US3871776A - Writing pens - Google Patents

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US3871776A
US3871776A US449527A US44952774A US3871776A US 3871776 A US3871776 A US 3871776A US 449527 A US449527 A US 449527A US 44952774 A US44952774 A US 44952774A US 3871776 A US3871776 A US 3871776A
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pen
lips
nibs
ink
tip
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Ben Braun
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B43WRITING OR DRAWING IMPLEMENTS; BUREAU ACCESSORIES
    • B43KIMPLEMENTS FOR WRITING OR DRAWING
    • B43K17/00Continuously-adjustable nibs, e.g. for drawing-pens; Holders therefor

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  • ABSTRACT A pen for varying the width of the line being written, free from nib separating movements, employs a flexible embouchure means to constitute a writing tip.
  • the embouchure is characterized primarily in that it utilizes a pair of shaped lips to constitute nibs, forming a substantially curvate capillary mouth to effect the transfer of ink onto a writing surface.
  • the lips When pressure is applied to the tip of the pen, the lips are transversely flexed, reforming thereby the mouth of the pen into a cross slit in the plane of writing contact to pro Jerusalem an ink track of corresponding breadth.
  • pens are inherently disposed to produce gradations of thickness in thestroke, sometimes called shading. These pens comprise two general categories: pens that have a flexible point with a center slit and produce shading by the application and the release of writing pressure; and pens that have a relatively broad-edged nib and effect shading as a matter of course when changing the direction of the stroke, irrespective of pressure.
  • shading pens have been virtually displaced for general use by pens which scarcely produce any shading whatsoever. While these pens offer some economic advantages, they generally lack the calligraphic elegance of shading pens.
  • their fibre tip counterparts are more pliant, they are likewise objectionable because they possess low abrasion resistance and quickly lose precision with continued use.
  • the traditional bifurcated pen also suffers serious operative drawbacks: Perhaps most detrimental to the pointed pen is the tendency for ink to withdraw rearwardly along the slit when the nibs are spread apart, producing scratchy lines. Another disadvantage of this pen is its disposition to pick up paper fibres during the stroke, causing inadvertant thickening of the line. Yet still another failing of this pen stems from the deterioration of the ink feeding slit due to the repeated flexing of the nibs.
  • Another object of the present invention is to provide a pen having a substantially broad writing range which is equally suitable for either a formal or an informal writing hand.
  • Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a pen of great versatility for use in the art of drawing, lettering, sketching and the like.
  • Still another object of the present invention is to provide a pen which is easily compatible with a paper writing surface.
  • a further object of the present invention is to provide a pen which will accomodate inks with a wide range of viscosities with efficient flow characteristics.
  • Yet still a further object of the present invention is to provide a pen which is simple in construction, durable and easy to manufacture.
  • a pen having a flexible writing tip, for producing strokes of a nature which is decidedly thick and thin and includes means responsive to writing pressure for varying its thick-tothin relationship to be substantially comparable in range to that ofa brush or marking tip. Moreover, such variations in the width of the written line may be accomplished without the attendant disadvantages of a rearwardly tapering ink feeding slit.
  • the pen is provided at its forward end with a flexible, substantially curvate, capillary mouth which can be converted by writing pressure into a transverse ink feeding slit in the plane of writing contact to produce a line of corresponding breadth.
  • the nibs of the pen are arranged to undergo osculation, rather than separation, at their tips in response to pres sure thereon. This is in contrast to conventional pens where the spreading of the nibs causes ink to retreat from the point of paper contact due to diminishing capillary forces at the tip of the pen.
  • embouchure pen form In order to differentiate between the present invention and existing pen structures, it has been characterized herein as an embouchure pen form.
  • An additional feature of the present invention derived from the rounded underside of the tip, is scratchfree writing characteristics.
  • FIG. I is a side view of the pen embodying the present invention with a portion of the forward end cut away to show a longitudinal section thereof.
  • FIG. 2 is a front view of the same.
  • FIG. 3 is a perspective view ofthe above shown in position of use.
  • FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 are transverse sections of the pen taken on lines 4-4, 55 and 6-6 of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic front view of the writing tip, shown free of writing pressure.
  • FIG. 8 is a schematic front view of the same tip, shown yielding to writing pressure.
  • FIG. 9 is another embodiment of the present invention, showing in perspective a different configuration of the writing tip.
  • FIG. 10 is a longitudinal section of the tip taken on line l0l0 of FIG. 9.
  • FIG. 11 is a perspective view of the same pen yielding to writing pressure.
  • FIG. 12 is a longitudinal section of the tip yielding to pressure, taken on line l212 of FIG. 11.
  • FIG. 13 is a transverse section taken on line l3-l3 of FIG. 9.
  • FIG. 14 shows a writing tip having a substantially U-shaped configuration.
  • FIG. 15 represents a writing tip having a substantially V-shaped configuration.
  • FIG. 16 is a further embodiment of the present invention, showing a divided upper nib.
  • FIG. 17 is a longitudinal section of the writing tip of the same pen taken on line 17-17 of FIG. 16.
  • FIG. 18 is an alternate construction to the form shown in FIG. 17.
  • FIG. 19 is a front view of the same pen shown in FIG. 16.
  • FIG. 20 is a transverse section of the same pen taken on line 20-20 of FIG. 16.
