US3881438A - Semi-displacement hydrofoil ship - Google Patents

Semi-displacement hydrofoil ship Download PDF

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US3881438A
US3881438A US279714A US27971472A US3881438A US 3881438 A US3881438 A US 3881438A US 279714 A US279714 A US 279714A US 27971472 A US27971472 A US 27971472A US 3881438 A US3881438 A US 3881438A
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ship
hydrofoils
hull
portions
cargo
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Jr Allen Jones
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Jr Allen Jones
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Priority claimed from CA172,545A external-priority patent/CA991030A/en
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Priority claimed from US05/661,626 external-priority patent/US4040373A/en
Priority claimed from US05/822,227 external-priority patent/US4135687A/en
Priority claimed from US06/004,718 external-priority patent/US4218985A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63BSHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPPING 
    • B63B1/00Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils
    • B63B1/16Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils deriving additional lift from hydrodynamic forces
    • B63B1/24Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils deriving additional lift from hydrodynamic forces of hydrofoil type
    • B63B1/28Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils deriving additional lift from hydrodynamic forces of hydrofoil type with movable hydrofoils
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63BSHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPPING 
    • B63B27/00Arrangement of ship-based loading or unloading equipment for cargo or passengers
    • B63B27/14Arrangement of ship-based loading or unloading equipment for cargo or passengers of ramps, gangways or outboard ladders ; Pilot lifts
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63HMARINE PROPULSION OR STEERING
    • B63H11/00Marine propulsion by water jets
    • B63H11/02Marine propulsion by water jets the propulsive medium being ambient water
    • B63H11/04Marine propulsion by water jets the propulsive medium being ambient water by means of pumps
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B3/00Engineering works in connection with control or use of streams, rivers, coasts, or other marine sites; Sealings or joints for engineering works in general
    • E02B3/20Equipment for shipping on coasts, in harbours or on other fixed marine structures, e.g. bollards
    • E02B3/24Mooring posts
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63BSHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPPING 
    • B63B35/00Vessels or similar floating structures specially adapted for specific purposes and not otherwise provided for
    • B63B2035/009Wind propelled vessels comprising arrangements, installations or devices specially adapted therefor, other than wind propulsion arrangements, installations, or devices, such as sails, running rigging, or the like, and other than sailboards or the like or related equipment

Abstract

A combination hydrofoil and displacement hull ship having a Tshaped cross section defining a flat, substantially unobstructed deck for containerized cargo. Hydrofoils are disposed along the lower portion of the hull in normally submerged positions to raise the hull in the water and thereby reduce its wetted surface area during cruising. The hydrofoils are arranged in groups with adjacent foils in each group being closely spaced and having the forward of two adjacent foils disposed at a higher elevation than the rearward foil, such that the foils of each group are alignable to form a continuous high-lift wing surface for raising the hull rapidly when the ship gets underway. Opposed pairs of foils serve as trim and roll controls, and bank the ship for cruising maneuvers. A notched pier receives the bow in a straight-in docking procedure and a floating platform having legs extensible into engagement with the harbor floor receives the stern to securely dock the ship. Containerized cargo is loaded and unloaded by wheeled cargo handling devices which drive onto and off of the deck over the bow.

