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US3878565A - Vascular prosthesis with external pile surface - Google Patents

Vascular prosthesis with external pile surface Download PDF

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Publication number
US3878565A
US3878565A US38263173A US3878565A US 3878565 A US3878565 A US 3878565A US 38263173 A US38263173 A US 38263173A US 3878565 A US3878565 A US 3878565A
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Prior art keywords
surface
loops
knitted
graft
tube
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Expired - Lifetime
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Lester R Sauvage
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Providence Hospital
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Providence Hospital
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04BKNITTING
    • D04B1/00Weft knitting processes for the production of fabrics or articles not dependent on the use of particular machines; Fabrics or articles defined by such processes
    • D04B1/02Pile fabrics or articles having similar surface features
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/04Hollow or tubular parts of organs, e.g. bladders, tracheae, bronchi or bile ducts
    • A61F2/06Blood vessels
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2509/00Medical; Hygiene
    • D10B2509/06Vascular grafts; stents

Abstract

A tubular textile synthetic cardio-vascular prosthesis manufactured from polyester or other synthetic fibers and provided externally with a thin resilient mat surface defined by a multiplicity of fiber loops capable of enhancing the ability of the graft to retain clotted blood and improve the rate of growth of tissue within its confines while permitting free passage of unclotted blood therethrough.

Description

United States Patent 1191 Sauvage 1 1 VASCULAR PROSTHESIS WITH EXTERNAL PILE SURFACE [75] Inventor: Lester R. Sauvage. Seattle. Wash.

[73] Assignee: Providence Hospital. Seattle. Wash.

[22] Filed: July 25. 1973 [21] App]. No.: 382,631

Related U.S. Application Data [63] Continuation of Scr. No. 168.786. July 14. 1971.

abandoned.

[52] U.S. Cl. 3/1; 3/D1G. 1; 66/169; 66/194: 128/334 R [51] Int. Cl. A6lf l/24; D04b l/02; D04b 9/12 [58] Field of Search 66/169. 170. 191. 194. 66/9 R. 9 B; 28/72 P; 26/2 R; 139/387 R.

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2.752.953 7/1956 Schmidt 138/125 2.804.762 9/1957 Kamcda 66/170 2.944.588 7/1960 Sannipoli ct al. 66/170 UX 3.094.762 6/1963 Jcckel 139/387 R 3.096.560 7/1963 Licbig 139/387 R 3.108.357 10/1963 Liebig 139/387 R 3.316.557 5/1967 Licbig 3/1 [451 Apr. 22, 1975 8/1969 Schmitt ct a1 128/334 R 3.479.670 11/1969 3.561.441 2/1971 3.571.815 3/1971 3.588.920 6/1971 Wcsolowskl 3/1 OTHER PUBLICATIONS Knitting Spare Parts for Human Bodies. Textile lndustries. December. 1959.

Prosthetic Reconstruction of the Trachea. Surgery. March. 1969, Vol. 65, No. 3, pp. 462-469.

Aritfical Skin. Vol. X11. Trans. Amer. Soc. Artif. lnt. Organs, 1966. pp. 340-343.

Primary Examiner-James Kee Chi Attorney, Agent, or Firm-C. E. Martine. Jr.

[57] ABSTRACT A tubular textile synthetic cardio-vascular prosthesis manufactured from polyester or other synthetic fibers and provided externally with a thin resilient mat surface defined by a multiplicity of fiber loops capable of enhancing the ability of the graft to retain clotted blood and improve the rate of growth of tissue within its confines while permitting free passage of unclotted blood therethrough.

4 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures PATENIEUarnau'szs 1B 'FIG. 1C

FIG. 1A 6 FIG.

FIG. 3

LESTER R. SAUVAGE VASCULAR PROSTHESIS WITH EXTERNAL PILE SURFACE This application is a continuation of copending application Ser. No. 168.786 filed July 14. 1971' by Lester R. Sauvage. now abandoned.

