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Infrared radiation source

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Publication number
US3875413A
US3875413A US40484573A US3875413A US 3875413 A US3875413 A US 3875413A US 40484573 A US40484573 A US 40484573A US 3875413 A US3875413 A US 3875413A
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Prior art keywords
source
radiation
infrared
substrate
heater
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Expired - Lifetime
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John A Bridgham
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HP Inc
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HP Inc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/20Heating elements having extended surface area substantially in a two-dimensional plane, e.g. plate-heater
    • H05B3/22Heating elements having extended surface area substantially in a two-dimensional plane, e.g. plate-heater non-flexible
    • H05B3/26Heating elements having extended surface area substantially in a two-dimensional plane, e.g. plate-heater non-flexible heating conductor mounted on insulating base
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J3/00Spectrometry; Spectrophotometry; Monochromators; Measuring colours
    • G01J3/02Details
    • G01J3/10Arrangements of light sources specially adapted for spectrometry or colorimetry
    • G01J3/108Arrangements of light sources specially adapted for spectrometry or colorimetry for measurement in the infra-red range
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/0033Heating devices using lamps
    • H05B3/009Heating devices using lamps related to general description of heaters without specification of field of application
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B2203/00Aspects relating to Ohmic resistive heating covered by group H05B3/00
    • H05B2203/011Heaters using laterally extending conductive material as connecting means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B2203/00Aspects relating to Ohmic resistive heating covered by group H05B3/00
    • H05B2203/013Heaters using resistive films or coatings
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B2203/00Aspects relating to Ohmic resistive heating covered by group H05B3/00
    • H05B2203/017Manufacturing methods or apparatus for heaters
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B2203/00Aspects relating to Ohmic resistive heating covered by group H05B3/00
    • H05B2203/032Heaters specially adapted for heating by radiation heating

Abstract

A source of infrared radiation is provided which includes a thin film resistive heater of high emissivity evaporated onto a substrate. The thin film heater is positioned between a pair of thin metal elements on the substrate. The resulting structure provides a well-defined, mechanically stable source. In one embodiment of the invention, the resistive element is coated with an antireflecting layer to enhance its emissivity.

Description

XR 3 9 8 7 5 s 4-13 United States Patent 1 [111 3,875,413 Brid ham A r. l 1975 g P a INFRARED RADIATION SOURCE 3.6941124 9/1972 Buchtam 219/553 Inventor: J n A. Bridgham! a Alto Calif- 3,78l.528 12/1973 SchrcWellus 2l9/553 Assigneel Hewlett-Packard p y P310 Primary Examiner-James W. Lawrence Alto, C allf. Assistant Examiner-C. E. Church O 9, AUUIHC)", Agent, 0" Firm-Ronald Grubman 2] A l. N 404,845 1 PP 0 57 ABSTRACT [52] Us. Cl 250/492 219/553 350/164 A source of infrared radiation is provided which in- 511 int. Cl. ..1-i05b 1/02 cludes a thin film resistive heater high emissivity [58] Field of Search H 250/503 504 492 evaporated onto a substrate. The thin film heater is 219/3521 6 positioned between a pair of thin metal elements on the substrate. The resulting structure provides a well- [56] References Cited defined. mechanically stable source. In one embodiment of the invention, the resistive element is coated x H 387 27 g fv tl PATENTS 50/504 with an antireflecting layer to enhance its emissivity.

6.. 196 21 'ron 3.533.850 10/1970 Tarncja 350/164 9 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures INFRARED RADIATION SOURCE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention is concerned generally with radiation sources, and more particularly with a new planar source of infrared radiation.

As more small, portable instruments using infrared sources are being designed, it is becoming of importance to have infrared sources of high overall efficiency. Various infrared sources are presently known. One common source is a Nernst glower, which uses a silicon carbide filament. These glowers have been found to be difficult to start-up and operate, while the typical physical configuration does not provide a good point source for applications requiring such.