  • the present invention is adapted for application to numerous types of pens, including dip pens and fountain pens.
  • a pen of general type has been selected for illustrative purposes because of its relative simplicity.
  • the pen is formed from a generally cylindrical or quill-shaped body of resilient material, such as spring metal or synthetic resin.
  • plastic material is preferably used here because it embodies more closely the easy gliding characteristics of the natural quill.
  • the pen body is shown in FIGS. 1 to 3 by a phantom line and a solid line to indicate its appearance before and after forming, respectively. It has a rear shank part 31 and a forward writing end part 32.
  • the shank part 31 constitutes a circumferentiallydiscontinuous cylinder adapted for insertion into the recess of a pen holder (not shown).
  • the shank is provided lateral resilience for greater retention by the holder.
  • the rear part of the pen body may also be longitudinally extended and properly contoured to provide its own holder, as shown by the dot and dash line in FIG. 1.
  • the writing end part 32 has a longitudinally-reduced segment 33 which is folded inwardly with respect to and substantially conformably against the inside of the pen body 30, along symmetrical longitudinal fold axes 35, to form a pair of integral, substantially troughshaped writing segments or nibs 33 and 34 having contiguous surfaces defining therebetween a channel 36 for ink.
  • the fold axes preferably terminate in pierces 37.
  • the axial through passage 38 constitutes an ink chamber, or reservoir, from which the channel 36 may draw ink as it is used up in writing. Access to the reservoir is provided by the curvate capillary channel 36, shown in FIG. 4, and by means of a perforation in nib 33, defining a tongue 40 which descends forwardly into channel 36 and rests adjacent nib 34.
  • the tongue 40 affords means for maintaining the proper capillary spacing between the nibs, regulating thereby the flow of ink to the tip ofthe pen.
  • a dimple 41, or other spacing means, may be employed to assist the tongue in this function where necessary. The spacing of the nibs will depend accordingly upon the respective viscosities of the inks used.
  • the writing segments 33 and 34 terminate at their respective forward ends in a pair of shaped lips 43 and 44 which are relatively thinner and more flexible than the rest of the pen body and form a substantially curvate capillary mouth 42 to constitute a writing tip.
  • the tip 42 may retain its square-cut profile, as shown by the dashed line in FIG. 1, or it can be obliquely or arcuately cut to define a shoulder 39 for added resilience.
  • the lips 43 and 44 may have common curvature, it is preferably that the curvature of the upper lip 43 be made relatively greater than that of the lower lip 44 so that they form a double cusp, or osculating point 45 at the point of writing contact.
  • the corners of the mouth 42 will be appreciably enlarged thereby to form substantially lobe-shaped vents 53 symmetrically disposed on each side of the osculating point 45 to facilitate the movement of air and liquid through the channel 36 toward the tip 42.
  • the capillary channel 36 is preferably tapered when viewed from the side as well as from the front. Since liquids tend to move from areas of larger cross-section to areas of smaller cross-section, the ink therein will naturally be drawn toward the osculating point 45, as indicated by the arrows in FIG. 7.
  • FIGS. 7 and 8 wherein the mouth end of the pen is shown in schematic form, disposed in free curvature and in Zero curvature commensurate with the applied pressure, respectively. It should be noted that the relative curvature of the lips has been deliberately exaggerated for reasons of clarity and that the intervening space is actually of capillary dimensions.
  • the mouth of the pen as embodying substantially the elastic and geometric properties of a semi-elliptic leaf spring, in which the lips 43 and 44 thereof constitute the respective leaves of the spring, and the fold axes 35 thereof constitute the respective eyes of the spring.
  • the leaves of the spring are preferably arranged so that they are resiliently disposed in osculating contact, the confronting edges thereof constituting substantially a plane curve 46 and an osculating curve 47, respectively, in the same transverse plane.
  • the point of osculation 45 is defined by the intersection of the chord of contact 48 with tangent 52 in the writing plane 49, as shown in FIG. 7.
  • the mouth of the pen is transversely distended to vary the width of the line being penned.
  • the lips 43 and 44 become increasingly more contiguous as they align themselves with the writing plane 49. They constitute, in effect, leaves ofa progressive spring wherein contact between them proceeds gradually outwardly from the point of osculation 45, commensurate with the applied pressure.
  • the straight length, or deflected portion thereof constitutes a capillary embouchure for dispensing ink and defines, accordingly, the breadth of the ensuing ink track.
  • the effective embouchure is substantially that of the point of tangency of the tip in free curvature, producing thereby a relatively thin line 50, as shown in FIG. 7.
  • the embouchure tip will be distended accordingly to produce an ink track 51 of corresponding breadth, as shown in FIG. 8. It will be noted that although the embouchure undergoes considerable distention, the lips maintain the proper capillary relationship between them at all permissable writing pressures.
  • the pen is provided means for imparting either a light-face or a bold-face character to the appearance of the writing or the lettering, as the case may be, free from nib-separating movements at the point of writing contact.
  • the writing quality is derived from the transverse curvature of the tip and the ease with which it yields to deflection under pressure.
  • the lips in the exemplary embodiment are shown to have a generally arcuate configuration. However, it is not necessary for the lips to conform to the transverse curvature of the pen body.