This invention relates generally to new and useful improvements in synthetic vascular prostheses or grafts and particularly seeks to provide a velour graft having its outer surface especially formed to retain clotted blood while permitting free passage of unclotted blood.

One type of synthetic graft-that is being used for this purpose is formed as a continuous tube knitted from a polyester or othersynthetic thread or yarn and axially compacted to define a multiplicity of transverse corrugations. as shown in .Ieckel US. Pat. No. 3.337.673. These corrugations greatly increase the surface area per unit length of the graft and the ridges and hollows of its inner surface tend to hold any clotted blood within the confines of the length of the graft until the clots become dissolved while permitting the free pas sage of unclotted blood therethrough.

Although this type of synthetic graft has been quite successful. it is believed that it would function more efficiently if more positive means could be found to hold clotted blood within the confines of the length thereof. thereby further reducing the possibility of blood clots entering the blood stream before they can be dissolved.

The literature in this field shows that braided. woven or knitted cardiovascular prostheses should. in general. be at least partially permeable and should be so textured as to promote healing with minimum danger of thrombus formation. Velour-type fabrics have been experimentally bonded to luminal surfaces of impermeable prostheses to anchor autologous layers of fibrin in a position to form pseudointimas. covering the plastic and interfacing with the blood (SURGERY. Jan. 1969. Vol. 65. pp. 7077). Such fabrics. with the pile loops on the inside. have also been used alone. with some success but with the disadvantage that the healing and cndothelialization on the inner surface reduce the size of the lumen and thus require use. initially. of over-size grafts to achieve a desired final result.

According to the present invention. a tubular prosthesis is knitted with pile loops on the inside. as is customary with available knitting machines. and is then turned inside out. Finishing operations preferably include axial compression on a mandrel. as suggested in Tapp US. Pat. No. 2.836.181. but to only a slight extent (e.g. 30 percent or less). producing loose random corrugations without flattening the pile, followed by setting in any customary manner to give some dimensional stability. In small sizes. for some applications. the crimping or corrugating step may be omitted.

Therefore. an object of this invention is to provide a synthetic graft having a velour exterior surface formed to enhance the retention of clotted blood and improve the rate of growth of tissue within the confines of the length thereof.

Another object of this invention is to provide a synthetic graft of the character stated which is formed as a continuous tube knitted from two or more polyester or other inert threads or yarns and of diverse forms.

Another object of this invention is to provide a synthetic graft of the character stated in which the continuous tube thereof is knitted from two or more yarns. one of which is inwardly displaced to define a loop at a continuously knit tube 6.

each knitting point thereby forming a resilient mat-like surface over the entire inside of said tube. the tube being then turned inside out and loosely crimped or corrugated.

With these and other objects. the nature of which will be apparent. the invention will be more fully understood by reference to the drawing. the accompanying detailed description and the appended claims.

FIG. 1A represents an elevation of a knitted velour tube for synthetic graft constructed'without transverse corrugations. provided externally with a thin resilient mat surface defined by a multiplicity of fiber loops;

FIG. 18 represents an end elevation of the knitted tube of FIG. IA having a resilient mat surface on the inside of the tube. before being turned inside out;

FIG. 1C representsan end elevation of the knitted tube of FIG. 1A. having the resilient mat surface on the outside of the tube;

FIG. 2A represents an elevation of a knitted velour tube for synthetic graft constructed with random transverse corrugations. provided externally with a thin resilient mat surface defined by a multiplicity of fiber loops.

FIGS. 28 represents an end elevation of the knitted tube of FIG. 2A having the resilient mat surface on the outside of the tube.

FIG. 3 represents an enlarged fragmentary diagram of the knitting pattern. I

The size of the loops forming mat surfaces is exaggerated in FIGS. 18. 1C and 2B for purposes of illustration.

