulator which supplies a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim wherein:

said P-N junction structure is of the same material as said first and second transistors and is poled for conduction between the base of said first transistor and a point of reference potential in the same manner as the base-emitter junction of said first transistor.

7. A current regulator which supplies a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 6 wherein:

a load impedance requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is serially coupled in the main current conducting path of said second transistor.

8. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures comprising:

a source of direct current voltage;

a constant current ratio amplifier for supplying an output current in a substantially constant ratio to a given input current coupled to said source of direct current voltage;

a first transistor, the main current conducting path of which is serially coupled between the output terminal of said constant current ratio amplifier and a point of reference potential;

a second transistor, the main current conducting path of which is serially coupled between the input terminal of said constant current ratio amplifier and a point of reference potential and the control electrode of said second transistor being coupled to the main current conducting path of said first transistor;

sensing means serially coupled between the main current conducting path of said second transistor and said point of reference potential, the control electrode of said first transistor being coupled to the junction ofa terminal of the main current conducting path of said second transistor and said sensing means for controlling the conduction of said first transistor; and

resistance means serially coupled to a P-N junction structure of the same material as said first and second transistors, said serially coupled resistance means and RN junction structure being serially coupled between a point of reference potential and the control electrode of said first transistor for conducting a current with a temperature coefficient which is inversely proportional to the temperature coefficient of current produced in said sensing means by voltage variations across the base-emitter junction of said first transistor, and thereby compensating for that temperature coefficient of current so that the sum of the two inversely proportional currents is substantially independent of temperature over a substantial range of operating temperatures.

9. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 8 wherein:

said first and second transistors are of the same conductivity type.

10. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 9 wherein:

a load circuit requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is serially coupled between the main current conducting path of said second transistor and said input terminal of said constant current ratio amplifier.

11. A circuit for temperature compensation of a sub stantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 9 wherein:

a load circuit requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is serially coupled between the main current conducting path of said first transistor and said output terminal of said constant current ratio amplifier.

12. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 9 wherein:

a load circuit requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is serially coupled between said source of direct current voltage and said constant current ratio amplifier:

13. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 9 wherein said constant current ratio amplifier comprises:

fourth and fifth transistors, the emitter of said fourth transistor being coupled to the base of said fifth transistor, the collector of said fifth transistor being coupled to the base of said fourth transistor and the emitter of said fifth transistor being coupled to said source of direct current voltage through first resis tance means, the collector of said fourth transistor supplying said output current and the junction of 1 1 the collector of said fifth transistor and the base of said fourth transistor being the point at which said input current is applied; and

at least first serially coupled diode and resistance means having a value equal to that of said first first resistance means coupled between the base of said fifth transistor and said source of direct current voltage, said diode being poled for conduction in the same manner as the base-emitter junction of said fifth transistor.

14. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures comprising:

source of direct current voltage;

constant current ratio amplifier for supplying an output current in a substantially constant ratio to a given input current coupled to said source of direct current voltage;

a first transistor, the main current conducting path of which is serially coupled between the output terminal of said constant current ratio amplifier and a point of reference potential;

a second transistor, the main current conducting path of which is serially coupled between the input terminal of said constant current ratio amplifier and a point of reference potential and the control electrode of said second transistor being coupled to the main current conducting path of said first transistor;

sensing means serially coupled between the main current conducting path of said second transistor and said source of reference potential, the control electrode of said first transistor being coupled to the junction of a terminal of the main current conducting path of said second transistor and said sensing means for controlling the conduction of said first transistor; and

a third transistor, the control electrode of which is coupled to the junction of the control electrode of said first transistor and the main current conducting path of said second transistor and the main current conducting path of said third transistor being.

15. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 14 wherein said constant current ratio amplifier comprises:

fourth and fifth transistors, the emitter of said fourth transistor being coupled to the base of said fifth transistor, the collector of said fifth transistor being coupled to the base of said fourth transistor and the emitter of said fifth transistor being coupled to said source of direct current voltage through first resistance means, the collector of said fourth transistor supplying said output current and the junction of the collector of said fifth transistor and the base of said fourth transistor being the point at which said input current is applied; and

at least first serially coupled diode and resistance means having a value equal to that of said first resistance means coupled between the base of said fifth transistor and said source of direct current voltage, said diode being poled for conduction in the same manner as the base-emitter junction of said fifth transistor.

16. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 15 wherein:

said first, second and third transistors are of the same polarity type and said fourth and fifth transistors are of a polarity type opposite said first, second and third transistors.

17. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 16 wherein:

a load circuit requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is serially coupled between the main current conducting paths of said second and fifth transis' tors.

18. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 16 wherein:

a load circuit requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is serially coupled between the main current conducting paths of said first and fourth transistors.

19. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 16 wherein:

a load circuit requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is serially coupled between said source of direct current voltage and a junction of said first resistance means and said serially coupled diode and resistance means.

Claims (19)

1. A current regulator which supplies a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures, comprising: a source of temperature dependent voltage, said temperature dependent voltage being proportional to the voltage established across a semiconductor P-N junction structure in the conductive state; first resistance means coupled in parallel with said source of temperature dependent voltage for drawing current equal to the voltage applied thereacross divided by the resistance of said first resistance means; and serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means coupled in parallel with said source of temperature dependent voltage and said first resistance means such that the potential across said serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means equals the potential across said source of temperature dependent voltage, the current in said serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means thereby having a temPerature coefficient which is proportional to the negative of the temperature coefficient of current in said first resistance means for substantially compensating for said temperature coefficient of current in said first resistance means over a substantial range of operating temperature.
2. A current regulator according to claim 1 wherein: a load impedance requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperature is serially coupled between a source of operating potential and a junction of said source of temperature dependent voltage, said first resistance means, and said serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means.
3. A current regulator according to claim 1 wherein: a load impedance requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperature is serially coupled between a junction of said source of temperature dependent voltage, said first resistance means, and said serially coupled second P-N junction structure and second resistance means and a point of reference potential.
4. A current regulator according to claim 1 wherein: said source of temperature dependent voltage is a second P-N junction structure biased so as to be in a state of conduction.
5. A current regulator which supplies a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperature comprising: a first transistor, the emitter of which is coupled to a point of reference potential and the collector of which is coupled to a source of direct current voltage; a second transistor, the emitter of which is coupled to the base of said first transistor, the base of which is coupled to the collector of said first transistor, and the collector of which is coupled to said source of direct current voltage; first resistance means serially coupled between the junction of the base of said first transistor and emitter of said second transistor and a point of reference potential for allowing operating current to flow between the main current conducting path of said second transistor and said point of reference potential in response to the base to emitter potential drop across said first transistor; and serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means coupled in parallel with said first resistance means, the ratio of the resistance of said first resistance means to the resistance of said second resistance means being selected for allowing current flow through said serially coupled P-N junction structure and second resistance means to increase with increasing temperature in such a manner as to substantially compensate for decreasing current through said first resistance means in response to the decreasing base to emitter voltage across said first transistor with increasing temperature and thereby allow substantially constant current to flow in the main current conducting path of said second transistor over a substantial range of temperature.
6. A current regulator which supplies a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 5 wherein: said P-N junction structure is of the same material as said first and second transistors and is poled for conduction between the base of said first transistor and a point of reference potential in the same manner as the base-emiiter junction of said first transistor.
7. A current regulator which supplies a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 6 wherein: a load impedance requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is serially coupled in the main current conducting path of said second transistor.
8. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures comprising: a source of direct current voltage; a constant current ratio amplifier for supplying an output current in a substantially constant ratio to a given input current coupled to said source of direct current voltage; a first transistor, the main current conducting path of which is serially coupled between the output terminal of said constant current ratio amplifier and a point of reference potential; a second transistor, the main current conducting path of which is serially coupled between the input terminal of said constant current ratio amplifier and a point of reference potential and the control electrode of said second transistor being coupled to the main current conducting path of said first transistor; sensing means serially coupled between the main current conducting path of said second transistor and said point of reference potential, the control electrode of said first transistor being coupled to the junction of a terminal of the main current conducting path of said second transistor and said sensing means for controlling the conduction of said first transistor; and resistance means serially coupled to a P-N junction structure of the same material as said first and second transistors, said serially coupled resistance means and P-N junction structure being serially coupled between a point of reference potential and the control electrode of said first transistor for conducting a current with a temperature coefficient which is inversely proportional to the temperature coefficient of current produced in said sensing means by voltage variations across the base-emitter junction of said first transistor, and thereby compensating for that temperature coefficient of current so that the sum of the two inversely proportional currents is substantially independent of temperature over a substantial range of operating temperatures.
9. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 8 wherein: said first and second transistors are of the same conductivity type.
10. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 9 wherein: a load circuit requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is serially coupled between the main current conducting path of said second transistor and said input terminal of said constant current ratio amplifier.
11. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 9 wherein: a load circuit requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is serially coupled between the main current conducting path of said first transistor and said output terminal of said constant current ratio amplifier.
12. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 9 wherein: a load circuit requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is serially coupled between said source of direct current voltage and said constant current ratio amplifier.
13. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 9 wherein said constant current ratio amplifier comprises: fourth and fifth transistors, the emitter of said fourth transistor being coupled to the base of said fifth transistor, the collector of said fifth transistor being coupled to the base of said fourth transistor and the emitter of said fifth transistor being coupled to said source of direct current voltage through first resistance means, the collector of said fourth transistor supplying said output current and the junction of the collector of said fifth transistor and the base of said fourth transistor being the point at which said input current is applied; and at least first serially coupled diode and resistance means having a value equal to that of said first first resistance means coupled between the base of said fifth transistor and said source of direct current voltage, said diode being poled for conduction in the same manner as the base-emitter junction of said fifth transistor.
14. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures comprising: a source of direct current voltage; a constant current ratio amplifier for supplying an output current in a substantially constant ratio to a given input current coupled to said source of direct current voltage; a first transistor, the main current conducting path of which is serially coupled between the output terminal of said constant current ratio amplifier and a point of reference potential; a second transistor, the main current conducting path of which is serially coupled between the input terminal of said constant current ratio amplifier and a point of reference potential and the control electrode of said second transistor being coupled to the main current conducting path of said first transistor; sensing means serially coupled between the main current conducting path of said second transistor and said source of reference potential, the control electrode of said first transistor being coupled to the junction of a terminal of the main current conducting path of said second transistor and said sensing means for controlling the conduction of said first transistor; and a third transistor, the control electrode of which is coupled to the junction of the control electrode of said first transistor and the main current conducting path of said second transistor and the main current conducting path of said third transistor being coupled at its collector electrode to the collector electrode of said second transistor and the emitter of said third transistor being coupled through resistive means to a point of reference potential for compensating for the effects of the temperature coefficient of voltage between the control electrode and emitter of said first transistor on the collector current of said second transistor.
15. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 14 wherein said constant current ratio amplifier comprises: fourth and fifth transistors, the emitter of said fourth transistor being coupled to the base of said fifth transistor, the collector of said fifth transistor being coupled to the base of said fourth transistor and the emitter of said fifth transistor being coupled to said source of direct current voltage through first resistance means, the collector of said fourth transistor supplying said output current and the junction of the collector of said fifth transistor and the base of said fourth transistor being the point at which said input current is applied; and at least first serially coupled diode and resistance means having a value equal to that of said first resistance means coupled between the base of said fifth transistor and said source of direct current voltage, said diode being poled for conduction in the same manner as the base-emitter junction of said fifth transistor.
16. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 15 wherein: said first, second and third transistors are of the same polarity type and said fourth and fifth transistors are of a polarity type opposite said first, second and third transistors.
17. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 16 wherein: a load circuit requiring A substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is serially coupled between the main current conducting paths of said second and fifth transistors.
18. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 16 wherein: a load circuit requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is serially coupled between the main current conducting paths of said first and fourth transistors.
19. A circuit for temperature compensation of a substantially constant current amplifier over a substantial range of operating temperatures according to claim 16 wherein: a load circuit requiring a substantially constant current over a substantial range of operating temperatures is serially coupled between said source of direct current voltage and a junction of said first resistance means and said serially coupled diode and resistance means.
US38527173 1973-08-03 1973-08-03 V' be 'voltage voltage source temperature compensation network Expired - Lifetime US3886435A (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US38527173 US3886435A (en) 1973-08-03 1973-08-03 V' be 'voltage voltage source temperature compensation network