Tungsten in the shape of a coil filament is also used to provide infrared radiation. For use in systems which require good imaging and low noise, however, tungsten coil filaments are not adequate. Because of the physical configuration of the coil, the image does not consist of a solid area of radiation, but rather consists of areas of radiation intermingled with areas in which not radiation is present. The image is said to have a poor fill factor. Furthermore, a system employing a coil filament is very susceptible to errors induced by mechanical movement or jarring of the system. When jarred, the coil filament tends to jiggle resulting in spurious noise in the detected radiation. Also, the tungsten material typically used in coil filaments has a comparatively low emissivity (about 0.l5) in the infrared region. and is therefore not well suited for use as an infrared source.

In the prior art. some-of the problems of a coil filament have been avoided by using a ribbon of tungsten as a source. A ribbon, however, does not eliminate the problems of using low emissivity tungsten as an infrared source Furthermore, becauseof the low resistivity of tungsten. it is difficult to provide a small well-defined source with a tungsten ribbon, there being no discontinuity between source and leads. If, however, only a small section of tungsten is used as a source in conjunction with thin wire current leads, most of the electrical power is then dissipated in the leads rather than in the low resistance source, so that the source is very ineffieient.

Another radiation source which is of current interest is the light emitting diode (LED). Present LEDs are very low power devices which are not suitable for all uses.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION According to the illustrated preferred embodiment, the present invention provides a small, well-defined source of infrared radiation which can be easily and efficiently imaged through an optical system. The invention includes a thin film resistive heater of a high emissivity substance such as CIgSI evaporated onto a substrate. The resistive heater is confined to a small area between a pair of metal elements on the substrate. The high emissivity of the thin film heater and the low thermal conductivity of the substrate material each contribute to providing a highly efficient source.

The resistive heater of high emissivity is positioned between, and immediately adjacent to, a pair of metal elements of low resistivity and emissivity to provide a well-defined source which is particularly suited to imaging with mirror optics. The source is planar, and may DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a radiation source in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 2 shows a portion of a light source in accordance with another embodiment of the invention including an antireflecting layer.

FIG. 3 illustrates a light source in a package including a reflecting surface.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION In FIG. 1 there is illustrated a substrate 11 of low thermal conductivity, e.g. conductivity in the range 0.02 to 0.08 watt/cmK. Several suitable materials are thin sapphire, Y O and quartz. The dimensions of substrate Il may be chosen in accordance with a desired size of the light source; e.g. operating devices have been built in which the dimensions of substrate 11 are about 0.150 by 0.020 by 0.002 inch. Positioned centrally with respect to the long dimensions of substrate 11 is a radiation source area 13 which comprises a region of a highly resistive. highly emissive material, emissivity greater than about 0.5 being preferred. Preferably, source area 13 consists of Cr Si evaporated onto substrate 11 to a depth of about l2,u.. In the illustrated embodiment, source area 13 is a 0.02 X 0.02 inch square having a resistance of about IOOIL-In the infrared radiation region of interest, about 4p. wavelength, the emissivity of Cr Si is about 0.5. Immediately adjacent to both sides of source area 13 are a pair of metallic conductors 15 which are preferably of a low emissivity relative to that of the Cr Si in the infrared-region. Platinum, which has an emissivity in the infrared of about 0.1 is suitable, but other metals such as gold may also be used. Each metallic conductor 15 includes a portion 17 which overlaps a small area of source 13. This configuration helps to provide a well defined source region. A pair of leads 19, of a material such as gold, are bonded to metal layers 15 to serve as input and output leads supplying electrical power to source area 13. As will be explained further below, it is desirable that spurious radiation not be emitted from the device, as from the bottom of substrate 11. To prevent spurious radiation from being emitted, an additional metal layer 21 is deposited onto the bottom of substrate 11.

In operation. current leads 19 are connected to a source which provides sufficient current to heat thin film resistive heater 13 to a temperature of about 700C. For the 1000 square of Cr- Si described above, a current in the range of about 50-70 ma has been found to provide adequate heating. Spurious radiation from metal layer 15 is kept to a minimum by using a substrate which is of very low thermal conductivity, thereby ensuring that only small amounts of heat are conducted away from source 13 to metal plates 15 via substrate 11. Additionally, the use of low emissivity metals such as platinum for metal plates 15 adjacent to resistive heater 13 further reduces emission from layers 15, so that the region from which radiation is emitted is spatially well defined.