  • the mouth of the pen for example, may be given an elliptical, hyperbolic, or other conic configuration to fill a particular writing or drawing need.
  • the resiliency of the pen will depend accordingly upon the kind of material used and its wall thickness which should preferably taper toward the tip in order to obtain the proper feel, or tactile response, to writing pressure.
  • the pen is similar to that shown except that the nibs, instead of having a substantially annular configuration, now have a substantially semi-annular configuration. Also, the tongue has been eliminated to make a very simple form.
  • the pen body 60 has a perforation 61 defining a rear cylindrical part 62 for supporting the pen and a forward semi-cylindrical writing end part 63.
  • the supporting end 62 may be longitudinally extended to provide an integral holder, as shown by the dot-anddash line in FIG. 9, or it may be adapted by any suitable means, such as a clamping ferrule, to be retained in a separate holder (not shown).
  • the writing end 63 is formed by bending inwardly the arcuate segment 65, just forward of the perforation 61, along longitudinal fold lines 64 to nest substantially conformably with the opposite side of the pen body, providing thereby a pair of superposed nibs 65 and 66 defining therebetween a channel 67 for ink.
  • the tips of the nibs 65 and 66 form respective lips 69 and 70 which define a substantially curvate mouth 71 to constitute an embouchure writing tip.
  • the axial through passage 68 serves as an ink reservoir with which the channel 67 communicates and draws ink as it is needed.
  • a dimple 72 is provided in nib 65 to maintain the necessary capillary spacing between the nibs.
  • the corners of the mouth 71 form lobe-shaped vents 73 which assist the movement of air and liquid through the channel 67.
  • the mouth of the pen may be shaped in various ways to meet a particular writing need.
  • the mouth of the pen is shown to have a substantially U-shaped configuration in order to produce a relatively broad stroke with light pressure on the pen; in FIG. 15, the mouth of the pen is shown to have a substantially V-shaped configuration in order to effect a relatively fine stroke with comparable pressure.
  • the corners of the mouth are obliquely cut, forming shoulders 74 symmetrically disposed on each side of tip.
  • FIGS. 9 and 10 show the pen disposed in free curvature, or with relatively light pressure thereon
  • FIGS. 11 and 12 show the tips of the nibs assuming zero curvature under relatively heavy pressure.
  • the lips 69 and which are disposed in osculating contact are transversely distended, reforming thereby the mouth of the pen from a substantially curvilinear orifice into a rectilinear orifice in the plane 75 of writing contact, as shown in FIG. 11, to produce an ink track 76 of corresponding breadth.
  • the deflected portion of the tip constitutes substantially an extensible ink feeding slit transverse to the pens axis, whereby the width of the written line may be varied free from nib separating movements at the point of paper contact.
  • the pen is quite similar to that just described except that the pen body 81) is formed from a circumferentially-discontinuous cylindrical blank made of sheet material.
  • the pen body 80 has a juncture line 81 extending in the longitudinal axial plane of the pen and a perforation or slit 82 transverse thereto, defining a rear shank part 83 adapted to fit into the apertured end of a holder (not shown) and a forward writing end part 84.
  • the writing end 84 of the pen body 80 has symmetrical wing segments 85 forward of the transverse slit 82 which are bent inwardly along respective longitudinal fold axes 88, as previously described, to provide osculating contact with the opposite side of the pen body.
  • the two wing segments which still meet along juncture line 81 and the corresponding side opposite thereto, form respectively an upper nib 85 and a lower nib 86 which terminate at their respective forward ends in a pair of opposed lips 90 and 91, defining a substantially curvate mouth 92 to constitute an embouchure writing tip.
  • the nibs 85 and 86 have respective inner confronting surfaces which form a feed channel 87 for ink and the channel is assisted in its function by the juncture line 81 superjacent thereto.
  • the axial through passage 97 provides a chamber for retaining ink therein and the tip 92 communicates therewith by means of channel 87 and the juncture line 81.
  • a perforation 93 is made in lower nib 86, as shown in FIG. 17, defining a tongue 94 which is offset upwardly and forwardly to engage and secure both segments of nib 85.
  • This juncture may be effected by the use of adhesive, retaining tabs, spot welding, or any other means compatible with the material used.
  • the tongue 94 also serves as a means for properly spacing the nibs 85 and 86 and the perforation 93 also permits free access of ink to the ink channel 87 when the pen is dipped into an ink well.
  • FIG. 18 shows an alternate construction wherein the tongue 95 may be grooved, serrated or corrugated, as shown, to provide a series of pockets or compartments 96 for the storage of ink therein.
  • the tips of the nibs may be appreciably bowshaped, as shown in FIG. 17, or they may be appreciably wedgeshaped, as shown in FIG. 18, to feed ink positively toward the tip of the pen.
  • the nibs 85 and 86 undergo osculating movements at the forward peripheral ends, or lips 90 and 91 thereof,
  • a pen having a pair of contiguous nibs defining an intervening ink feeding channel and terminating at their forward ends in a flexible writing tip
  • the improvement comprises, an embouchure to constitute means for tracking ink, said embouchure having a pair of shaped lips constituting the respective forward ends of said nibs, said lips being disposed in progressivespring contact defining a capillary mouth for passing ink therethrough, said lips being generally turned upwardly from the point of common contact in the absence of writing pressure on the pen, means resiliently supporting said lips for movements together in response to writing pressure thereon and for reforming thereby said mouth into a cross-slit for ink feeding action, said lips constituting substantially a progressivespring means responsive to hand pressure for controlling the spreading movements of said mouth whereby a line may drawn of corresponding breadth.
