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US3878884A - Formation fracturing method - Google Patents

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US3878884A
US3878884A US34686273A US3878884A US 3878884 A US3878884 A US 3878884A US 34686273 A US34686273 A US 34686273A US 3878884 A US3878884 A US 3878884A
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borehole
slanted
formation
vertical
fracture
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Cecil B Raleigh
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Cecil B Raleigh
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24JPRODUCING OR USE OF HEAT NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F24J3/00Other production or use of heat, not derived from combustion
    • F24J3/06Other production or use of heat, not derived from combustion using natural heat
    • F24J3/08Other production or use of heat, not derived from combustion using natural heat using geothermal heat
    • F24J3/081Other production or use of heat, not derived from combustion using natural heat using geothermal heat by circulating a working fluid through underground channels, the working fluid not coming into direct contact with the ground
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/16Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons
    • E21B43/17Interconnecting two or more wells by fracturing or otherwise attacking the formation
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/25Methods for stimulating production
    • E21B43/26Methods for stimulating production by forming crevices or fractures
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GASES [GHG] EMISSION, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/10Geothermal energy
    • Y02E10/12Earth coil heat exchangers

Abstract

A method for producing multiple fractures in earth formations in which the lines of least principal stress deviate substantially from vertical is described. A generally vertical borehole is drilled into the formation, the formation is hydraulically fractured from the vertical borehole, the plane in which the fracture lies is determined, a slanted borehole is drilled out from the vertical borehole in a direction such that the azimuth of slanted borehole is generally perpendicular to the plane of the fracture and then the formation adjacent the slanted borehole is hydraulically fractured at a plurality of positions along the length of the slanted borehole. When the direction of lines of least principal stress is known for the formation, the steps of hydraulically fracturing from the vertical borehole and determining the plane in which the fracture lies may be omitted and the slanted borehole is drilled in the azimuth parallel to the known lines of least principal stress.

Description

.LDO'DUUQ United States Patent 1191 Raleigh 1 Apr. 22, 1975 FORMATION FRACTURING METHOD Wilson, Drain-I-lole Fracturing in Stimulation [76] Inventor: Cecil B. Raleigh, 762 La Para. PflIO Wells world 145 and Alto, Calif. 94306 Primary E.\'aminerEmest R. Purser [22] Flled' 1973 Assistant Examiner-Jack E. Ebel [211 App]. N0.: 346,862

[57] ABSTRACT [52] [1.8. CI. 165/1; 165/45; 166/271; A method for producing multiple fractures in earth 166/308 formations in which the lines of least principal stress [51] Int. Cl. FZSd 21/00 deviate substantially f Vertical is described. A [58] Field of Search 60/26; 165/1. 45; 166/50. rally vertical borehole is drilled into the formation,

166/271, 269, 303 the formation is hydraulically fractured from the verti- I cal borehole, the plane in which the fracture lies is de- [56] References cued termined, a slanted borehole is drilled out from the UNITED STATES PATENTS vertical borehole in a direction such that the azimuth 2369.497 11/1956 Rcistle 166/308 of Slanted borehole is generally perpendicular to the 3.020954 2/1962 Graham ct al. 166/308 plane of the fracture and then the formation adjacent 3,285.335 11/1966 Rcistlc 166/308 the slanted borehole is hydraulically fractured at 21 3.31334 /196 Huitt c t a1 166/308 plurality of positions along the length of the slanted 3391-739 7/1968 vcnghmms 166/308 borehole. When the direction oflines of least principal 2 Doggcn et stress is known for the formation, the steps of hydrauf 'fii 26 lically fracturing from the vertical borehole and determining the plane in which the fracture lies may be 3,593,791 7/I97l Parker 166/308 3,679,264 7 1972 Van Huiscn 166/269 ommed and the Slanted borehole dnlled the OTHER PUBLICATIONS Clark et al., Vertical Hydraulic Fracturing," Oil And Gas Journal, Aug. 9 1954, pp. 104, 107 and 108.

muth parallel to the known lines of least principal stress.