FIG. 2 again shows a portion of substrate 11, and a portion of both metal layers 15 including raised portions 17. Also shown is thin film resistive heater l3 positioned adjacent to metal layers 15. There is also illustrated an antireflecting layer 23of a material such as TiO thickness of about 0.44u, which is in contact with resistive heater 13. Antireflecting layer 23 serves to effectively increase the emissivity of the infrared source. Preferably, the material of antireflecting layer 23 is selected so that its index of refraction is approximately equal to the square root ofthe index of refraction of the material of heater 13.

in FIG. 3, there is illustrated source strip 11 encapsulated in an optical package 25. Package 25 includes a base 27 on which is mounted a reflecting surface 29. Reflecting surface 29 is preferably an eliptical or parabolic reflector of a solid piece of metal such as aluminum. A pair of metal posts 31 extend through base 27 and reflector 29 and are connected to leads 19 to provide electrical power to strip source 10. lnfrared radiation emitted from source area 13 is directed to reflecting surface 29, from which it is reflected out of package 25 to form a magnified image (not shown). It may be seen from this illustration that light emitted from the side of source 13 away from reflector 29 would be directed toward the right in the figure, and thereby degrade the image produced by rays reflected from reflector 29. As was described above in connection with FIG. 1. a metallic surface is deposited on the back (right side in the figure) of substrate 11 to prevent the occurrence of such spurious radiation. Preferably, package 25 is hermetically sealed to enclose an inert atmosphere such as nitrogen or argon, to prolong the life of the filament.

1 claim:

1. An infrared radiation source comprising:

a substrate:

a pair of metal strips of emissivity less than about 0.2

in the infrared region positioned on one side of the substrate;

the substrate material is selected from the group consisting of sapphire and Y O and quartz.

4. An infrared radiation source as in claim 2 including an antireflecting layer on the Cr Si layer for increasing the effective emissivity of the heater.

5. An infrared radiation source as in claim 4 wherein the antireflecting layer is of TiO;.

6. An infrared radiation source as in claim 5 including another metal strip on another side of the substrate opposite the side on which the resistive heater is deposited, for preventing spurious radiation from said other side of the substrate.

7. An infrared radiation source as in claim 6 wherein the substrate is mounted in a housing including a base and a reflecting surface mounted on the base. the reflecting surface for reflecting and focusing infrared radiation from the thin film resistive heater.

8. An infrared radiation source as in claim 7 wherein: the housing is of a circular cross section; the reflecting surface is an eliptical mirror; and the substrate and thin film resistive heater are mounted in spaced relation with the reflecting surface. 9. An infrared radiation source as in claim 7 wherein: the housing is of a circular cross section; the reflecting surface is a parabolic mirror; and the substrate and the thin film resistive heater are mounted in spaced relation with the reflecting sur-

Claims (9)

1. An infrared radiation source comprising: a substrate; a pair of metal strips of emissivity less than about 0.2 in the infrared region positioned on one side of the substrate; a thin film resistive heater of emissivity greater than about 0.5 in the infrared region positioned on the substrate in between the pair of metal strips to serve as a radiation source area bounded by the metal strips; and input and output leads electrically interconnected with the pair of metal strips for conducting an electrical current through the source.
2. An infrared radiation source as in claim 1 wherein the thin film resistive heater comprises a layer of Cr3Si deposited onto the substrate.
3. An infrared radiation source as in claim 2 wherein the substrate material is selected from the group consisting of sapphire and Y2O3 and quartz.
4. An infrared radiation source as in claim 2 including an antireflecting layer on the Cr3Si layer for increasing the effective emissivity of the heater.
5. An infrared radiation source as in claim 4 wherein the antireflecting layer is of TiO2.
6. An infrared radiation source as in claim 5 including another metal strip on another side of the substrate opposite the side on which the resistive heater is deposited, for preventing spurious radiation from said other side of the substrate.
7. An infrared radiation source as in claim 6 wherein the substrate is mounted in a housing including a base and a reflecting surface mounted on the base, the reflecting surface for reflecting and focusing infrared radiation from the thin film resistive heater.
8. An infrared radiation source as in claim 7 wherein: the housing is of a circular cross section; the reflecting surface is an eliptical mirror; and the substrate and thin film resistive heater are mounted in spaced relation with the reflecting surface.
9. An infrared radiation source as in claim 7 wherein: the housing is of a circular cross section; the reflecting surface is a parabolic mirror; and the substrate and the thin film resistive heater are mounted in spaced relation with the reflecting surface.
US3875413A 1973-10-09 1973-10-09 Infrared radiation source Expired - Lifetime US3875413A (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3875413A US3875413A (en) 1973-10-09 1973-10-09 Infrared radiation source