  • said embouchure tip includes a tongue, said tongue being disposed between said nibs for regulating the flow of ink therethrough.
  • said embouchure includes a tongue, said tongue having a plurality of compartments for retaining ink therein.

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Abstract

A pen for varying the width of the line being written, free from nib separating movements, employs a flexible embouchure means to constitute a writing tip. The embouchure is characterized primarily in that it utilizes a pair of shaped lips to constitute nibs, forming a substantially curvate capillary mouth to effect the transfer of ink onto a writing surface. When pressure is applied to the tip of the pen, the lips are transversely flexed, reforming thereby the mouth of the pen into a cross slit in the plane of writing contact to produce an ink track of corresponding breadth.

Description

Braun Mar. 18, 1975 1 WRlTlNG PENS [76] Inventor: Ben Braun, 15 Georgia Dr., Syosset,
N.Y.1179l 221 Filed: Mar. 8, 1974 21 App1.No.:449,527
[52] US. Cl. 401/256, 401/261 [51] Int. Cl. B4314 17/00 [58] Field of Search 40l/252-257, 401/238, 239, 232, 221, 266, 222, 264, 261, 231
[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 544,179 8/1895 King 401/221 578834 3/1897 Robinson 401/221 2,753,845 7/1956 Miessner 401/261 Primary Examiner-Lawrence Charles [57] ABSTRACT A pen for varying the width of the line being written, free from nib separating movements, employs a flexible embouchure means to constitute a writing tip. The embouchure is characterized primarily in that it utilizes a pair of shaped lips to constitute nibs, forming a substantially curvate capillary mouth to effect the transfer of ink onto a writing surface. When pressure is applied to the tip of the pen, the lips are transversely flexed, reforming thereby the mouth of the pen into a cross slit in the plane of writing contact to pro duce an ink track of corresponding breadth.
11 Claims, 20 Drawing Figures WRITING PENS FIELD OF THE INVENTION This invention relates generally to writing instruments. More specifically, it relates to point constructions for use in pens and the like.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Some pens are inherently disposed to produce gradations of thickness in thestroke, sometimes called shading. These pens comprise two general categories: pens that have a flexible point with a center slit and produce shading by the application and the release of writing pressure; and pens that have a relatively broad-edged nib and effect shading as a matter of course when changing the direction of the stroke, irrespective of pressure.
In recent years shading pens have been virtually displaced for general use by pens which scarcely produce any shading whatsoever. While these pens offer some economic advantages, they generally lack the calligraphic elegance of shading pens. Writing produced with a ball point or stylographic pen, for example, presents a monotonously uniform appearance, almost totally devoid of nuances in the stroke. Although their fibre tip counterparts are more pliant, they are likewise objectionable because they possess low abrasion resistance and quickly lose precision with continued use.
Despite its many laudable qualities, the traditional bifurcated pen also suffers serious operative drawbacks: Perhaps most detrimental to the pointed pen is the tendency for ink to withdraw rearwardly along the slit when the nibs are spread apart, producing scratchy lines. Another disadvantage of this pen is its disposition to pick up paper fibres during the stroke, causing inadvertant thickening of the line. Yet still another failing of this pen stems from the deterioration of the ink feeding slit due to the repeated flexing of the nibs.
While the broad-edged nib is still coveted by the calligrapher, it is commonly eschewed by the layman because it imposes greater writing discipline on the user. Moreover, it imparts a formalized quality to the writing which appears too stilted for casual writing purposes. For these reasons numerous persons, including artists, calligraphers and devotees of fine handwriting, would well benefit from an improved pen structure which is flexible and provides variations in the width of the writ ten line, thus giving more individuality to the appearance of the writing.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, it is therefore a principal object of the present invention to provide a pen with an improved pen point structure having improved writing characteristics and virtually free of the aforementioned drawbacks.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a pen having a substantially broad writing range which is equally suitable for either a formal or an informal writing hand.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a pen of great versatility for use in the art of drawing, lettering, sketching and the like.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a pen which is easily compatible with a paper writing surface.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a pen which will accomodate inks with a wide range of viscosities with efficient flow characteristics.
Yet still a further object of the present invention is to provide a pen which is simple in construction, durable and easy to manufacture.
By this invention there is provided a pen having a flexible writing tip, for producing strokes of a nature which is decidedly thick and thin and includes means responsive to writing pressure for varying its thick-tothin relationship to be substantially comparable in range to that ofa brush or marking tip. Moreover, such variations in the width of the written line may be accomplished without the attendant disadvantages of a rearwardly tapering ink feeding slit.
In accordance with certain principles to be disclosed in detail hereinafter, the pen is provided at its forward end with a flexible, substantially curvate, capillary mouth which can be converted by writing pressure into a transverse ink feeding slit in the plane of writing contact to produce a line of corresponding breadth. The nibs of the pen are arranged to undergo osculation, rather than separation, at their tips in response to pres sure thereon. This is in contrast to conventional pens where the spreading of the nibs causes ink to retreat from the point of paper contact due to diminishing capillary forces at the tip of the pen. In order to differentiate between the present invention and existing pen structures, it has been characterized herein as an embouchure pen form.