Applications Claiming Priority (11)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US38527173 US3886435A (en) 1973-08-03 1973-08-03 V' be 'voltage voltage source temperature compensation network
IT2369174A IT1014836B (en) 1973-08-03 1974-06-06 Compensation network of tem perature for a ten sion v be source
CA202,213A CA1034200A (en) 1973-08-03 1974-06-11 Vbe voltage source temperature compensation network
FR7422523A FR2239719B1 (en) 1973-08-03 1974-06-27
GB3158574A GB1472988A (en) 1973-08-03 1974-07-17 Constant current source temperature compensation network
SE7409647A SE398928B (en) 1973-08-03 1974-07-25 Temperature compensated current regulator circuit comprising a temperature dependent Kella for spenning
NL7410073A NL7410073A (en) 1973-08-03 1974-07-26 Temperature compensated current-control circuit.
AU71853/74A AU495596B2 (en) 1973-08-03 1974-07-31 v VOLTAGE SOURCE TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION NETWORK
KR740003239A KR790001971B1 (en) 1973-08-03 1974-07-31 Temperature compensation network
JP8894774A JPS5310257B2 (en) 1973-08-03 1974-08-01
DE19742437427 DE2437427C3 (en) 1973-08-03 1974-08-02

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US (1) US3886435A (en)
JP (1) JPS5310257B2 (en)
KR (1) KR790001971B1 (en)
CA (1) CA1034200A (en)
DE (1) DE2437427C3 (en)
FR (1) FR2239719B1 (en)
GB (1) GB1472988A (en)
IT (1) IT1014836B (en)
NL (1) NL7410073A (en)
SE (1) SE398928B (en)

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US4063120A (en) * 1975-08-12 1977-12-13 Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. Constant voltage circuit
US4079308A (en) * 1977-01-31 1978-03-14 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Resistor ratio circuit construction
US4123698A (en) * 1976-07-06 1978-10-31 Analog Devices, Incorporated Integrated circuit two terminal temperature transducer
EP0007804A1 (en) * 1978-08-02 1980-02-06 Fujitsu Limited A stabilising bias circuit having a desired temperature dependence
US4263544A (en) * 1978-04-05 1981-04-21 U.S. Philips Corporation Reference voltage arrangement
US4292583A (en) * 1980-01-31 1981-09-29 Signetics Corporation Voltage and temperature stabilized constant current source circuit
EP0039178A1 (en) * 1980-04-18 1981-11-04 Fujitsu Limited Integrated circuit for generating a reference voltage
WO1982001105A1 (en) * 1980-09-22 1982-04-01 Western Electric Co Current source with modified temperature coefficient
US4325018A (en) * 1980-08-14 1982-04-13 Rca Corporation Temperature-correction network with multiple corrections as for extrapolated band-gap voltage reference circuits
US4325017A (en) * 1980-08-14 1982-04-13 Rca Corporation Temperature-correction network for extrapolated band-gap voltage reference circuit
US4348633A (en) * 1981-06-22 1982-09-07 Motorola, Inc. Bandgap voltage regulator having low output impedance and wide bandwidth
US4450367A (en) * 1981-12-14 1984-05-22 Motorola, Inc. Delta VBE bias current reference circuit
US4490669A (en) * 1981-09-21 1984-12-25 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Circuit configuration for generating a temperature-independent reference voltage
US4491780A (en) * 1983-08-15 1985-01-01 Motorola, Inc. Temperature compensated voltage reference circuit
US4590418A (en) * 1984-11-05 1986-05-20 General Motors Corporation Circuit for generating a temperature stabilized reference voltage
US4603290A (en) * 1983-12-29 1986-07-29 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Constant-current generating circuit
US4636742A (en) * 1983-10-27 1987-01-13 Fujitsu Limited Constant-current source circuit and differential amplifier using the same
US4786855A (en) * 1988-02-04 1988-11-22 Linear Technology Inc. Regulator for current source transistor bias voltage
US4786856A (en) * 1987-03-12 1988-11-22 Tektronix, Inc. Temperature compensated current source
US4853610A (en) * 1988-12-05 1989-08-01 Harris Semiconductor Patents, Inc. Precision temperature-stable current sources/sinks
US4857823A (en) * 1988-09-22 1989-08-15 Ncr Corporation Bandgap voltage reference including a process and temperature insensitive start-up circuit and power-down capability
US4866399A (en) * 1988-10-24 1989-09-12 Delco Electronics Corporation Noise immune current mirror
US4879505A (en) * 1986-12-23 1989-11-07 Analog Devices, Inc. Temperature and power supply compensation circuit for integrated circuits
US5124575A (en) * 1988-04-11 1992-06-23 Telefunken Electronic Gmbh Circuit array for setting the operating point of a transistor
US5640085A (en) * 1995-02-17 1997-06-17 Landis & Gyr Technology Innovation Ag Temperature compensation circuit
US20090283518A1 (en) * 2005-01-18 2009-11-19 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. High frequency heating apparatus
US20090302770A1 (en) * 2008-04-10 2009-12-10 Osram Gmbh Circuit for compensating thermal variations, lamp, lighting module and method for operating the same

