US3868947A - Concentric electrode construction for an electrocardiogram transmitter - Google Patents

Concentric electrode construction for an electrocardiogram transmitter Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3868947A
US3868947A US40687073A US3868947A US 3868947 A US3868947 A US 3868947A US 40687073 A US40687073 A US 40687073A US 3868947 A US3868947 A US 3868947A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
electrode
differential amplifier
central
outer conducting
conducting surface
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
William P Holsinger
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
US Government
Original Assignee
US Government
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by US Government filed Critical US Government
Priority to US40687073 priority Critical patent/US3868947A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US3868947A publication Critical patent/US3868947A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/04Measuring bioelectric signals of the body or parts thereof
    • A61B5/04004Input circuits for EEG-, or EMG-signals

Abstract

An electrode assembly for generating electrocardiogram bioelectric potential signals suitable for wave-form analysis is disclosed. The electrode assembly comprises two separate transmitter electrodes adapted to be placed on the skin of a subject. Each electrode includes a central conducting surface and an outer conducting surface disposed in surrounding relationship about the periphery of the central conducting surface, the outer conducting surface being spaced from the central conducting surface by an intermediate insulating barrier region. The outer conducting surfaces of each electrode are connected in common and to a common ground of a differential amplifier. The central conducting surface of each of the electrodes is connected to a different respective input of the differential amplifier whereby a signal representative of the bioelectric potential is provided at the differential amplifier output.

Description

United States Patent [191 Helsinger Mar. 4, 1975 CONCENTRIC ELECTRODE CONSTRUCTION FOR AN ELECTROCARDIOGRAM TRANSMITTER [75] Inventor: William P. Holsinger, Herndon, Va.

22 Filed: Oct. 16,1973

21 App1.No.:406,870

[52] U.S. Cl. 128/206 E, 128/2.06 B, l28/DIG. 4 [51] Int. Cl A6lb 5/04 [58] Field of Search 128/206 E, 2.1 E, DIG. 4,

FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS Italy 128/206 E OTHER PUBLICATIONS Lagow et al., Anodic Insul. Tant. Oxide ECG Elecs., IEEE Trans. on Bio-Med. Engrg., Vol. 18, No. 2, March, 1971, pp. 162-164.

Primary Examiner-Richard A. Gaudet Assistant Examiner-Lee S. Cohen [57] ABSTRACT An electrode assembly for generating electrocardiogram bioelectric potential signals suitable for wave form analysis is disclosed. The electrode assembly comprises two separate transmitter electrodes adapted to be placed on the skin of a subject. Each electrode includes a central conducting surface and an outer conducting surface disposed in surrounding relationship about the periphery of the central conducting surface, the outer conducting surface being spaced from the central conducting surface by an intermediate insulating barrier region. The outer conducting surfaces of each electrode are connected in common and to a common ground of a differential amplifier. The central conducting surface of each of the electrodes is connected to a different respective input of the differ ential amplifier whereby a signal representative of the bioelectric potential is provided at the differential amplifier output.

2 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures I CONCENTRIC ELECTRODE CONSTRUCTION FOR AN ELECTROCARDIOGRAM TRANSMITTER BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention generally relates to electrocardiogram techniques, and particularly concerns a novel transmitting electrode assembly therefor by which bioelectric potential signals are generated of a quality suitable for wave-form analysis.

With particular reference initially being directed to FIG. 1 of the appended drawings, a conventional prior art technique and apparatus is shown by which bioelectric potential signals are typically generated in the art, such signals being utilized to drive a chart recorder of an electrocardiogram monitoring machine. Since a complete electrocardiogram diagnosis of heart disorders requires an analysis of the bioelectric potential waveform, three separate surface electrodes are normally provided, such as electrodes l0, l2, and 14, each of these electrodes being disposed on the skin of a patient. Electrode I4 is conventionally coupled to the common ground 16 of a differential amplifier I8,

I whereas electrodes and 12 are conventionally coupled to different respective inputs 2t) and 22 of differential amplifier 18. Three separate signals are therefore generated, with the output from the differential amplifier 18 as represented by reference numeral 24 being the bioelectric potential difference between electrodes 10 and I2 from the ground defined by the potential of electrode l4.