5 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures FORMATION FRACTURING METHOD BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a method for producing a plurality of non-coplanar and approximately parallel fractures in an earth formation adjacent a borehole to facilitate the recovery of a resource contained in the formation.

Nearly forty years ago it was found that oil bearing formations could be fractured by introducing low pene tration fluids into a borehole under hydraulic pressure sufficiently high to cause propagation of a fracture from the borehole and that fracturing was generally followed by an increase in oil production from the borehole. Studies of the hydraulic fracturing process have shown that the fractures are generally planar and oriented perpendicular to the direction of least principa stress (commonly designated S in the rock.

In a great many formations or formation zones. the direction of least principal stress is approximately horizontal and the planes of hydraulically produced fractures are generally vertical and perpendicular to the direction of least principal stress in the rock. In such formations or formation zones hydraulic pressure exerted in an approximately vertical well produces just a single approximately vertical planar fracture. While hydraulically induced fractures may propagate away from boreholes distances of 100 meters or so. the benefit obtained from a single fracture is limited and it would be desirable to produce a plurality of generally parallel fractures in the formation and so obtain greatly increased benefits from the fracturing technique.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION volves first drilling an approximately vertical boreholein the formation to a depth either penetrating, or very close to the horizon of. the resource bearing zone of the formation. A slanted borehole is then drilled into the formation from the lower part of the vertical borehole. Optimally, the azimuth (i.e., the compass direction of the horizontal line defined by the intersection of the vertical plane containing the line of the slanted hole with the surface) of the slanted borehole would be the same as the direction of lines of least principal stress in the rock. To obtain the benefits of this invention. however. a slanted borehole need not be in precisely the same direction as the direction of the lines of least principal stress in the formation but may be in a direction such that the angle between the line of the slanted borehole and the lines of least principal stress in the formation is not more than 60. After the slanted borehole has been drilled to the desired depth, the slanted hole is completed and cased. Hydraulic fractures are then propagated from the slanted borehole and the fractures may be propped with sand in conventional manner to hold them open. Thefractures are produced in conventional manner by packing off sections of the slanted borehole so that the injected fluid does not enter into existing perforations.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION l5 ond slanted and vertical bore hole. the second slanted bore hole being drilled so that it communicates with at least the major proportion of the fractures propagated from the first slanted borehole.

Referring now to FIG. 1 of the appended drawings.

vertical borehole l is drilled into the formation so that it bottoms either in the resource containing zone of a formation or close to the horizon of the resource containing zone. Slanted borehoe 2 is then drilled into the resource containing zone C the formation from the point in the lower part of the.vertical borehole. The formations chosen for the application of the method are those in which the direction of the lines of least principal stress are generally horizontal and in which the planes of hydraulic fractures, which are known to be generally perpendicular to the lines of least principal stress. are generally vertical.

The direction of the slanted borehole is such that the angle between the line of the slanted borehole and the lines of least principal stress is not greater than preferably not more than 45 and optimally less than 30. Many formations have been drilled and studied to the point that the direction of least principal stress is already known and existing information permits the opof least principal stress is not known and must be deter- ;Qgglinined before the slanted borehole is drilled. The dife' ction of least principal stress of such formations may be determined by hydraulically fracturing the formation adjacent the lower part of the vertical borehole and then determining the plane in which the fracture lies. Methods for determining the position of the fracture plane are well-known and readily available as by the use of impression packers or by injecting radioactive tracers into the fracture and then determining the position of the plane from the pattern of the signals emitted by the radioactive material in the fracture. After the position of the fracture plane has been determined, the direction of the lines of least principal stress become known since they are perpendicular to the fracture plane.