Referring to the drawing in detailsthe invention as illustrated is embodied in a synthetic graft formed from The entire inner surface of the tube 6 is covered-by a thin resilient mat. generally indicated at 7. defined by a multiplicity of internally directed thread loops 8 that are formed by a loop thread 9 (see FIG. 3) and concatenated with the jersey knit loops 10 formed from a body thread 11.

The tube 6 with its loop mat 7 is knitted on a jersey knit circular knitting machine that has been modified to accept and properly position the loop thread 9 so that a loop is formed in it for enclosure by and concatenation with each new loop of the body thread 11. all of the mat-forming loops 8 being on the inside of the tube. as originally knitted.

To further explain. if for a given size artificial artery a 66 needle circular knitting machine is used then there would be 66 wales and each of the body thread loops [0 in each course would contain a concatinated loop of the thread 9, each mat-forming loop 8 being formed by the operation in a suitable manner of jacks alternating with the needles.

After the internally matted tube 6 has been knitted it is further processed by being turned inside out (FlG. 1C) followed by controlled axial compaction and heat treatment to form a multiplicity of random transverse corrugations (FIGS. 2A and 2B) the mat-covered surface being capable of enhancing the ability of the graft to retain clotted blood and improve the rate of growth of tissue where desired while permitting free passage of unclotted blood therethrough.

In the normal operation of the circular knitting machine referred to above the loops 8 are formed on the inside of the tube. as stated. resulting in the tube shown in FIG. 18. Important advantages have been noted in 3 the use of synthetic grafts having the "velour" or mat surface on the outside (FlGS. IC and 2B). and such tubes can most conveniently be made merely by turning inside out the tubes as produced on the machine.

It will of course be understood that the mat-forming loops 8 need not be formed between each pair of the body loops 10. but may be formed in any desired sequence so long as the mat 7 is well defined. However. at the present time and with the presently used types of polyester or other inert fiber threads. it appears preferable to have a mat-forming loop with each body loop.

A presently preferred polyester for use as described above is Dacron;" "Teflon" also appears to be practical and desirable under some circumstances.

By the use of the random crimp or corrugation (FIG. 2A) there is no crushing of the loops which occurs if the spiral wound corrugation of .leckel US. Pat. No. 3.367.673 is resorted to. Loops on the inside reduce the area of the lumen. as noted. whereas placing the loops on the exterior leaves the interior of the tube smooth and full size while healing takes place over the entire exterior surface. not merely at the points of anastomosis. as commonly noted in presently used grafts.

In actual use ofthese prostheses in man. no long-term observations are available but short term observations are very significant. In experimental use during the past year such grafts have been implanted in more than 75 patients. some of whom required difficult arterial repairs and the distal bed being often quite restricted. At the outset it was found that ease of suturing was a great advantage. and the external velour surface provided a high degree of filamentousness which facilitated preclotting of the prosthesis and minimized blood loss.

Observation for periods up to 6 months showed impressively the apparent benign incorporation of the prosthesis into the surrounding tissues. with which they blend in a manner contrasting sharply with the fibrotic reaction around conventional grafts with relatively smooth outer walls. In previously known grafts the fbrous tissue ingrowing from the end of the artery. adjacent the anastomosis. was not thrombogenic. whereas that growing in from the perigraft sources was undesirably thrombogenic compacted fibrin. No such thrombogenicity has been observed in the grafts disclosed herein.

What I claim is:

l. A tubular knitted textile synthetic vascular graft comprising a tubular body provided with a multiplicity of knitted fibrous loops projecting outwardly from the outer surface of said body and presenting a pile mat of filamentary material receptive to tissue ingrowth on said outer surface. said loops being effective to improve the rate of growth of tissue within said graft.

2. The synthetic graft of claim 1 in which said knitted tube is formed from one continuous thread and the loops of said resilient mat are formed from a second continuous thread.

3. The synthetic graft of claim 1 in which said knitted tube has been axially compacted to define a multiplicity of circumferential corrugations. along its length.