An additional feature of the present invention, derived from the rounded underside of the tip, is scratchfree writing characteristics.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS These and other objects and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the following specification in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. I is a side view of the pen embodying the present invention with a portion of the forward end cut away to show a longitudinal section thereof.
FIG. 2 is a front view of the same.
FIG. 3 is a perspective view ofthe above shown in position of use.
FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 are transverse sections of the pen taken on lines 4-4, 55 and 6-6 of FIG. 1. FIG. 7 is a schematic front view of the writing tip, shown free of writing pressure.
FIG. 8 is a schematic front view of the same tip, shown yielding to writing pressure.
FIG. 9 is another embodiment of the present invention, showing in perspective a different configuration of the writing tip.
FIG. 10 is a longitudinal section of the tip taken on line l0l0 of FIG. 9.
FIG. 11 is a perspective view of the same pen yielding to writing pressure.
FIG. 12 is a longitudinal section of the tip yielding to pressure, taken on line l212 of FIG. 11.
FIG. 13 is a transverse section taken on line l3-l3 of FIG. 9.
FIG. 14 shows a writing tip having a substantially U-shaped configuration.
FIG. 15 represents a writing tip having a substantially V-shaped configuration.
FIG. 16 is a further embodiment of the present invention, showing a divided upper nib.
FIG. 17 is a longitudinal section of the writing tip of the same pen taken on line 17-17 of FIG. 16.
FIG. 18 is an alternate construction to the form shown in FIG. 17.
FIG. 19 is a front view of the same pen shown in FIG. 16.
FIG. 20 is a transverse section of the same pen taken on line 20-20 of FIG. 16.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The present invention is adapted for application to numerous types of pens, including dip pens and fountain pens. In FIGS. 1 through 6, a pen of general type has been selected for illustrative purposes because of its relative simplicity. The pen is formed from a generally cylindrical or quill-shaped body of resilient material, such as spring metal or synthetic resin. However, plastic material is preferably used here because it embodies more closely the easy gliding characteristics of the natural quill. The pen body is shown in FIGS. 1 to 3 by a phantom line and a solid line to indicate its appearance before and after forming, respectively. It has a rear shank part 31 and a forward writing end part 32. The shank part 31 constitutes a circumferentiallydiscontinuous cylinder adapted for insertion into the recess of a pen holder (not shown). By making the pen body slightly sprung open, as shown in FIG. 2, the shank is provided lateral resilience for greater retention by the holder. However, the rear part of the pen body may also be longitudinally extended and properly contoured to provide its own holder, as shown by the dot and dash line in FIG. 1.
The writing end part 32 has a longitudinally-reduced segment 33 which is folded inwardly with respect to and substantially conformably against the inside of the pen body 30, along symmetrical longitudinal fold axes 35, to form a pair of integral, substantially troughshaped writing segments or nibs 33 and 34 having contiguous surfaces defining therebetween a channel 36 for ink. For the purpose of relieving stresses due to forming, the fold axes preferably terminate in pierces 37.
The axial through passage 38 constitutes an ink chamber, or reservoir, from which the channel 36 may draw ink as it is used up in writing. Access to the reservoir is provided by the curvate capillary channel 36, shown in FIG. 4, and by means of a perforation in nib 33, defining a tongue 40 which descends forwardly into channel 36 and rests adjacent nib 34. The tongue 40 affords means for maintaining the proper capillary spacing between the nibs, regulating thereby the flow of ink to the tip ofthe pen. A dimple 41, or other spacing means, may be employed to assist the tongue in this function where necessary. The spacing of the nibs will depend accordingly upon the respective viscosities of the inks used.
The writing segments 33 and 34 terminate at their respective forward ends in a pair of shaped lips 43 and 44 which are relatively thinner and more flexible than the rest of the pen body and form a substantially curvate capillary mouth 42 to constitute a writing tip. The tip 42 may retain its square-cut profile, as shown by the dashed line in FIG. 1, or it can be obliquely or arcuately cut to define a shoulder 39 for added resilience.
While the lips 43 and 44 may have common curvature, it is preferably that the curvature of the upper lip 43 be made relatively greater than that of the lower lip 44 so that they form a double cusp, or osculating point 45 at the point of writing contact. The corners of the mouth 42 will be appreciably enlarged thereby to form substantially lobe-shaped vents 53 symmetrically disposed on each side of the osculating point 45 to facilitate the movement of air and liquid through the channel 36 toward the tip 42.
It will be noted that the capillary channel 36 is preferably tapered when viewed from the side as well as from the front. Since liquids tend to move from areas of larger cross-section to areas of smaller cross-section, the ink therein will naturally be drawn toward the osculating point 45, as indicated by the arrows in FIG. 7.
How the present invention accomplishes its objective will become evident upon a consideration of the following with reference to FIGS. 7 and 8, wherein the mouth end of the pen is shown in schematic form, disposed in free curvature and in Zero curvature commensurate with the applied pressure, respectively. It should be noted that the relative curvature of the lips has been deliberately exaggerated for reasons of clarity and that the intervening space is actually of capillary dimensions.