Difficulties are encountered with the conventional prior art apparatus as shown in FIG. I, particularly as concerns obtaining clinical quality electrocardiogram tracings due to the large amount of filtering which would be necessary to eliminate ambient noise from two floating sources represented by electrodes 10 and 12. Further, the three-electrode construction of the prior art is quite inconvenient to use since it is necessary to firmly attach the electrodes to the patients skin, it not being possible for the user of the apparatus to simply hold one electrode in each hand so as to obtain a proper monitoring.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is thus apparent that a need exists in this art for an improved electrode assembly of simple construction which is capable of providing clinical grade electrocardiogram signals. It is the primary objective of the instant invention to provide such an improved electrode assembly.

A further objective of the instant invention is the provision of an electrode assembly which does not require three separate surface contacting regions but, instead, produces a high quality bioelectric potential signal from only two surface contacts, thus markedly increasing the convenience to the user thereof.

These objectives, as well as others which will become apparent as the description proceeds, are implemented by the instant inventive electrode assembly which, in its preferred embodiment, constitutes two separate trans mitter electrodes adapted to be placed on a subjects skin. Each electrode includes a central conducting surface and an outer conducting surface which is disposed in surrounding relationship about the periphery of the central conducting surface but is spaced therefrom by an intermediate insulating barrier region. The outer conducting surfaces of each electrode are electrically coupled in common to one another and to a common ground of a differential amplifier. The central conducting surface of each of the electrodes are electrically connected to a different respective input of the differential amplifier. As a result, a signal representative of the bioelectric potential is provided at the differential amplifier output, which signal is of high quality and is suitable for complete wave-form analysis.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The invention will be better understood, and further features and advantages thereof will become apparent from the following detailed description of a preferred inventive embodiment, such description making reference to the appended sheet of drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of a prior art electrode transmitter for an electrocardiogram machine;

FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration of the electrode assembly constructed in accordance with the teachings of the instant invention; and

FIG. 3 is an electrical schematic diagram depicting an equivalent circuit of the construction of the instant invention depicted in FIG. 2, for purposes of better explaining the electrical operation of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED INVENTIVE EMBODIMENT With specific reference now to FIG. 2 of the applicai tion drawings, the construction of the instant inventive electrode assembly will be described. Two electrodes are provided, generally designated by reference numerals 26 and 28, each electrode being contemplated to be disposed over and in contact with the underlying skin of a subject as is shown. Each electrode incorporates three separate and distinct portions.

A central conducting surface or disc 30, preferably constructed of stainless steel, is provided for each of the electrodes. An outer conductive surface or ring 32, also preferably constructed of stainless steel, is disposed in surrounding relationship about the periphery of the central conducting surface or disc 30 but is spaced apart therefrom by an intermediate insulating barrier region 34. The barrier region 34 preferably constitutes an epoxy annulus which provides electrical insulation as well as a structural barrier.

The outer conductive ring 32 of each of the electrodes 26 and 28 is electrically connected in common together via conductor 36 and is further connected to the common ground 16 of differential amplifier 18. The central conducting portions or discs 30 of each of the two electrodes are connected to the respective different inputs 20 and 22 of differential amplifier 18, as is shown. The separate parts or regions of each electrode 26 and 28 are accordingly disposed in a concentric relationship with one another.

In use, the outer conductive surface or ring 32 of each electrode 26 and 28 provides shielding as well as the important ground reference. The palm of the users hand, or the heel of the hand. when placed on each electrode 26 and 28, will straddle the epoxy insulating annulus 34 so that coupling occurs to both conductors 30 and 32. In this fashion, the body and the electronics will assume the same potential and any differences between electrode leads is cancelled in so-called commen-mode, as is typical. Further, since both outer rings of the'electrodes are connected together in electrical common, good contact is assured with either hand of the user for establishing a ground reference.

To analyze the electrical operation of the inventive electrode assembly of FIG. 2, attention is directed to FIG. 3 of the application drawings wherein an equivalent circuit of the electrode assembly is shown. Similar reference letters have been provided on both FIG. 2 and FIG. 3 of the application drawings so as to establish a frame of reference. In this respect, it should be appreciated that the voltage potential E is the electrocardiogram bioelectric potential having a typical magnitude of 1 millivolt. The voltage designated by reference E is the potential difference within the internal conductive tissue between the regions of the electrode ring and disc and is less than 1 microvolt. Accordingly, E for the purposes of the following calculations can be considered to constitute zero.