Description

United States Patent 191 2 Jones, Jr.
May 6, 1975 SEMI-DISPLACEMENT HYDROFOIL SHIP [76] lnventor: Allen Jones, Jr., 5028 Lauderdale Ave., Virginia Beach, Va. 23455 [22] Filed: Aug. 10, 1972 [21] Appl. No.: 279,714
[52] US. Cl. l14/66.5 11; 114/56; 114/230 [51] Int. B63b 1/18 [58] Field of Search 114/66.5 H, 66.5 R, 56, 114/126,151, 5 D, 230;214/12, 15 R [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,499,900 7/1924 Zucker 114/126 2,550,220 4/1951 Bussei.... l14/66.5 H 3,139,197 6/1964 Bylo 214/12 3,208,422 9/1965 Schopmeyer l14/66.5 H 3,348,514 10/1967 Davis [14/665 H 3,377,975 4/1968 Field 114/126 3,399,792 9/1968 Chester 214/12 3,487,805 1/1970 Satterthwaite.... 114/151 3,598,076 8/1971 Saxton 114/66.5 H 3,707,934 H1973 Frankel 114/230 3,727,414 4/1973 Davies l14/.5 D
FOREIGN PATENTS 0R APPLICATIONS 6,299 3/1913 United Kingdom 1l4/66.5 H 498,541 9/1954 114/230 Primary Examiner-George E. A. Halvosa Assistant Examiner-Edward R. Kazenske Attorney, Agent, or F irmWatts, Hofi'man, Fisher & Heinke Co.
[ 57] ABSTRACT A combination hydrofoil and displacement hull ship having a T-shaped cross section defining a flat, substantially unobstructed deck for containerized cargo. Hydrofoils are disposed along the lower portion of the hull in normally submerged positions to raise the hull in the water and thereby reduce its wetted surface area during cruising. The hydrofoils are arranged in groups with adjacent foils in each group being closely spaced and having the forward of two adjacent foils disposed at a higher elevation than the rearward foil, such that the foils of each group are alignable to form a continuous high-lift wing surface for raising the hull rapidly when the ship gets underway. Opposed pairs of foils serve as trim and roll controls, and bank the ship for cruising maneuvers. A notched pier receives the bow in a straight-in docking procedure and a floating platform having legs extensible into engagement with the harbor floor receives the stem to securely dock the ship. Containerized cargo is loaded and unloaded by wheeled cargo handling devices which drive onto and off of the deck over the bow.
11 Claims, 11 Drawing Figures PATE NTEUMAY 6 ms SHEEI 10$ 3 PATENTEUHAY ems 3, 1,438
saw 212. 3
PHENTED AY 19 5 3,881,438
sum 3 as s l hWIIIIIIII/x SEMI-DISPLACEMENT I-IYDROFOIL SHIP BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a displacement hull ship provided with hydrofoils to raise the hull in the water during cruising to reduce the wetted surface area, and to such a ship having a flat, substantially unobstructed deck for transporting containerized cargo.
22. Prior Art Conventional cargo carrying ships were designed in a time when conservation of fuel produced greater economies than were available through conservation of time and labor costs. Such ships require lengthy periods of time for loading and unloading cargo, during which time they occupy a substantial expanse of valuable pier space. Todays volume of world shipping frequently results in shipping delays due simply to the fact that there is inadequate pier space available at a given time to load the cargo onto or off of a designated ship.
When at sea, cargo ships typically operate at relatively slow speeds in order to conserve fuel. By decreasing speed a few knots fuel consumption can frequently be cut nearly in half. Accordingly, cargo ships are typically slow, lumbering craft.
The conventional cargo ship has a large displacement hull provided with cargo holds and housing the ship's propulsion equipment. As cargo is loaded into the holds, the displacement of the ship increases, thereby increasing the submerged surface area along which drag forces are operative.
The use of hydrofoils has been proposed in conjunction with ships of a variety of configurations. Most hydrofoil proposals have not related to displacement-hull type ships, but rather have concentrated on ship constructions where the hull is either elevated entirely out of the water or where the hull is pulled entirely under the water. The approach of elevating the hull above the water has the advantage of minimizing drag forces thereby permitting faster cruising speeds. The approach of submerging the hull has the advantage of minimizing wave pounding and pitch to provide a smooth ride even in choppy seas.
A number of problems arise where the hull of the ship is supported above the water on hydrofoils. Such an arrangement subjects the bottom of the hull to wave pounding and accordingly limits the use of such ships to inland and nearcoastal waters where high waves and choppy seas are not encountered. These ships are subject to more pitch than is occasioned with deep submergence hull ships. Proposals have been made to use hydrofoil structures of specialized configuration on displacement hull ships as an aid to steering. Steering control is facilitated by the ejection of fluids through openings in the hydrofoil surfaces.
Waterjet propulsion systems are known and have been used in conjunction with various types of hydrofoil craft. Such systems typically consist ofa water inlet duct, a pump, and abovesurface waterjet nozzles through which the pump discharges water to propel the ship. The pump is powered by a gas turbine engine.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention overcomes the foregoing drawbacks of the prior art and provides a hydrofoilequipped displacement-hull ship of such design as substantially reduces the time required to load, transport and unload cargo, and also substantially reduces the length of pier structure required for docking.