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US3619659A (en) * 1969-12-02 1971-11-09 Honeywell Inf Systems Integrator amplifier circuit with voltage regulation and temperature compensation
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US3648153A (en) * 1970-11-04 1972-03-07 Rca Corp Reference voltage source
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Cited By (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4063120A (en) * 1975-08-12 1977-12-13 Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. Constant voltage circuit
US4123698A (en) * 1976-07-06 1978-10-31 Analog Devices, Incorporated Integrated circuit two terminal temperature transducer
US4079308A (en) * 1977-01-31 1978-03-14 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Resistor ratio circuit construction
US4263544A (en) * 1978-04-05 1981-04-21 U.S. Philips Corporation Reference voltage arrangement
EP0007804A1 (en) * 1978-08-02 1980-02-06 Fujitsu Limited A stabilising bias circuit having a desired temperature dependence
US4322676A (en) * 1978-08-02 1982-03-30 Fujitsu Limited Bias circuit
US4292583A (en) * 1980-01-31 1981-09-29 Signetics Corporation Voltage and temperature stabilized constant current source circuit
EP0039178A1 (en) * 1980-04-18 1981-11-04 Fujitsu Limited Integrated circuit for generating a reference voltage
US4362985A (en) * 1980-04-18 1982-12-07 Fujitsu Limited Integrated circuit for generating a reference voltage
US4325018A (en) * 1980-08-14 1982-04-13 Rca Corporation Temperature-correction network with multiple corrections as for extrapolated band-gap voltage reference circuits
US4325017A (en) * 1980-08-14 1982-04-13 Rca Corporation Temperature-correction network for extrapolated band-gap voltage reference circuit
WO1982001105A1 (en) * 1980-09-22 1982-04-01 Western Electric Co Current source with modified temperature coefficient
US4350904A (en) * 1980-09-22 1982-09-21 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated Current source with modified temperature coefficient
US4348633A (en) * 1981-06-22 1982-09-07 Motorola, Inc. Bandgap voltage regulator having low output impedance and wide bandwidth
US4490669A (en) * 1981-09-21 1984-12-25 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Circuit configuration for generating a temperature-independent reference voltage
US4450367A (en) * 1981-12-14 1984-05-22 Motorola, Inc. Delta VBE bias current reference circuit
US4491780A (en) * 1983-08-15 1985-01-01 Motorola, Inc. Temperature compensated voltage reference circuit
US4636742A (en) * 1983-10-27 1987-01-13 Fujitsu Limited Constant-current source circuit and differential amplifier using the same
US4603290A (en) * 1983-12-29 1986-07-29 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Constant-current generating circuit
US4590418A (en) * 1984-11-05 1986-05-20 General Motors Corporation Circuit for generating a temperature stabilized reference voltage
US4879505A (en) * 1986-12-23 1989-11-07 Analog Devices, Inc. Temperature and power supply compensation circuit for integrated circuits
US4786856A (en) * 1987-03-12 1988-11-22 Tektronix, Inc. Temperature compensated current source
US4786855A (en) * 1988-02-04 1988-11-22 Linear Technology Inc. Regulator for current source transistor bias voltage
US5124575A (en) * 1988-04-11 1992-06-23 Telefunken Electronic Gmbh Circuit array for setting the operating point of a transistor
US4857823A (en) * 1988-09-22 1989-08-15 Ncr Corporation Bandgap voltage reference including a process and temperature insensitive start-up circuit and power-down capability
US4866399A (en) * 1988-10-24 1989-09-12 Delco Electronics Corporation Noise immune current mirror
US4853610A (en) * 1988-12-05 1989-08-01 Harris Semiconductor Patents, Inc. Precision temperature-stable current sources/sinks
US5640085A (en) * 1995-02-17 1997-06-17 Landis & Gyr Technology Innovation Ag Temperature compensation circuit
US20090283518A1 (en) * 2005-01-18 2009-11-19 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. High frequency heating apparatus
US20090302770A1 (en) * 2008-04-10 2009-12-10 Osram Gmbh Circuit for compensating thermal variations, lamp, lighting module and method for operating the same

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
AU7185374A (en) 1976-02-05
DE2437427C3 (en) 1981-03-26
SE7409647A (en) 1975-02-04
JPS5044454A (en) 1975-04-21
DE2437427B2 (en) 1980-08-14
FR2239719A1 (en) 1975-02-28
CA1034200A (en) 1978-07-04
CA1034200A1 (en)
JPS5310257B2 (en) 1978-04-12
GB1472988A (en) 1977-05-11
FR2239719B1 (en) 1978-02-17
IT1014836B (en) 1977-04-30
DE2437427A1 (en) 1975-02-20
KR790001971B1 (en) 1979-12-30
NL7410073A (en) 1975-02-05
SE398928B (en) 1978-01-23

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