Z, is the input impedance of the amplifier, Z is tissue impedance, and Z; is skin-to-electrode impedance. Relative magnitudes among these parameters is expressed by Z,-, Z Z

For path AC V (El/2) since Z Z remembering that E V DC z V since 2,, Z; Z

therefore A similar argument prevails for V and V Et' z The differential amplifier of gain a subtracts the two phases giving an effective output of la E l (Common-mode voltages are cancelled.)

Consider also the case if one electrode does not have the ground path connected. (i.e., Absence of a ground ring or one hand is not making contact with the ring.) For AC open V z E, since Z Z Z and V V for the same reason.

Therefore nc z 1 For the other leg V 2 V z 0 because Z, Z These two signals, when combined by the differential amplifier of gain or, also yield an output of l or E It should thus be appreciated that the objects initially set forth at the outset of the specification have been successfully achieved, use of the electrode of the instant invention finally enabling the transmission of clinical-grade electrocardiograms from even batterypowered devices with economic advantages necessary for mass screening of the public. Moreover, while there has been shown and described a present preferred embodiment of the invention, it is to be distinctly understood that the invention is not limited thereto, but may be otherwise variously embodied and practiced within the scope of the following claims.

What is claimed is:

1. An electrode assembly for generating electrocardiogram bioelectric potential signals suitable for waveform analysis, said assembly comprising: two separate transmitter electrodes adapted to be placed on a sub jects skin in electrical contact therewith, each electrode comprising a flat exposed disc which includes an electrically conductive central disc member and an outer conducting ring disposed in surrounding relationship about the periphery of said central conductive member, said outer conducting ring being spaced from said central conductive member by an intermediate insulating annulus, said central conductive member, said outer conducting ring, and said insulating annulus being coplanar and concentrically disposed; means for electrically coupling said outer conducting rings of each said electrode in common and to a common ground of a differential amplifier; and means for electrically connecting said central conductive member of each said electrode to a different respective input of the differential amplifier, whereby a signal representative of the bioelectric potential is produced at the differential amplifier output.

2. An electrode assembly as defined in claim 1, wherein said central conductive disc and said outer conducting ring are constructed of stainless steel, and

wherein said insulating annulus is of epoxy.

Claims (2)

1. An electrode assembly for generating electrocardiogram bioelectric potential signals suitable for wave-form analysis, said assembly comprising: two separate transmitter electrodes adapted to be placed on a subject''s skin in electrical contact therewith, each electrode comprising a flat exposed disc which includes an electrically conductive central disc Member and an outer conducting ring disposed in surrounding relationship about the periphery of said central conductive member, said outer conducting ring being spaced from said central conductive member by an intermediate insulating annulus, said central conductive member, said outer conducting ring, and said insulating annulus being coplanar and concentrically disposed; means for electrically coupling said outer conducting rings of each said electrode in common and to a common ground of a differential amplifier; and means for electrically connecting said central conductive member of each said electrode to a different respective input of the differential amplifier, whereby a signal representative of the bioelectric potential is produced at the differential amplifier output.
2. An electrode assembly as defined in claim 1, wherein said central conductive disc and said outer conducting ring are constructed of stainless steel, and wherein said insulating annulus is of epoxy.
US40687073 1973-10-16 1973-10-16 Concentric electrode construction for an electrocardiogram transmitter Expired - Lifetime US3868947A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US40687073 US3868947A (en) 1973-10-16 1973-10-16 Concentric electrode construction for an electrocardiogram transmitter

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US40687073 US3868947A (en) 1973-10-16 1973-10-16 Concentric electrode construction for an electrocardiogram transmitter

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3868947A true US3868947A (en) 1975-03-04

Family

ID=23609731

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US40687073 Expired - Lifetime US3868947A (en) 1973-10-16 1973-10-16 Concentric electrode construction for an electrocardiogram transmitter

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3868947A (en)