In accordance with one feature of the present invention, a hull of essentially T-shaped cross section is provided including a relatively narrow deep submergency keel or base section beneath a much wider cargo deck. The sides of the hull are each divided into upper, lower and intermediate portions. The upper portions are widely spaced, vertically extending freeboard portions which extend along the sides of a flat, substantiallyunobstructed cargo deck. The lower portions are vertical keel portions that are preferably spaced apart by a distance which is less than one-third of the spacing between the upper freeboard portions, and are joined along the bottom by a substantially horizontally extend ing keel surface. The intermediate portions are inclined displacement and stabilizing portions which provide a transition between the keel and freeboard portions.
Hydrofoils are disposed in fore and aft groups along the keel portions and serve to lift the hull of the ship in the water when the ship is underway. The displacement waterline is normally within the region of the juncture of the upper freeboard portions and the intermediate portions of the sides. When the ship is underway, the hydrofoils lift the hull such that the cruising waterline is within the region of the juncture of the keel portions and the intermediate portions of the sides. By this arrangement, the wetted surface area of the hull is substantially reduced when the ship gets underway, and the drag forces are thereby minimized.
The inclined intermediate side portions of the hull are so arranged that they essentially define the portion of the hull which is raised out of the water as the ship gets underway. Such an arrangement maximizes the amount of wetted hull surface which is removed from the water for each inch of rise of the hull.
To state this advantage in another way. raising the hull out of the water by X inches will reduce the wetted hull surface by X times the secant of the angle by which the sides are inclined from the vertical. By confining the inclination of the sides to the region of the hull which rises out of the water. the angle of side inclination can maximized to thereby maximize the amount of wetted surface area that will be removed from the water with each inch of rise of the hull.
A desirable angle of inclination of the intermediate side portions is within the range of 35 This range of angles provides the intermediate side portions with a sufficient angle of inclination to dissipate the impact of wave pounding, and yet provides a secant of within the approximate range of 1.2 to 1.7 which, as was we viously explained, will effect a rapid reduction of the wetted hull surface as the ship gets underway.
The hydrofoils are disposed in opposed pairs along opposite sides of the submerged keel section of the hull. The hydrofoils are elongated wing surfaces supported at the inner ends from the keel portions of the hull and having outer ends which do not protrude beyond the maximum width of the cargo deck, thereby enabling the ship to use conventional docking facilities.
The hydrofoils are pivotally mounted about parallel longitudinal axes so that the front portion of each foil can be elevated relative to its rear portion to increase lift, or lowered relative to its rear portion to decrease lift.
In the preferred embodiment, the hydrofoils are disposed along the submerged section of the hull in groups of three pairs. Two pairs of the opposed hydrofoils are rotatable together as trim controls. The remaining pair of opposed foils rotate in opposite directions to control roll. Control instruments of the type capable of sensing roll, pitch, azimuth. etc., are known and the foils are preferably coupled to such a control system for automatic positioning.
Another feature of the present invention lies in the positioning of the foils of each group so that continuous wing surfaces can be provided to lift the ship as the ship gets underway. The adjacent foils of each group are arranged in close proximity to each other with the forward foils positioned higher than their adjacent rearward foils. By this arrangement, the foils can be rotated to a position of alignment wherein the adjacent foils provide continuous high-lift wing surfaces on each side of the ship to increase lift and decrease the amount of time needed to reach cruising speed.
It is estimated that the present invention will enable a cargo ship to operate at approximately knots on the same amount of fuel used by conventional submergence-hull ships in attaining between l2 and 15 knots of speed. Estimates are that knots of speed are attainable for a ZO-knot fuel bill. Accordingly, the greater economies are found in high-speed operation than are available to conventional ships.
The advantages of the T-shaped cross section accordingly include:
l. A deep-submergence hull is provided which does not rise out of the water and accordingly does not subject the bottom of the hull to wave pounding;
2. A minimal wetted surface area is held in the water,
thereby minimizing drag;
3. A stable cargo-supporting platform is provided by the deep-submergence hull which is subject to min imal pitch in choppy seas;
4. Since the submerged hull section is of relatively small cross section, it can easily be rigidly braced to withstand high impact loads; and,