For purposes of this discussion, it will be convenient to consider the mouth of the pen as embodying substantially the elastic and geometric properties of a semi-elliptic leaf spring, in which the lips 43 and 44 thereof constitute the respective leaves of the spring, and the fold axes 35 thereof constitute the respective eyes of the spring. Furthermore, it is also assumed that the leaves of the spring are preferably arranged so that they are resiliently disposed in osculating contact, the confronting edges thereof constituting substantially a plane curve 46 and an osculating curve 47, respectively, in the same transverse plane. The point of osculation 45 is defined by the intersection of the chord of contact 48 with tangent 52 in the writing plane 49, as shown in FIG. 7.
As pressure is applied to the writing tip 42, the mouth of the pen is transversely distended to vary the width of the line being penned. By this operation, the lips 43 and 44 become increasingly more contiguous as they align themselves with the writing plane 49. They constitute, in effect, leaves ofa progressive spring wherein contact between them proceeds gradually outwardly from the point of osculation 45, commensurate with the applied pressure. The straight length, or deflected portion thereof, constitutes a capillary embouchure for dispensing ink and defines, accordingly, the breadth of the ensuing ink track. Thus, when relatively light pressure is applied to the tip of the pen, the effective embouchure is substantially that of the point of tangency of the tip in free curvature, producing thereby a relatively thin line 50, as shown in FIG. 7. When relatively heavy pressure is applied to the pen, the embouchure tip will be distended accordingly to produce an ink track 51 of corresponding breadth, as shown in FIG. 8. It will be noted that although the embouchure undergoes considerable distention, the lips maintain the proper capillary relationship between them at all permissable writing pressures.
From the foregoing remarks, it is apparent that even when the lightest pressure is applied to the pen, the ensuing ink line will be appreciably thicker when the pen is moved in a to-and-fro direction than when it is moved from side to side, introducing thereby an aspect of shading to the written line. This thick-and-thin quality may be markedly increased by writing pressure which changes the breadth-to-thickness relationship of the embouchure tip. Thus, the pen is provided means for imparting either a light-face or a bold-face character to the appearance of the writing or the lettering, as the case may be, free from nib-separating movements at the point of writing contact.
Two factors determine the quality of a pen; namely, the shape of the tip and its inherent flexibility. In the present instance, the writing quality is derived from the transverse curvature of the tip and the ease with which it yields to deflection under pressure. The lips in the exemplary embodiment are shown to have a generally arcuate configuration. However, it is not necessary for the lips to conform to the transverse curvature of the pen body. The mouth of the pen, for example, may be given an elliptical, hyperbolic, or other conic configuration to fill a particular writing or drawing need. The resiliency of the pen will depend accordingly upon the kind of material used and its wall thickness which should preferably taper toward the tip in order to obtain the proper feel, or tactile response, to writing pressure.
In another embodiment of the present invention, shown in FIGS. 9 through 15, the pen is similar to that shown except that the nibs, instead of having a substantially annular configuration, now have a substantially semi-annular configuration. Also, the tongue has been eliminated to make a very simple form. In this construction, the pen body 60 has a perforation 61 defining a rear cylindrical part 62 for supporting the pen and a forward semi-cylindrical writing end part 63. The supporting end 62 may be longitudinally extended to provide an integral holder, as shown by the dot-anddash line in FIG. 9, or it may be adapted by any suitable means, such as a clamping ferrule, to be retained in a separate holder (not shown).
The writing end 63 is formed by bending inwardly the arcuate segment 65, just forward of the perforation 61, along longitudinal fold lines 64 to nest substantially conformably with the opposite side of the pen body, providing thereby a pair of superposed nibs 65 and 66 defining therebetween a channel 67 for ink. The tips of the nibs 65 and 66 form respective lips 69 and 70 which define a substantially curvate mouth 71 to constitute an embouchure writing tip. The axial through passage 68 serves as an ink reservoir with which the channel 67 communicates and draws ink as it is needed. A dimple 72 is provided in nib 65 to maintain the necessary capillary spacing between the nibs. The corners of the mouth 71 form lobe-shaped vents 73 which assist the movement of air and liquid through the channel 67.
It will be noted that the mouth of the pen may be shaped in various ways to meet a particular writing need. In FIG. 14, the mouth of the pen is shown to have a substantially U-shaped configuration in order to produce a relatively broad stroke with light pressure on the pen; in FIG. 15, the mouth of the pen is shown to have a substantially V-shaped configuration in order to effect a relatively fine stroke with comparable pressure. For added resiliency and aesthetic appeal, the corners of the mouth are obliquely cut, forming shoulders 74 symmetrically disposed on each side of tip.
In essence, the operation of the present embodiment is like that previously described. FIGS. 9 and 10 show the pen disposed in free curvature, or with relatively light pressure thereon, and FIGS. 11 and 12 show the tips of the nibs assuming zero curvature under relatively heavy pressure. As pressure is applied to the tip 71 of the pen, the lips 69 and which are disposed in osculating contact, are transversely distended, reforming thereby the mouth of the pen from a substantially curvilinear orifice into a rectilinear orifice in the plane 75 of writing contact, as shown in FIG. 11, to produce an ink track 76 of corresponding breadth. Thus, the deflected portion of the tip constitutes substantially an extensible ink feeding slit transverse to the pens axis, whereby the width of the written line may be varied free from nib separating movements at the point of paper contact.