When the position of the fracture plane is so determined. the direction of the slanted hole may be described either in terms of the angle it makes with the lines of least principal stress or in terms of the angle of incidence which the borehole makes with the fracture plane. the angle of incidence being the angle between the line of the slanted borehole and the perpendicular to the fracture plane at the point of intersection of the lines of least principal stress in less than 60 or as a direction such that the angle of incidence. i.e.. the angle between the borehole and the perpendicular to the fracture plane. is less than 60.

After slanted borehole 2 has been drilled to the desired depth. it is completed and cased. Fractures 3 and 9 inclusive are then made by perforating the casing at the shallowest practical depth. adjacent the area of fracture 3. and hydraulically fracturing the formation to maximum distance of fracture propagation consistant with economic considerations. This first fracture is propped with sand for gas and oil production and also may be propped for geo-thermal power production. if desired. At a few meters greater depth. the casing is perforated again. packed off and the fracturing operation is repeated. The fracturing here and in all successive positions down the hole will be conducted in packed off sections ofthe bore hole so that the injected fluid does not enter existing perforations.

The fracturing method above described can be used to increase the recovery of gas or oil from low permeability formations. It can also be used for in-situ. recovcry of oil from oil shale. or solution mining or extracting goo-thermal energy from subterranean formations.

There are large areas on the earth where hot. impermeable rock is accessible to drilling. Geo-thermal energy may be extracted by drilling and fracturing the hot formation as described in connection with FIG. 1 of the drawings. then pumping water down the hole into contact with the fractured surfaces. permitting the water to reside in the formation for time sufficient to heat it and then permitting the water to reissue from the same hole as steam or super-heated water.

FIG. 2 of the appended drawings illustrates a modification of the invention which is particularly well adapted to either recovery of geo-thermal energy or solution mining. Vertical well 10 is drilled to appropriate depth and if the direction of the lines of least principal stress in the formation are not known. as they probably will not be. the formation adjacent the lower part of vertical well 10 is hydraulically fractured and the plane of fracture is determined. Slant borehole 11 is then drilled in a direction such that its angle of incidence. i.e.. the angle between the borehole and the perpendicular to the plane of fracture. is less than 60. When the slant well has been drilled to appropriate depth. a plurality of non-coplanar approximately parallel fractures are produced adjacent the slanted well illustrated by fractures 12 through 18 inclusive ori the drawing. A second approximately vertical borehole 20 is then drilled and a second slanted borehole is drilled from a point near the bottom of the second vertical borehole and in a direction approximately parallel to that of the first slanted borehole. The second slanted borehole is so spaced from the first slanted borehole that it intersects most of the fractures which were produced from the first slanted borehole. It is important that the second slanted borehole intersect the major portion of the fractures extending out from the first slanted borehole. In areas where the characteristics 'of the formations are well known. it is possible to space the separate second slanted borehole apart from the first slanted borehole by a distance such that the desired fracture penetration by the second borehole will be achieved. In areas where the characteristics of the formation are not well known the second slanted borehole can be drilled to a depth where some of the fractures should have been intersected. A radioactive tracer can then be injected into the first slanted borehole and into the fractures propagated from it and the second slanted borehole can be logged for the presence of radioactive material. Alternatively. fluid can be injected into the first vertical borehole and first slanted borehole at high pressure (in excess of the parting pressure) into the fractures extending from the first slanted borehole and. if intersection of the fractures has been accomplished. a pressure increase will be produced quickly in the second slanted borehole. Failure to intersect the fractures can be corrected by then altering the inclination of the second slanted borehole or by re-drilling at a deeper level. The second slanted borehole. when completed. may be cased and perforated at the points of intersection with the fractures. After the drilling and fracturing has been completed. water is pumped down borehole 10 into slanted borehole 11 and forced into the several fractures propagated from borehole 11. The water contacts the hot subterranean rock along the fracture surfaces producing steam and the steam flows into the second slanted borehole l9 and is recovered at the surface through vertical borehole 20.