5. The slim cross section of the submerged hull section permits the use of relatively long hydrofoils along opposite sides without causing these hydrofoils to extend beyond the maximum width of the cargocarrying deck.
Still another feature of the present invention is that the novel cross-sectional configuration of the hull can be increased or decreased in scale to provide larger or smaller boats. Many ship designs are only practical for a limited size range of ships, and if used with substantially larger or smaller ships, result in structural and stability problems. Such is not the case with the present invention as the relatively simple T-shaped cross section and hydrofoil arrangement can be scaled to a very wide range of ship sizes.
In accordance with still another feature of the present invention. an improved :argo handling arrangement is provided which will speed up the loading and unloading of cargo. Whereas lengthy loading and unloading procedures are commonly involved in lowering and lifting cargo into and out of the holds of conventional cargo ships, the present invention utilizes deck storage of containerized cargo. The cargo deck is substantially flat and unobstructed whereby wheeled container-carrying vehicles can be driven across the cargo deck and onto an adjacent pier structure to rapidly load and unload cargo.
In accordance with yet another feature of the present invention, a special docking system can be used which will serve to speed up the loading and unloading of cargo. A notched pier is provided to receive the bow of the ship. A floating platform is provided to engage the stem of the ship. The platform has legs which are extensible into engagement with the harbor floor, whereby a highly stable docking system is provided to support the ship during the loading and unloading of cargo. By this arrangement, a simple, straight-in docking procedure can be used. Cargo is loaded and unloaded by container-carrying vehicles which are wheeled directly onto and off of the deck over the bow.
Accordingly, it is a general object of the present invention to provide a novel and improved semidisplacement hydrofoil ship.
Another object is to provide such a ship which will facilitate the rapid loading, transport and unloading of cargo.
Still another object is to provide a novel and improved cargo handling and docking system for use in conjunction with displacement hull ships.
Other objects and a fuller understanding of the invention may be had by referring to the following description and claims taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a top plan view of a ship constructed in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of the ship;
FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view of the ship;
FIG. 4 is a bow elevational view of the ship;
FIG. 5 is a schematic side elevational view on an enlarged scale of a portion of the ship illustrating the pro pulsion system,
FIG. 6 is a foreshortened top plan view of the ship and a specialized docking system used in conjunction therewith;
FIG. 7 is a foreshortened side elevational view of the ship and docking system;
FIG. 8 is an enlarged side elevational view of a portion of the ship particularly illustrating the arrangement of hydrofoils;
FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view as seen from the plane indicated by the line 99 in FIG. 8;
FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view as seen from the plane indicated by the line 10-10 in FIG. 8; and,
FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view as seen from the plane indicated by the line llll in FIG. 10.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to FIGS. 1-4, a semidisplacement hydrofoil ship constructed in accordance with the present invention is shown at 10. The hull of the ship 10 has starboard and port sides ll, 12 which converge at opposite ends to form a blunt but generally pointed bow 13 and a flat transom 14 at the stem.
The hull of the ship 10 has a generally T-shaped cross section which minimizes wetted surface area while still providing a stable deep submergence vessel. The sides II, 12 are each divided into upper, lower and interme diate portions. The upper portions of the sides ll, 12 are widely spaced, vertical freeboard portions l6, 17. The freeboard portions l6, 17 extend along the sides of a flat, substantially unobstructed cargo deck 15. Lower portions of the sides ll, 12 are closely spaced. vertical keel portions 20, 21. The keel portions 20, 2] are joined at the bottom by a keel surface 22. The keel surface 22 and the keel portions 20, 21 define a narrow base or keel section of the hull. The intermediate portions of the sides ll, [2 are inclined displacement and stabilizing portions l8, 19 which provide a transition between the keel and freeboard portions 20, 21 and l6, l7. The spacing between the keel portions 20, 21 is preferably less than one-third of the spacing between the freeboard portions l6, l7.
Hydrofoils are disposed along the keel portions 20, 2l in fore and aft groups 25, 26 of three pairs each. As will be explained in greater detail, the forward two pairs of hydrofoils of each group are rotatable together about parallel longitudinal axes to control trim. The hydrofoils of the rearward pair ordinarily rotate in opposite directions about a common longitudinal axis to control roll. All three pairs of hydrofoils can be aligned during takeoff to provide a continuous, high-lift wing surface.