4. A tubular knitted textile synthetic vascular graft comprising a seamless tubular body provided with a multiplicity of knitted fibrous loops projecting outwardly from the outer surface of said body and presenting a relatively open pile mat of filamentary material receptive to tissue ingrowth on said outer surface. said tubular body controlling the passage of tissue elements therethrough.

Claims (4)

1. A tubular knitted textile synthetic vascular graft comprising a tubular body provided with a multiplicity of knitted fibrous loops projecting outwardly from the outer surface of said body and presenting a pile mat of filamentary material receptive to tissue ingrowth on said outer surface, said loops being effective to improve the rate of growth of tissue within said graft.
1. A tubular knitted textile synthetic vascular graft comprising a tubular body provided with a multiplicity of knitted fibrous loops projecting outwardly from the outer surface of said body and presenting a pile mat of filamentary material receptive to tissue ingrowth on said outer surface, said loops being effective to improve the rate of growth of tissue within said graft.
2. The synthetic graft of claim 1 in which said knitted tube is formed from one continuous thread and the loops of said resilient mat are formed from a second continuous thread.
3. The synthetic graft of claim 1 in which said knitted tube has been axially compacted to define a multiplicity of circumferential corrugations, along its length.
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Cited By (55)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4006756A (en) * 1971-09-15 1977-02-08 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Fiber reinforced regenerated cellulose sausage casing for dry sausages
DE2613575A1 (en) * 1976-01-29 1977-08-04 Meadox Medicals Inc Synthetic gefaesstransplantat and process for its manufacture
US4230096A (en) * 1978-09-05 1980-10-28 Zeff Robert H Method of implanting transcutaneous connector
WO1982001647A1 (en) * 1980-11-17 1982-05-27 Robert L Kaster Vascular graft
US4441215A (en) * 1980-11-17 1984-04-10 Kaster Robert L Vascular graft
EP0108171A1 (en) * 1982-09-15 1984-05-16 Meadox Medicals, Inc. Synthetic woven double-velour graft
US4652263A (en) * 1985-06-20 1987-03-24 Atrium Medical Corporation Elasticization of microporous woven tubes
DE3608158A1 (en) * 1986-03-12 1987-09-17 Braun Melsungen Ag Interlaced gelatin impregnated gefaessprothese and process for their manufacture
WO1989000031A1 (en) * 1987-07-01 1989-01-12 Vascutec Inc. Arterial graft
US4870966A (en) * 1988-02-01 1989-10-03 American Cyanamid Company Bioabsorbable surgical device for treating nerve defects
US4878908A (en) * 1974-08-05 1989-11-07 Imperial Chemical Industries Plc Fibrillar product
US4990158A (en) * 1989-05-10 1991-02-05 United States Surgical Corporation Synthetic semiabsorbable tubular prosthesis
DE4128611A1 (en) * 1990-08-28 1992-03-05 Meadox Medicals Inc , Self-supporting woven gefaessimplantat Ausfransfestes
US5127919A (en) * 1988-12-14 1992-07-07 Vascutec Corporation Woven vascular graft
US5147400A (en) * 1989-05-10 1992-09-15 United States Surgical Corporation Connective tissue prosthesis
US5178630A (en) * 1990-08-28 1993-01-12 Meadox Medicals, Inc. Ravel-resistant, self-supporting woven graft
US5217495A (en) * 1989-05-10 1993-06-08 United States Surgical Corporation Synthetic semiabsorbable composite yarn
US5282848A (en) * 1990-08-28 1994-02-01 Meadox Medicals, Inc. Self-supporting woven vascular graft
US5370682A (en) * 1993-04-26 1994-12-06 Meadox Medicals, Inc. Solid woven tubular prosthesis
US5376118A (en) * 1989-05-10 1994-12-27 United States Surgical Corporation Support material for cell impregnation
US5476506A (en) * 1994-02-08 1995-12-19 Ethicon, Inc. Bi-directional crimped graft
US5569273A (en) * 1995-07-13 1996-10-29 C. R. Bard, Inc. Surgical mesh fabric
US5609627A (en) * 1994-02-09 1997-03-11 Boston Scientific Technology, Inc. Method for delivering a bifurcated endoluminal prosthesis