In some situations it may be desired to avoid the expense of drilling two vertical and two slanted boreholes to recover geothermal energy. In this event the pattern shown in FIG. 1 may be used. Water is injected into the formation and held under pressure for a time sufficient to produce superheated water and steam or water above its critical temperature. The pressure is then released to permit flow of superheated water and steam to the surface. Successive cycles ofinjection and recovery are then used to remove geothermal energy.

I claim:

I. A method of opening an earth formation in which the lines of least principal stress deviate substantially from the vertical to facilitate recovery of a resource held in the formation which comprises the steps of:

a. drilling an approximately vertical borehole into th formation;

b. drilling a slanted borehole extending from the vertical borehole into the formation in a direction such that the angle between the slanted borehole and the lines of least principal stress in the formation is not more than 60; and

c. hydraulically fracturing the formation adjacent the slanted borehole at a plurality of positions along the length of the slanted borehole.

2. The method of opening an earth formation in which the lines of least principal stress deviate substantially from the vertical to permit recovery of a resource held in the formation which comprises the steps of:

a. drilling an approximately vertical borehole in the earth formation;

b. hydrofracturing the formation adjacent the lower portion of the borehole;

c. determining the plane in which the fracture lies;

(1. drilling a slanted borehole extending from the vertical borehole into the formation in a direction such that the angle between the slanted borehole and the perpendicular to any plane parallel to the plane determined in step (c) which is intersected by the borehole is less than 60; and

e. hydrofracturing the formation adjacent the slanted borehole at a plurality of positions along the length of the slanted borehole.

3. The method defined in claim 2 wherein the angle between the borehole and the perpendicular to the plane is less than 4. The method defined in claim 1 characterized by a further step of drilling a second vertical borehole adjacent the first borehole and a second slanted borehole extending from the second vertical borehole into the formation generally parallel to the first slanted borehole and spaced from the first slanted borehole by a distance such that the second slanted borehole intersects at least a major proportion of the formation fractures produced in step (c) of claim 1.

5. The method of recovering heat from a subterranean geothermal zone which comprises the steps of:

a. drilling an approximately vertical borehole penetrating said geothermal zone:

b. hydrofracturing the formation adjacent the lower portion of the borehole;

c. determining the plane in which the fracture lies;

d..drilling a slanted borehole extending from the vertical borehole into the geothermal zone in a direction such that the angle between the slanted borehole and the perpendicular to any plane parallel to the plane determined in step (c) which is intersected by the borehole is less than 60;

e. h ydrofracturing the formation adjacent the slanted borehole at a plurality of positions along the length of the slanted borehole;

f. injecting water into the borehole to contact the geothermal zone under pressure.

g. holding the injected water under pressure until it is heated to elevated temperature and.

h. releasing the pressure to permit flow of heated

Claims (4)

1. A method of opening an earth formation in which the lines of least principal stress deviate substantially from the vertical to facilitate recovery of a resource held in the formation which comprises the steps of: a. drilling an approximately vertical borehole into the formation; b. drilling a slanted borehole extending from the vertical borehole into the formation in a direction such that the angle between the slanted borehole and the lines of least principal stress in the formation is not more than 60*; and c. hydraulically fracturing the formation adjacent the slanted borehole at a plurality of positions along the length of the slanted borehole.
2. The method of opening an earth formation in which the lines of least principal stress deviate substantially from the vertical to permit recovery of a resource held in the formation which comprises the steps of: a. drilling an approximately vertical borehole in the earth formation; b. hydrofracturing the formation adjacent the lower portion of the borehole; c. determining the plane in which the fracture lies; d. drilling a slanted borehole extending from the vertical borehole into the formation in a direction such that the angle between the slanted borehole and the perpendicular to any plane parallel to the plane determined in step (c) which is intersected by the borehole is less than 60*; and e. hydrofracturing the formation adjacent the slanted borehole at a plurality of positions along the length of the slanted borehole.
3. The method defined in claim 2 wherein the angle between the borehole and the perpendicular to the plane is less than 30*.
4. The method defined in claim 1 characterized by a further step of drilling a second vertical borehole adjacent the first borehole and a second slanted borehole extending from the second vertical borehole into the formation generally parallel to the first sLanted borehole and spaced from the first slanted borehole by a distance such that the second slanted borehole intersects at least a major proportion of the formation fractures produced in step (c) of claim 1.
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Cited By (38)