As will be explained, when the ship is docked or otherwise unmoving in the water and supported only by the displacement hull, the water line of the ship is ordinarily near the juncture of the freeboard and displacement portions l6, l8 and l7, 19. When the ship 10 is underway and supported in part by the action of the hydrofoils. the water line is near the juncture of the rud and displacement portions 18, and I9, 21. Accordingly, only the rud section of the hull is normally submersed when the ship is underway.
The ship 10 is propelled by a pair of waterjet propulsion systems of the type known in the art, one of which is shown schematically in FIG. 5. A gas turbine engine 30 includes an air inlet duct 31 and an exhaust duct 32. The engine 30 drives a pump 33. The pump takes water in through an inlet duct 34 and exhausts it through an above surface waterjet nozzle 35.
Close-quarter ship manuevering is facilitated by bow and stern thruster systems 40, 41. The thruster systems 40, 41 include through conduits 42, 43 extending between the side portions 20, 21. Reversible pumps 44, 45 positioned in the conduits 42, 43 serve to selectively intake water from one end of the conduits 42, 43 and discharge it through the other ends to provide a side thrust. Any number of such thruster systems can be disposed along the hull as required to provide needed side thrust for close-quarter maneuvering.
An elevated pilot house 50 housing the ships controls is provided toward the stern of the cargo deck 15. As is best seen in FIGS. 2 and 4, the pilot house 50 extends to a height which will provide a clear view over such cargo as may be stacked on the deck 15. Crews quarters 51 are provided in the lower part ofthe pilot house structure.
Referring to FIGS. 8-11, the hydrofoil group is shown in greater detail as comprising three pairs of hydrofoils 60, 61, 62, 63, and 64, 65. The forward pairs of hydrofoils 60, 61 and 62, 63 are rotatable about spaced parallel longitudinal axes to control the trim of the ship. The hydrofoils 60, 61 are supported on a shaft 70 journaled interiorly of the hull by bearings 71, 72. The hydrofoils 62, 63 are supported by a shaft 73 journaled interiorly of the hull by bearings 74, 75.
A pair of hydraulic cylinders 76, 77 control the inclination of the hydrofoils 60, 6! and 62, 63. The hydraulic cylinders 76, 77 have their upper ends 78, 79 secured to a frame structure 80. Hydraulic rams 82, 83 depend from the lower ends of the cylinder 76, 77 and pivotally connect with crank arms 84, 85. The crank arms 84, 85 are secured to the shafts 70, 73 for rotation therewith. By this arrangement, as the rams 82, 83 move into and out of the cylinders 76, 77, the inclination of the hydrofoils 60, 61 and 62, 63 is accordingly varied.
The rearward hydrofoils 64, 65 are rotatable independently of each other about a common longitudinal axis. Referring to FIG. 9, the hydrofoil 64 is supported by a shaft journaled interiorly of the hull by bearings 91, 92. The hydrofoil 65 is supported by a shaft 93 journaled interiorly of the hull by a bearing 94 and by the bearing 92. A pair of hydraulic cylinders 95, 96 supported at their upper ends 97, 98 by a frame structure 100 have rams 101, 102 connected through crank arms 103, 104 to the shafts 90, 93. The cylinders 95, 96 are normally actuated to retract one of the rams 101, 102 when the other of the rams is being extended. By this arrangement, the hydrofoils 64, 65 are pivoted in opposite directions and serve to control the roll of the ship.
in accordance with another feature of the hydrofoil arrangement, all of the hydrofoils 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65 can be aligned as shown in FlG. 2 to form continuous high-lift wing surfaces that will be effective to lift the ship rapidly to its hydrofoil waterline as the ship gets underway, whereafter the forward two pairs of foils 60, 6|, 62, 63 can be used as described to control the trim of the ship while the rearward foils 64, 65 can be operated as a roll control system. The roll control foils 64. 65 are used to bank the ship during cruising maneuvers.
Any number of groups of hydrofoils can be disposed along the hull of the ship 10 as required. It is preferably desirable to space the groups of hydrofoils so that the cavitation effect from one group of hydrofoils does not interfere with the operation of any of the other groups of hydrofoils.
In accordance with another feature of the present invention, the hydrofoils are all of a length which does not cause the hydrofoils to extend beyond maximum width of the cargo deck 15. By this arrangement, the ship It] can be docked at conventional piers for overthe-side loading and unloading of cargo.
The T-shaped hull cross section is advantageous from the aspect of providing ships of a wide range of sizes in that this cross section can be scaled to larger or smaller ship sizes without occasioning difficulties in construction or operating stability. The narrow deep submergence keel of the hull can be rigidly braced along its length to withstand high impact loads. Submerged hull portions intermediate the groups of hydrofoils can be used for fuel tanks and ballast tanks. The ballast tanks are opened to admit water as the fuel is consumed, thereby maintaining constant ship buoyancy throughout any one particular cruise.
In accordance with still another feature of the present invention, a specialized docking system including a notched pier 100 and a floating platform 10] is provided with a cut-out I02 adapted to receive the stern of the ship 10 and with extensible legs 103 that are lowered into engagement with the harbor floor after the platform 10! is brought into position. By this arrangement. the ship 10 is supported at both ends to limit its movement during cargo loading and unloading.