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3875413A US3875413A (en) 1973-10-09 1973-10-09 Infrared radiation source
GB3884974A GB1480236A (en) 1973-10-09 1974-09-05 Infrared radiation source
CA 208551 CA1014214A (en) 1973-10-09 1974-09-05 Infrared radiation source
DE19742442892 DE2442892C3 (en) 1973-10-09 1974-09-07
FR7433633A FR2246978B3 (en) 1973-10-09 1974-10-07

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CA (1) CA1014214A (en)
DE (1) DE2442892C3 (en)
FR (1) FR2246978B3 (en)
GB (1) GB1480236A (en)

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1983003001A1 (en) * 1982-02-22 1983-09-01 Per-Erik Nordal Infrared radiation source arrangement
EP0177724A1 (en) * 1984-10-12 1986-04-16 Drägerwerk Aktiengesellschaft Infrared radiator
US4899053A (en) * 1987-10-21 1990-02-06 Criticare Systems, Inc. Solid state non-dispersive IR analyzer using electrical current-modulated microsources
US5062146A (en) * 1988-11-08 1991-10-29 Nkk Corporation Infrared radiator
US5128514A (en) * 1987-07-31 1992-07-07 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Black radiator for use as an emitter in calibratable gas sensors
FR2680914A1 (en) * 1991-08-28 1993-03-05 Realisations Electronique Et Infrared source
US5369277A (en) * 1990-05-23 1994-11-29 Ntc Technology, Inc. Infrared source
US5838016A (en) * 1995-08-03 1998-11-17 Johnson; Edward A. Infrared radiation filament and method of manufacture
US6169275B1 (en) * 1998-06-05 2001-01-02 Ngk Spark Plug Co, Ltd. Ceramic heater and oxygen sensor using the same
US6525814B1 (en) 1998-10-23 2003-02-25 Mission Research Corporation Apparatus and method for producing a spectrally variable radiation source and systems including same
US20050274714A1 (en) * 2004-06-14 2005-12-15 Hongy Lin In-line heater for use in semiconductor wet chemical processing and method of manufacturing the same
EP1653778A1 (en) * 2004-10-26 2006-05-03 Cheng-Ping Lin Film heating element having automatic temperature stabilisation function
US7081602B1 (en) * 2000-02-01 2006-07-25 Trebor International, Inc. Fail-safe, resistive-film, immersion heater
US8558201B2 (en) 2009-03-13 2013-10-15 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Infrared radiator arrangement for a gas analysis device

Families Citing this family (8)

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JPS58127020A (en) * 1982-01-21 1983-07-28 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Panel heater
FI852562L (en) * 1984-07-13 1986-01-14 Guenther Roesch Elektrisk vaermare.
JPS61202057U (en) * 1985-06-06 1986-12-18
DE3615259C2 (en) * 1986-05-06 1993-04-01 Krieg, Gunther, Prof. Dipl.-Phys. Dr.-Ing., 7500 Karlsruhe, De
EP0495770B1 (en) * 1991-01-16 1995-07-12 Friedrich Hoffmann Infrared radiant heater
DE4241617C2 (en) * 1992-12-10 1996-02-08 Deutsche Forsch Luft Raumfahrt black body
DE102005006190A1 (en) * 2005-02-10 2006-08-24 Siemens Ag Optical radiation device with radiation source providing radiation in visible wavelength region and non-visible heat radiation, used in illumination industry has metal oxide reflector giving radiation closer to black body radiation
EP2261618A1 (en) * 2009-06-08 2010-12-15 Leister Process Technologies Miniature infrared light source