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US3934649A (en) * 1974-07-25 1976-01-27 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Energy Research And Development Administration Method for removal of methane from coalbeds
US4200152A (en) * 1979-01-12 1980-04-29 Foster John W Method for enhancing simultaneous fracturing in the creation of a geothermal reservoir
US4220205A (en) * 1978-11-28 1980-09-02 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Method of producing self-propping fluid-conductive fractures in rock
US4223729A (en) * 1979-01-12 1980-09-23 Foster John W Method for producing a geothermal reservoir in a hot dry rock formation for the recovery of geothermal energy
US4254828A (en) * 1977-12-21 1981-03-10 Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm Gmbh Apparatus for producing fractures and gaps in geological formations for utilizing the heat of the earth
US4476932A (en) * 1982-10-12 1984-10-16 Atlantic Richfield Company Method of cold water fracturing in drainholes
US4479541A (en) * 1982-08-23 1984-10-30 Wang Fun Den Method and apparatus for recovery of oil, gas and mineral deposits by panel opening
US4505322A (en) * 1979-03-12 1985-03-19 Larson Sven A Method of storing heat and heat store for carrying out the method
US4529036A (en) * 1984-08-16 1985-07-16 Halliburton Co Method of determining subterranean formation fracture orientation
US4633948A (en) * 1984-10-25 1987-01-06 Shell Oil Company Steam drive from fractured horizontal wells
US4669546A (en) * 1986-01-03 1987-06-02 Mobil Oil Corporation Method to improve vertical hydraulic fracturing in inclined wellbores
US4687061A (en) * 1986-12-08 1987-08-18 Mobil Oil Corporation Stimulation of earth formations surrounding a deviated wellbore by sequential hydraulic fracturing
US4723604A (en) * 1984-01-04 1988-02-09 Atlantic Richfield Company Drainhole drilling
US4867241A (en) * 1986-11-12 1989-09-19 Mobil Oil Corporation Limited entry, multiple fracturing from deviated wellbores
US4974675A (en) * 1990-03-08 1990-12-04 Halliburton Company Method of fracturing horizontal wells
US4977961A (en) * 1989-08-16 1990-12-18 Chevron Research Company Method to create parallel vertical fractures in inclined wellbores
US5074360A (en) * 1990-07-10 1991-12-24 Guinn Jerry H Method for repoducing hydrocarbons from low-pressure reservoirs
US5085276A (en) * 1990-08-29 1992-02-04 Chevron Research And Technology Company Production of oil from low permeability formations by sequential steam fracturing
US5875843A (en) * 1995-07-14 1999-03-02 Hill; Gilman A. Method for vertically extending a well
US5964289A (en) * 1997-01-14 1999-10-12 Hill; Gilman A. Multiple zone well completion method and apparatus
US6247313B1 (en) * 1996-11-22 2001-06-19 Per H. Moe Plant for exploiting geothermal energy
US6367566B1 (en) 1998-02-20 2002-04-09 Gilman A. Hill Down hole, hydrodynamic well control, blowout prevention
WO2006059057A1 (en) * 2004-12-02 2006-06-08 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc Hydrocarbon sweep into horizontal transverse fractured wells
DE102005044352A1 (en) * 2005-09-16 2007-03-22 Diehl Stiftung & Co.Kg A method for generating a HDR heat exchanger
US20080249721A1 (en) * 2007-01-16 2008-10-09 Zoback Mark D Predicting changes in hydrofrac orientation in depleting oil and gas reservoirs
US20100307756A1 (en) * 2008-02-15 2010-12-09 Reinhard Jung Geothermal circulation system
US20110042083A1 (en) * 2009-08-20 2011-02-24 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Method of improving waterflood performance using barrier fractures and inflow control devices