Cargo is loaded onto the deck 15 in rectangular weathertight containers 0. The containers are stacked on the deck at right angle to the centerline of the ship by a container carrying vehicle 120. The container carrying vehicle 120 comprises a mobile crane supported on wheels 121 and adapted to engage opposite ends of container 110 to elevate and transport the container 110 into position on the deck l5. The dock 100 is provided with a pair of ramps 104 along which the vehicle wheels 121 move as the vehicle 120 travels back and forth onto the deck and the pier 100.
Although the invention has been described in its preferred form with a certain degree of particularity, it is understood that the present disclosure of the preferred form has been made only by way of example and that numerous changes in the details of construction and the combination and arrangement of parts may be resorted to without departing from the spirit and the scope of the invention as herenafter claimed.
What is claimed is:
l. A displacement hull ship comprising:
a. a hull having a generally T-shaped cross section;
b. said hull having side walls with upper and lower portions joined by intermediate portions;
c. said upper portions extending substantially vertically and being spaced apart along the majority of their length by a substantially constant first distance;
d. said lower portions extending substantially vertically and being spaced apart along the majority of their length by a substantially constant second distance which is about one third of said first distance, said lower portions extending substantially the full length of said hull and being operable to define a usable space in the lower portion of said hull whereby the displacement of said lower portions contributes a significant amount of buoyancy to the ship;
e. said intermediate portions providing inclined transition surfaces connecting said upper and lower portions;
f. said portions being of such configuration as will give the ship a displacement waterline near the juncture of said upper and intermediate portions;
g. a plurality of hydrofoils disposed along said lower portions for raising the hull in the water when the ship is underway such that the cruising waterline during cruising is near the juncture of said lower and said intermediate portions; and.
h. said hydrofoils being positioned below said cruising waterline.
2. The ship of claim 1 wherein at least some of said hydrofoils are disposed in a group with the hydrofoils in said group being closely spaced and alignable to form a substantially contiguous high-lift wing surface to facilitate raising the displacement hull in the water as the ship gets underway.
3. The ship of claim 1 wherein all of said hydrofoils are disposed in groups, and the hydrofoils of each group are closely spaced and alignable to form substantially contiguous high'lift wing surfaces to facilitate raising the displacement hull in the water as the ship gets underway.
4. The ship of claim I wherein at least some of said hydrofoils are movable to control the trim of the ship, while at least some others of said hydrofoils are movable to control the roll of the ship.
5. The ship of claim 1 wherein none of the hydrofoils extend beyond the maximum width of said upper portions thereby permitting the ship to dock in side-by-side relationship with conventional docking facilities 6. The ship of claim 1 wherein:
a. said hydrofoils are arranged in opposed pairs with the hydrofoils of each pair being disposed on opposite sides of the hull and arranged symetrically with respect to the centerline of the ship; and
b. adjacent hydrofoils on each side of the ship being arranged one behind another at progressively lower positions such that, considering any two adjacent hydrofoils, the forward hydrofoil is disposed higher than the adjacent rearward hydrofoil.
7. The ship of claim 6 wherein the hydrofoils on each side of the ship are arranged in at least one group and adjacent hydrofoils in each group being positioned in closely spaced relationship and being alignable one with another to form a substantially contiguous high-lift wing surface that will facilitate raising the ship to a cruising attitude as the ship gets underway.
8. The ship of claim 6 wherein:
a. said hydrofoils are rotatably mounted about parallel axes;
b. the hydrofoils of at least one of said opposed pairs are rotatable together to control trim;
c. the hydrofoils of at least one other pair are rotatable in opposite directions to control roll". and,
d. hydrofoil rotation means are provided to rotate selected ones of said hydrofoils about their axes.
9. The ship of claim 1 additionally including a substantially flat cargo deck extending between said upper portions.
10. The ship of claim 9 additionally including a pilot house extending upwardly from the cargo deck near the stem end of the ship said pilot house extending to such a height as will provide a clear view forwardly of the watch station over such space as may be occupied by cargo on said cargo deck.
11. The cargo ship of claim 10 wherein the bow of the ship is blunt pointed to be receivable in a Vshaped notch formed in a pier during a straight-in docking maneuver. whereby containerized cargo can be loaded onto and unloaded from the ship over the bow.