Cited By (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2374878A1 (en) * 1976-12-27 1978-07-21 Electronics Med An apparatus for detecting the shift of the base line of an electrocardiogram signal
US4120294A (en) * 1976-08-26 1978-10-17 Wolfe Donna L Electrode system for acquiring electrical signals from the heart
US4122843A (en) * 1977-08-10 1978-10-31 Electro-Technics, Inc. Electrode system for a heart rate monitor
US4170227A (en) * 1976-12-27 1979-10-09 Electronics For Medicine, Inc. Apparatus and method for ECG baseline shift detecting
FR2429005A1 (en) * 1978-06-22 1980-01-18 Electronics Med An apparatus and method for detection of the mean value of displacements electrocardiogram
US4194511A (en) * 1978-08-18 1980-03-25 Electronics For Medicine, Inc. Detecting capacitively coupled ECG baseline shift
EP0021394A1 (en) * 1979-06-29 1981-01-07 International Business Machines Corporation Interelectrode impedance measuring apparatus for electrocardiography
US4261371A (en) * 1978-01-18 1981-04-14 Reading Iii William H Method and apparatus for determining ovulation in female mammalia
US4324257A (en) * 1978-02-20 1982-04-13 U.S. Philips Corporation Device for the transcutaneous measurement of the partial oxygen pressure in blood
US4444200A (en) * 1981-09-04 1984-04-24 Senoh Kabushiki Kaisha Heart pulse rate measuring system
US4628939A (en) * 1980-09-11 1986-12-16 Hughes Aircraft Company Method and improved apparatus for analyzing heart activity
AT391798B (en) * 1988-02-05 1990-11-26 Pfuetzner Helmut Dr Apparatus for joint determination of the electrical media impedance and contact-zone impedance of electrolytically conductive systems
WO1992007509A1 (en) * 1990-10-26 1992-05-14 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method and apparatus for imaging electrical activity in a biologocal system
US5237995A (en) * 1991-03-26 1993-08-24 Allegheny-Singer Research Institute Concentric electrode for use in detecting low level bioelectric signals
US5632280A (en) * 1995-03-03 1997-05-27 Heartstream, Inc. Method for circuit fault detection in differential signal detectors
US5713367A (en) * 1994-01-26 1998-02-03 Cambridge Heart, Inc. Measuring and assessing cardiac electrical stability
US5724984A (en) * 1995-01-26 1998-03-10 Cambridge Heart, Inc. Multi-segment ECG electrode and system
US5902249A (en) * 1995-03-03 1999-05-11 Heartstream, Inc. Method and apparatus for detecting artifacts using common-mode signals in differential signal detectors
WO1999038437A1 (en) 1998-01-30 1999-08-05 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. System and method for enhancing and separating biopotential signals
US6073039A (en) * 1997-11-07 2000-06-06 The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health And Human Services Device and method for real-time monitoring of an electrocardiogram during magnetic resonance imaging
US6148233A (en) * 1997-03-07 2000-11-14 Cardiac Science, Inc. Defibrillation system having segmented electrodes
US6287328B1 (en) 1999-04-08 2001-09-11 Agilent Technologies, Inc. Multivariable artifact assessment
US6327486B1 (en) * 1998-06-22 2001-12-04 Polar Electro Oy Screen
US6510333B1 (en) 2000-05-16 2003-01-21 Mark J. Licata Sensor for biopotential measurements
US20060025666A1 (en) * 2004-06-10 2006-02-02 Kinesense, Inc. "Bulls-eye" surface electromyographic electrode assembly
US7039455B1 (en) 2001-10-09 2006-05-02 Medrad, Inc. Apparatus and method for removing magnetic resonance imaging-induced noise from ECG signals
US20070066876A1 (en) * 2003-10-17 2007-03-22 Hallin Rolf G Multielectrode
WO2009048334A1 (en) 2007-10-09 2009-04-16 Wireless Patient Recording Medical As Electrode part comprising interference shielding for a wireless biopotential measurement unit
US20140081099A1 (en) * 2006-09-07 2014-03-20 Sotera Wireless, Inc. Hand-held vital signs monitor
US9445740B1 (en) * 2013-06-28 2016-09-20 West Affum Holdings Corp. Patient signal sensing device
US20170188864A1 (en) * 2016-01-06 2017-07-06 Healmet, Inc. Spherical handheld biosensor array device for physiological status monitoring

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2748202A (en) * 1952-01-25 1956-05-29 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Amplifier with interference reducing circuit
US3500823A (en) * 1967-11-20 1970-03-17 Us Air Force Electrocardiographic and bioelectric capacitive electrode
US3543761A (en) * 1967-10-05 1970-12-01 Univ Minnesota Bladder stimulating method
US3545432A (en) * 1967-07-24 1970-12-08 Gulton Ind Inc Body electrode assembly
US3547104A (en) * 1968-01-17 1970-12-15 Marvin A Buffington Electrocardiographic monitoring apparatus and system
US3620208A (en) * 1969-11-03 1971-11-16 Atomic Energy Commission Ekg amplifying electrode pickup
US3628527A (en) * 1969-10-08 1971-12-21 Microcom Corp Biological electrode amplifier
US3826246A (en) * 1973-03-07 1974-07-30 Esb Inc Apparatus for sensing physiological potentials