US20110061869A1 (en) * 2009-09-14 2011-03-17 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Formation of Fractures Within Horizontal Well
US20110226473A1 (en) * 2010-03-18 2011-09-22 Kaminsky Robert D Deep Steam Injection Systems and Methods
US20140144623A1 (en) * 2012-11-28 2014-05-29 Nexen Energy Ulc Method for increasing product recovery in fractures proximate fracture treated wellbores
KR101419973B1 (en) * 2010-08-24 2014-07-15 이시우 System and method of creating EGS Group utilizing fault zone
WO2015132404A1 (en) * 2014-03-07 2015-09-11 Vito Geothermal plant using hot dry rock fissured zone
CN105089612A (en) * 2014-05-04 2015-11-25 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Determining method for distance of well-drain and length of pressure break of low penetration oil reservoir artificial fracture
US20150354903A1 (en) * 2012-11-01 2015-12-10 Skanska Sverige Ab Thermal energy storage comprising an expansion space
EP2659090A4 (en) * 2010-12-27 2015-12-30 Seven Generations Energy Ltd Methods for drilling and stimulating subterranean formations for recovering hydrocarbon and natural gas resources
US9518787B2 (en) 2012-11-01 2016-12-13 Skanska Svergie Ab Thermal energy storage system comprising a combined heating and cooling machine and a method for using the thermal energy storage system
CN106415151A (en) * 2014-03-07 2017-02-15 威拓股份有限公司 Geothermal plant using hot dry rock fissured zone
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Cited By (47)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3934649A (en) * 1974-07-25 1976-01-27 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Energy Research And Development Administration Method for removal of methane from coalbeds
US4254828A (en) * 1977-12-21 1981-03-10 Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm Gmbh Apparatus for producing fractures and gaps in geological formations for utilizing the heat of the earth
US4220205A (en) * 1978-11-28 1980-09-02 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Method of producing self-propping fluid-conductive fractures in rock
US4200152A (en) * 1979-01-12 1980-04-29 Foster John W Method for enhancing simultaneous fracturing in the creation of a geothermal reservoir
US4223729A (en) * 1979-01-12 1980-09-23 Foster John W Method for producing a geothermal reservoir in a hot dry rock formation for the recovery of geothermal energy
US4505322A (en) * 1979-03-12 1985-03-19 Larson Sven A Method of storing heat and heat store for carrying out the method
US4479541A (en) * 1982-08-23 1984-10-30 Wang Fun Den Method and apparatus for recovery of oil, gas and mineral deposits by panel opening
US4476932A (en) * 1982-10-12 1984-10-16 Atlantic Richfield Company Method of cold water fracturing in drainholes
US4723604A (en) * 1984-01-04 1988-02-09 Atlantic Richfield Company Drainhole drilling
US4529036A (en) * 1984-08-16 1985-07-16 Halliburton Co Method of determining subterranean formation fracture orientation
US4633948A (en) * 1984-10-25 1987-01-06 Shell Oil Company Steam drive from fractured horizontal wells
US4669546A (en) * 1986-01-03 1987-06-02 Mobil Oil Corporation Method to improve vertical hydraulic fracturing in inclined wellbores
US4867241A (en) * 1986-11-12 1989-09-19 Mobil Oil Corporation Limited entry, multiple fracturing from deviated wellbores
US4687061A (en) * 1986-12-08 1987-08-18 Mobil Oil Corporation Stimulation of earth formations surrounding a deviated wellbore by sequential hydraulic fracturing
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