Claims (11)

1. A displacement hull ship comprising: a. a hull having a generally T-shaped cross section; b. said hull having side walls with upper and lower portions joined by intermediate portions; c. said upper portions extending substantially vertically and being spaced apart along the majority of their length by a substantially constant first distance; d. said lower portions extending substantially vertically and being spaced apart along the majority of their length by a substantially constant second distance which is about one third of said first distance, said lower portions extending substantially the full Length of said hull and being operable to define a usable space in the lower portion of said hull whereby the displacement of said lower portions contributes a significant amount of buoyancy to the ship; e. said intermediate portions providing inclined transition surfaces connecting said upper and lower portions; f. said portions being of such configuration as will give the ship a displacement waterline near the juncture of said upper and intermediate portions; g. a plurality of hydrofoils disposed along said lower portions for raising the hull in the water when the ship is underway such that the cruising waterline during cruising is near the juncture of said lower and said intermediate portions; and, h. said hydrofoils being positioned below said cruising waterline.
2. The ship of claim 1 wherein at least some of said hydrofoils are disposed in a group with the hydrofoils in said group being closely spaced and alignable to form a substantially contiguous high-lift wing surface to facilitate raising the displacement hull in the water as the ship gets underway.
3. The ship of claim 1 wherein all of said hydrofoils are disposed in groups, and the hydrofoils of each group are closely spaced and alignable to form substantially contiguous high-lift wing surfaces to facilitate raising the displacement hull in the water as the ship gets underway.
4. The ship of claim 1 wherein at least some of said hydrofoils are movable to control the trim of the ship, while at least some others of said hydrofoils are movable to control the roll of the ship.
5. The ship of claim 1 wherein none of the hydrofoils extend beyond the maximum width of said upper portions thereby permitting the ship to dock in side-by-side relationship with conventional docking facilities.
6. The ship of claim 1 wherein: a. said hydrofoils are arranged in opposed pairs with the hydrofoils of each pair being disposed on opposite sides of the hull and arranged symetrically with respect to the centerline of the ship; and b. adjacent hydrofoils on each side of the ship being arranged one behind another at progressively lower positions such that, considering any two adjacent hydrofoils, the forward hydrofoil is disposed higher than the adjacent rearward hydrofoil.
7. The ship of claim 6 wherein the hydrofoils on each side of the ship are arranged in at least one group and adjacent hydrofoils in each group being positioned in closely spaced relationship and being alignable one with another to form a substantially contiguous high-lift wing surface that will facilitate raising the ship to a cruising attitude as the ship gets underway.
8. The ship of claim 6 wherein: a. said hydrofoils are rotatably mounted about parallel axes; b. the hydrofoils of at least one of said opposed pairs are rotatable together to control trim; c. the hydrofoils of at least one other pair are rotatable in opposite directions to control roll; and, d. hydrofoil rotation means are provided to rotate selected ones of said hydrofoils about their axes.
9. The ship of claim 1 additionally including a substantially flat cargo deck extending between said upper portions.
10. The ship of claim 9 additionally including a pilot house extending upwardly from the cargo deck near the stern end of the ship said pilot house extending to such a height as will provide a clear view forwardly of the watch station over such space as may be occupied by cargo on said cargo deck.
11. The cargo ship of claim 10 wherein the bow of the ship is blunt pointed to be receivable in a V-shaped notch formed in a pier during a straight-in docking maneuver, whereby containerized cargo can be loaded onto and unloaded from the ship over the bow.
US279714A 1972-08-10 1972-08-10 Semi-displacement hydrofoil ship Expired - Lifetime US3881438A (en)