In a further embodiment of the present invention, shown in FIGS. 16 through 20, the pen is quite similar to that just described except that the pen body 81) is formed from a circumferentially-discontinuous cylindrical blank made of sheet material. The pen body 80 has a juncture line 81 extending in the longitudinal axial plane of the pen and a perforation or slit 82 transverse thereto, defining a rear shank part 83 adapted to fit into the apertured end of a holder (not shown) and a forward writing end part 84. The writing end 84 of the pen body 80 has symmetrical wing segments 85 forward of the transverse slit 82 which are bent inwardly along respective longitudinal fold axes 88, as previously described, to provide osculating contact with the opposite side of the pen body. The two wing segments which still meet along juncture line 81 and the corresponding side opposite thereto, form respectively an upper nib 85 and a lower nib 86 which terminate at their respective forward ends in a pair of opposed lips 90 and 91, defining a substantially curvate mouth 92 to constitute an embouchure writing tip. The nibs 85 and 86 have respective inner confronting surfaces which form a feed channel 87 for ink and the channel is assisted in its function by the juncture line 81 superjacent thereto. The axial through passage 97 provides a chamber for retaining ink therein and the tip 92 communicates therewith by means of channel 87 and the juncture line 81.
To prevent the separation of nib segments 85 under pressure, a perforation 93 is made in lower nib 86, as shown in FIG. 17, defining a tongue 94 which is offset upwardly and forwardly to engage and secure both segments of nib 85. This juncture may be effected by the use of adhesive, retaining tabs, spot welding, or any other means compatible with the material used. In ad dition to the above function, the tongue 94 also serves as a means for properly spacing the nibs 85 and 86 and the perforation 93 also permits free access of ink to the ink channel 87 when the pen is dipped into an ink well.
FIG. 18 shows an alternate construction wherein the tongue 95 may be grooved, serrated or corrugated, as shown, to provide a series of pockets or compartments 96 for the storage of ink therein. It will be further noted that the tips of the nibs may be appreciably bowshaped, as shown in FIG. 17, or they may be appreciably wedgeshaped, as shown in FIG. 18, to feed ink positively toward the tip of the pen.
As writing pressure is applied to the tip 92 of the pen, the nibs 85 and 86 undergo osculating movements at the forward peripheral ends, or lips 90 and 91 thereof,
distending thereby the embouchure and correspondingly varying the breadth of the ensuing ink track 97. The movement of the tips of the nibs together initiates ink feeding action and assists in urging ink forwardly toward the tip of the pen for transfer onto a writing surface.
While the invention has been described with particular reference to specific embodiments, it is to be understood that it is not to be limited only to the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein but is to be construed broadly and restricted by the scope of the appended claims.
l claim:
1. A pen having a pair of contiguous nibs defining an intervening ink feeding channel and terminating at their forward ends in a flexible writing tip wherein the improvement comprises, an embouchure to constitute means for tracking ink, said embouchure having a pair of shaped lips constituting the respective forward ends of said nibs, said lips being disposed in progressivespring contact defining a capillary mouth for passing ink therethrough, said lips being generally turned upwardly from the point of common contact in the absence of writing pressure on the pen, means resiliently supporting said lips for movements together in response to writing pressure thereon and for reforming thereby said mouth into a cross-slit for ink feeding action, said lips constituting substantially a progressivespring means responsive to hand pressure for controlling the spreading movements of said mouth whereby a line may drawn of corresponding breadth.
2. A pen as claimed in claim 1, wherein said lips constitute substantially a circle and an osculating circle.
3. A pen as claimed in claim 1, wherein said lips constitute substantially a conic and an osculating conic.
4. A pen as claimed in claim 1, wherein said lips constitute substantially respective segments of a conic and an osculating conic.
5. A pen as claimed in claim 1, wherein said pen comprises a quill pen body, said pen body having a concurrent body portion bent about longitudinal fold axes to form a pair of integral nibs, said nibs being disposed in osculating relationship and terminating at their forward ends in respective lips to form an embouchure writing tip, said nibs defining an axial through passage and an intervening capillary channel communicating therewith to constitute respectively an ink chamber and means for feeding ink to said tip, said fold axes resiliently supporting said nibs for osculating movements with the application of writing pressure thereon and for simultaneously distending by progressive-spring means said embouchure tip to produce a line of corresponding breadth.
6. A pen as claimed in claim 5, wherein said tip defines an osculating point for tracking ink therewith and a pair of substantially arcuately-tapered openings symmetrically disposed on each side of said osculating point to constitute vent means facilitating the passage of ink and air therethrough.
7. A pen as claimed in claim 5, wherein said embouchure tip includes a tongue, said tongue being disposed between said nibs for regulating the flow of ink therethrough.
8. A pen as claimed in claim 5, wherein said channel tapers transversely and longitudinally toward the tip of the pen at all permissable writing pressures.
9. A pen as claimed in claim 5, wherein said nibs constitute substantially superposed segments of a cylinder and said lips constitute substantially segments of a conic and an osculating conic.