Citations (4)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3316387A (en) * 1963-11-26 1967-04-25 North American Aviation Inc Electric lamp having directly heated sheet radiator
US3533850A (en) * 1965-10-13 1970-10-13 Westinghouse Electric Corp Antireflective coatings for solar cells
US3694624A (en) * 1969-07-16 1972-09-26 Beckman Instruments Gmbh Infrared radiator arrangement
US3781528A (en) * 1972-05-30 1973-12-25 Bulten Kanthal Ab Heat resistant,electrical insulating heating unit

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US642414A (en) * 1897-10-08 1900-01-30 Josef Kirchner Manufacture of electrical resistances.
US2879431A (en) * 1956-09-04 1959-03-24 Sylvania Electric Prod Lamp
CA952628A (en) * 1963-12-16 1974-08-06 David A. Maxwell Semiconductor structure and method

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3316387A (en) * 1963-11-26 1967-04-25 North American Aviation Inc Electric lamp having directly heated sheet radiator
US3533850A (en) * 1965-10-13 1970-10-13 Westinghouse Electric Corp Antireflective coatings for solar cells
US3694624A (en) * 1969-07-16 1972-09-26 Beckman Instruments Gmbh Infrared radiator arrangement
US3781528A (en) * 1972-05-30 1973-12-25 Bulten Kanthal Ab Heat resistant,electrical insulating heating unit

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4620104A (en) * 1982-02-22 1986-10-28 Nordal Per Erik Infrared radiation source arrangement
WO1983003001A1 (en) * 1982-02-22 1983-09-01 Per-Erik Nordal Infrared radiation source arrangement
EP0177724A1 (en) * 1984-10-12 1986-04-16 Drägerwerk Aktiengesellschaft Infrared radiator
US4644141A (en) * 1984-10-12 1987-02-17 Dragerwerk Ag Infrared radiator
US5128514A (en) * 1987-07-31 1992-07-07 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Black radiator for use as an emitter in calibratable gas sensors
US4899053A (en) * 1987-10-21 1990-02-06 Criticare Systems, Inc. Solid state non-dispersive IR analyzer using electrical current-modulated microsources
US5062146A (en) * 1988-11-08 1991-10-29 Nkk Corporation Infrared radiator
US5369277A (en) * 1990-05-23 1994-11-29 Ntc Technology, Inc. Infrared source
FR2680914A1 (en) * 1991-08-28 1993-03-05 Realisations Electronique Et Infrared source
US6249005B1 (en) 1995-08-03 2001-06-19 Ion Optics, Inc. Infrared radiation filament and method of manufacture
US5838016A (en) * 1995-08-03 1998-11-17 Johnson; Edward A. Infrared radiation filament and method of manufacture
US6169275B1 (en) * 1998-06-05 2001-01-02 Ngk Spark Plug Co, Ltd. Ceramic heater and oxygen sensor using the same
US6525814B1 (en) 1998-10-23 2003-02-25 Mission Research Corporation Apparatus and method for producing a spectrally variable radiation source and systems including same
US7081602B1 (en) * 2000-02-01 2006-07-25 Trebor International, Inc. Fail-safe, resistive-film, immersion heater
US20050274714A1 (en) * 2004-06-14 2005-12-15 Hongy Lin In-line heater for use in semiconductor wet chemical processing and method of manufacturing the same
US7164104B2 (en) * 2004-06-14 2007-01-16 Watlow Electric Manufacturing Company In-line heater for use in semiconductor wet chemical processing and method of manufacturing the same
EP1653778A1 (en) * 2004-10-26 2006-05-03 Cheng-Ping Lin Film heating element having automatic temperature stabilisation function
US8558201B2 (en) 2009-03-13 2013-10-15 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Infrared radiator arrangement for a gas analysis device

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
FR2246978B3 (en) 1976-12-10 grant
CA1014214A (en) 1977-07-19 grant
FR2246978A1 (en) 1975-05-02 application
GB1480236A (en) 1977-07-20 application
DE2442892A1 (en) 1975-04-10 application
DE2442892B2 (en) 1979-05-23 application
CA1014214A1 (en) grant
DE2442892C3 (en) 1982-11-25 grant

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