US5628788A (en) * 1995-11-07 1997-05-13 Corvita Corporation Self-expanding endoluminal stent-graft
US5653745A (en) * 1991-02-28 1997-08-05 Medtronic, Inc. Prosthetic vascular graft with a pleated structure
US5665115A (en) * 1992-02-21 1997-09-09 Boston Scientific Technology, Inc. Intraluminal stent
US5669936A (en) * 1983-12-09 1997-09-23 Endovascular Technologies, Inc. Endovascular grafting system and method for use therewith
US5700269A (en) * 1995-06-06 1997-12-23 Corvita Corporation Endoluminal prosthesis deployment device for use with prostheses of variable length and having retraction ability
US5741333A (en) * 1995-04-12 1998-04-21 Corvita Corporation Self-expanding stent for a medical device to be introduced into a cavity of a body
US5849037A (en) * 1995-04-12 1998-12-15 Corvita Corporation Self-expanding stent for a medical device to be introduced into a cavity of a body, and method for its preparation
US5968091A (en) * 1996-03-26 1999-10-19 Corvita Corp. Stents and stent grafts having enhanced hoop strength and methods of making the same
US6010530A (en) * 1995-06-07 2000-01-04 Boston Scientific Technology, Inc. Self-expanding endoluminal prosthesis
US6051020A (en) * 1994-02-09 2000-04-18 Boston Scientific Technology, Inc. Bifurcated endoluminal prosthesis
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US6165213A (en) * 1994-02-09 2000-12-26 Boston Scientific Technology, Inc. System and method for assembling an endoluminal prosthesis
US6287315B1 (en) 1995-10-30 2001-09-11 World Medical Manufacturing Corporation Apparatus for delivering an endoluminal prosthesis
US6350277B1 (en) 1999-01-15 2002-02-26 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stents with temporary retaining bands
US6358275B1 (en) 1999-10-04 2002-03-19 Sulzer Carbomedics Inc. Tissue-derived vascular grafts and methods for making the same
US20020116070A1 (en) * 2001-02-20 2002-08-22 Amara Ryan A. Pile mesh prosthesis
US6547820B1 (en) 2000-10-03 2003-04-15 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. High profile fabric graft for arteriovenous access
US20030149472A1 (en) * 1995-11-07 2003-08-07 Leonard Pinchuk Modular endluminal stent-grafts and methods for their use
US20040019375A1 (en) * 2002-07-26 2004-01-29 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Sectional crimped graft
US20040049264A1 (en) * 2002-09-06 2004-03-11 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. ePTFE crimped graft
US20040122508A1 (en) * 1993-09-30 2004-06-24 White Geoffrey H. Intraluminal graft
US20040186409A1 (en) * 2003-01-28 2004-09-23 Gambro Dasco S.P.A. Apparatus and method for monitoring a vascular access of a patient subjected to an extracorporeal blood treatment
US20040254589A1 (en) * 2001-11-19 2004-12-16 Thierry Darnis Device for occlusion of a corporeal duct, in particular a varicose vein
US20050113910A1 (en) * 2002-01-04 2005-05-26 David Paniagua Percutaneously implantable replacement heart valve device and method of making same
US6929659B2 (en) 1995-11-07 2005-08-16 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Method of preventing the dislodgment of a stent-graft
US20080319521A1 (en) * 2007-06-20 2008-12-25 Stephanie Booz Norris Compressible Resilient Fabric, Devices, and Methods
US8206427B1 (en) 1994-06-08 2012-06-26 Medtonic Vascular, Inc. Apparatus and methods for endoluminal graft placement
US8361144B2 (en) 2010-03-01 2013-01-29 Colibri Heart Valve Llc Percutaneously deliverable heart valve and methods associated therewith
US20130211496A1 (en) * 2011-12-22 2013-08-15 Alfred Buck Knitted stent
US20140260437A1 (en) * 2013-03-13 2014-09-18 Robert H. Fleming, Jr. Skin-Contacting Tubular Fabric Underlay For Use Beneath A Therapeutic or Prosthetic Device
US9119738B2 (en) 2010-06-28 2015-09-01 Colibri Heart Valve Llc Method and apparatus for the endoluminal delivery of intravascular devices
US9737400B2 (en) 2010-12-14 2017-08-22 Colibri Heart Valve Llc Percutaneously deliverable heart valve including folded membrane cusps with integral leaflets