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US279714A US3881438A (en) 1972-08-10 1972-08-10 Semi-displacement hydrofoil ship

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US279714A US3881438A (en) 1972-08-10 1972-08-10 Semi-displacement hydrofoil ship
CA172,545A CA991030A (en) 1972-08-10 1973-05-22 Semi-displacement hydrofoil ship
IL42328A IL42328A (en) 1972-08-10 1973-05-22 Semi-displacement hydrofoil ship
JP48080537A JPS4944493A (en) 1972-08-10 1973-07-19
GB3638073A GB1420275A (en) 1972-08-10 1973-07-31 Hydrofoil ship
DE2339305A DE2339305C3 (en) 1972-08-10 1973-08-03
SE7310939A SE7310939L (en) 1972-08-10 1973-08-09
US05/566,353 US3995575A (en) 1972-08-10 1975-04-09 Semidisplacement hydrofoil ship
US05/661,626 US4040373A (en) 1972-08-10 1976-02-26 Steering and stabilization apparatus for watercraft
US05/822,227 US4135687A (en) 1972-08-10 1977-08-05 Steering and stabilization apparatus for aircraft
JP1978034083U JPS53132195U (en) 1972-08-10 1978-03-16
US06/004,718 US4218985A (en) 1972-08-10 1979-01-19 Steering and stabilization apparatus for torpedo
US06/004,719 US4209147A (en) 1972-08-10 1979-01-19 Steering and stabilization apparatus for aerial missile

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US05/566,353 Continuation-In-Part US3995575A (en) 1972-08-10 1975-04-09 Semidisplacement hydrofoil ship

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US3881438A true US3881438A (en) 1975-05-06

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US05/566,353 Expired - Lifetime US3995575A (en) 1972-08-10 1975-04-09 Semidisplacement hydrofoil ship

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JP (2) JPS4944493A (en)
DE (1) DE2339305C3 (en)
GB (1) GB1420275A (en)
IL (1) IL42328A (en)
SE (1) SE7310939L (en)

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US3995575A (en) * 1972-08-10 1976-12-07 Jones Jr Allen Semidisplacement hydrofoil ship
US4040373A (en) * 1972-08-10 1977-08-09 Jones Jr Allen Steering and stabilization apparatus for watercraft
US4046092A (en) * 1975-04-30 1977-09-06 Toernqvist Bengt Wilhelm Ship's hull
US5320056A (en) * 1992-05-04 1994-06-14 Marinzoli Carmelo L Recessed bottom tanker
US5404830A (en) * 1992-05-11 1995-04-11 Ligozio; Peter A. Finned boat hull
US5448963A (en) * 1994-09-13 1995-09-12 Gallington; Roger W. Hydrofoil supported planing watercraft
CN102442405A (en) * 2011-12-22 2012-05-09 陈国亮 Straight body waveless ship
CN102826196A (en) * 2012-09-20 2012-12-19 江苏科技大学 Sliding hydrofoil boat for preventing sliding surface from splashing

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US3995575A (en) * 1972-08-10 1976-12-07 Jones Jr Allen Semidisplacement hydrofoil ship
US4040373A (en) * 1972-08-10 1977-08-09 Jones Jr Allen Steering and stabilization apparatus for watercraft
US4046092A (en) * 1975-04-30 1977-09-06 Toernqvist Bengt Wilhelm Ship's hull
US5320056A (en) * 1992-05-04 1994-06-14 Marinzoli Carmelo L Recessed bottom tanker
US5404830A (en) * 1992-05-11 1995-04-11 Ligozio; Peter A. Finned boat hull
US5448963A (en) * 1994-09-13 1995-09-12 Gallington; Roger W. Hydrofoil supported planing watercraft
CN102442405A (en) * 2011-12-22 2012-05-09 陈国亮 Straight body waveless ship
CN102826196A (en) * 2012-09-20 2012-12-19 江苏科技大学 Sliding hydrofoil boat for preventing sliding surface from splashing
CN102826196B (en) * 2012-09-20 2015-07-22 江苏科技大学 Sliding hydrofoil boat for preventing sliding surface from splashing

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US3995575A (en) 1976-12-07
GB1420275A (en) 1976-01-07
IL42328D0 (en) 1973-07-30
DE2339305A1 (en) 1974-02-21
SE7310939L (en) 1974-02-11
DE2339305C3 (en) 1979-03-15
IL42328A (en) 1976-10-31
JPS53132195U (en) 1978-10-19
JPS4944493A (en) 1974-04-26
DE2339305B2 (en) 1978-07-20

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