10. A pen as claimed in claim 5, wherein said pen comprises a circumferentially-discontinuous cylindrical pen body, said pen body having symmetrical wing segments at the forward end thereof bent about respective fold axes to form with the side opposite thereto respective upper and lower nibs, said nibs being disposed in osculating contact and defining an intervening ink feeding channel, said upper nib having a longitudinal sl t superjacent to said channel, said lower nib having a tongue extending upwardly and forwardly to engage and secure said wing segments to prevent the separation thereof under pressure, said nibs terminating in respective lips to constitute an embouchure writing tip, said fold axes resiliently supporting said lips for movements together in response to pressure thereon and for distending by progressive-spring means said tip to vary the width of the line being written.
11. A pen as claimed in claim 10, wherein said embouchure includes a tongue, said tongue having a plurality of compartments for retaining ink therein.

Claims (11)

1. A pen having a pair of contiguous nibs defining an intervening ink feeding channel and terminating at their forward ends in a flexible writing tip wherein the improvement comprises, an embouchure to constitute means for tracking ink, said embouchure having a pair of shaped lips constituting the respective forward ends of said nibs, said lips being disposed in progressive-spring contact defining a capillary mouth for passing ink therethrough, said lips being generally turned upwardly from the point of common contact in the absence of writing pressure on the pen, means resiliently supporting said lips for movements together in response to writing pressure thereon and for reforming thereby said mouth into a cross-slit for ink feeding action, said lips constituting substantially a progressive-spring means responsive to hand pressure for controlling the spreading movements of said mouth whereby a line may drawn of corresponding breadth.
2. A pen as claimed in claim 1, wherein said lips constitute substantially a circle and an osculating circle.
3. A pen as claimed in claim 1, wherein said lips constitute substantially a conic and an osculating conic.
4. A pen as claimed in claim 1, wherein said lips constitute substantially respective segments of a conic and an osculating conic.
5. A pen as claimed in claim 1, wherein said pen comprises a quill pen body, said pen body having a concurrent body portion bent about longitudinal fold axes to form a pair of integral nibs, said nibs being disposed in osculating relationship and terminating at their forward ends in respective lips to form an embouchure writing tip, said nibs defining an axial through passage and an intervening capillary channel communicating therewith to constitute respectively an ink chamber and means for feeding ink to said tip, said fold axes resiliently supporting said nibs for osculating movements with the application of writing pressure thereon and for simultaneously distending by progressive-spring means said embouchure tip to produce a line of corresponding breadth.
6. A pen as claimed in claim 5, wherein said tip defines an osculating point for tracking ink therewith and a pair of substantially arcuately-tapered openings symmetrically disposed on each side of said osculating point to constitute vent means facilitating the passage of ink and air therethrough.
7. A pen as claimed in claim 5, wherein said embouchure tip includes a tongue, said tongue being disposed between said nibs for regulating the flow of ink therethrough.
8. A pen as claimed in claim 5, wherein said channel tapers transversely and longitudinally toward the tip of the pen at all permissable writing pressures.
9. A pen as claimed in claim 5, wherein said nibs constitute substantially superposed segments of a cylinder and said lips constitute substantially segments of a conic and an osculating conic.
10. A pen as claimed in claim 5, wherein said pen comprises a circumferentially-discontinuous cylindrical pen body, said pen body having symmetrical wing segments at the forward end thereof bent about respective fold axes to form with the side opposite thereto respective upper and lower nibs, said nibs being disposed in osculating contact and defining an intervening ink feeding channel, said upper nib having a longitudinal slit superjacent to said channel, said lower nib having a tongue extending upwardly and forwardly to engage and secure said wing segments to prevent the separation thereof under pressure, said nibs terminating in respective lips to constitute an embouchure writing tip, said fold axes resiliently supporting said lips for movements together in response to pressure thereon and for distending by progressive-spring means said tip to vary the width of the line being written.
11. A pen as claimed in claim 10, wherein said embouchure includes a tongue, said tongue having a plurality of compartments for retaining ink therein.
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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3950106A (en) * 1975-01-07 1976-04-13 Ben Braun Embouchure pen
US4085672A (en) * 1975-09-11 1978-04-25 John Grosart Inking device
US4171168A (en) * 1977-08-22 1979-10-16 Ben Braun Embouchure pens having plural contiguous nibs
US5877750A (en) * 1996-09-17 1999-03-02 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus for in-place line width selection for graphics applications

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US544179A (en) * 1895-08-06 Twin-pointed pen
US578834A (en) * 1897-03-16 Third to lafe harpole and james tharp
US2753845A (en) * 1950-10-24 1956-07-10 Benjamin F Miessner Implement for using fluid inks

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US544179A (en) * 1895-08-06 Twin-pointed pen
US578834A (en) * 1897-03-16 Third to lafe harpole and james tharp
US2753845A (en) * 1950-10-24 1956-07-10 Benjamin F Miessner Implement for using fluid inks

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3950106A (en) * 1975-01-07 1976-04-13 Ben Braun Embouchure pen
US4085672A (en) * 1975-09-11 1978-04-25 John Grosart Inking device
US4171168A (en) * 1977-08-22 1979-10-16 Ben Braun Embouchure pens having plural contiguous nibs
US5877750A (en) * 1996-09-17 1999-03-02 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus for in-place line width selection for graphics applications

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