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Cited By (120)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4006756A (en) * 1971-09-15 1977-02-08 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Fiber reinforced regenerated cellulose sausage casing for dry sausages
US4878908A (en) * 1974-08-05 1989-11-07 Imperial Chemical Industries Plc Fibrillar product
US4047252A (en) * 1976-01-29 1977-09-13 Meadox Medicals, Inc. Double-velour synthetic vascular graft
DE2613575A1 (en) * 1976-01-29 1977-08-04 Meadox Medicals Inc Synthetic gefaesstransplantat and process for its manufacture
US4230096A (en) * 1978-09-05 1980-10-28 Zeff Robert H Method of implanting transcutaneous connector
WO1982001647A1 (en) * 1980-11-17 1982-05-27 Robert L Kaster Vascular graft
US4441215A (en) * 1980-11-17 1984-04-10 Kaster Robert L Vascular graft
EP0108171A1 (en) * 1982-09-15 1984-05-16 Meadox Medicals, Inc. Synthetic woven double-velour graft
US4517687A (en) * 1982-09-15 1985-05-21 Meadox Medicals, Inc. Synthetic woven double-velour graft
US5669936A (en) * 1983-12-09 1997-09-23 Endovascular Technologies, Inc. Endovascular grafting system and method for use therewith
US4652263A (en) * 1985-06-20 1987-03-24 Atrium Medical Corporation Elasticization of microporous woven tubes
DE3608158A1 (en) * 1986-03-12 1987-09-17 Braun Melsungen Ag Interlaced gelatin impregnated gefaessprothese and process for their manufacture
EP0329729A4 (en) * 1987-07-01 1990-05-14 Vascutec Inc Arterial graft.
US4816028A (en) * 1987-07-01 1989-03-28 Indu Kapadia Woven vascular graft
EP0329729A1 (en) * 1987-07-01 1989-08-30 Vascutec Inc. Arterial graft
WO1989000031A1 (en) * 1987-07-01 1989-01-12 Vascutec Inc. Arterial graft
US4870966A (en) * 1988-02-01 1989-10-03 American Cyanamid Company Bioabsorbable surgical device for treating nerve defects
US5127919A (en) * 1988-12-14 1992-07-07 Vascutec Corporation Woven vascular graft
US5217495A (en) * 1989-05-10 1993-06-08 United States Surgical Corporation Synthetic semiabsorbable composite yarn
US5147400A (en) * 1989-05-10 1992-09-15 United States Surgical Corporation Connective tissue prosthesis
US5376118A (en) * 1989-05-10 1994-12-27 United States Surgical Corporation Support material for cell impregnation
US4990158A (en) * 1989-05-10 1991-02-05 United States Surgical Corporation Synthetic semiabsorbable tubular prosthesis
US5509931A (en) * 1990-08-28 1996-04-23 Meadox Medicals, Inc. Ravel-resistant self-supporting woven vascular graft
US5282846A (en) * 1990-08-28 1994-02-01 Meadox Medicals, Inc. Ravel-resistant, self-supporting woven vascular graft
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