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2748202A (en) * 1952-01-25 1956-05-29 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Amplifier with interference reducing circuit
US3545432A (en) * 1967-07-24 1970-12-08 Gulton Ind Inc Body electrode assembly
US3543761A (en) * 1967-10-05 1970-12-01 Univ Minnesota Bladder stimulating method
US3500823A (en) * 1967-11-20 1970-03-17 Us Air Force Electrocardiographic and bioelectric capacitive electrode
US3547104A (en) * 1968-01-17 1970-12-15 Marvin A Buffington Electrocardiographic monitoring apparatus and system
US3628527A (en) * 1969-10-08 1971-12-21 Microcom Corp Biological electrode amplifier
US3620208A (en) * 1969-11-03 1971-11-16 Atomic Energy Commission Ekg amplifying electrode pickup
US3826246A (en) * 1973-03-07 1974-07-30 Esb Inc Apparatus for sensing physiological potentials

Cited By (44)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4120294A (en) * 1976-08-26 1978-10-17 Wolfe Donna L Electrode system for acquiring electrical signals from the heart
US4112930A (en) * 1976-12-27 1978-09-12 Electronics For Medicine, Inc. Apparatus and method for ecg baseline shift detecting
US4170227A (en) * 1976-12-27 1979-10-09 Electronics For Medicine, Inc. Apparatus and method for ECG baseline shift detecting
FR2374878A1 (en) * 1976-12-27 1978-07-21 Electronics Med An apparatus for detecting the shift of the base line of an electrocardiogram signal
US4122843A (en) * 1977-08-10 1978-10-31 Electro-Technics, Inc. Electrode system for a heart rate monitor
US4261371A (en) * 1978-01-18 1981-04-14 Reading Iii William H Method and apparatus for determining ovulation in female mammalia
US4324257A (en) * 1978-02-20 1982-04-13 U.S. Philips Corporation Device for the transcutaneous measurement of the partial oxygen pressure in blood
FR2429005A1 (en) * 1978-06-22 1980-01-18 Electronics Med An apparatus and method for detection of the mean value of displacements electrocardiogram
US4194511A (en) * 1978-08-18 1980-03-25 Electronics For Medicine, Inc. Detecting capacitively coupled ECG baseline shift
EP0021394A1 (en) * 1979-06-29 1981-01-07 International Business Machines Corporation Interelectrode impedance measuring apparatus for electrocardiography
US4628939A (en) * 1980-09-11 1986-12-16 Hughes Aircraft Company Method and improved apparatus for analyzing heart activity
US4444200A (en) * 1981-09-04 1984-04-24 Senoh Kabushiki Kaisha Heart pulse rate measuring system
AT391798B (en) * 1988-02-05 1990-11-26 Pfuetzner Helmut Dr Apparatus for joint determination of the electrical media impedance and contact-zone impedance of electrolytically conductive systems
WO1992007509A1 (en) * 1990-10-26 1992-05-14 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method and apparatus for imaging electrical activity in a biologocal system
US5146926A (en) * 1990-10-26 1992-09-15 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method and apparatus for imaging electrical activity in a biological system
US5237995A (en) * 1991-03-26 1993-08-24 Allegheny-Singer Research Institute Concentric electrode for use in detecting low level bioelectric signals
US5713367A (en) * 1994-01-26 1998-02-03 Cambridge Heart, Inc. Measuring and assessing cardiac electrical stability
US5724984A (en) * 1995-01-26 1998-03-10 Cambridge Heart, Inc. Multi-segment ECG electrode and system
US5632280A (en) * 1995-03-03 1997-05-27 Heartstream, Inc. Method for circuit fault detection in differential signal detectors
US5650750A (en) * 1995-03-03 1997-07-22 Heartstream, Inc. Common mode signal and circuit fault detection in differential signal detectors
US5902249A (en) * 1995-03-03 1999-05-11 Heartstream, Inc. Method and apparatus for detecting artifacts using common-mode signals in differential signal detectors
US9089718B2 (en) 1997-03-07 2015-07-28 Cardiac Science Corporation Defibrillation system
US6148233A (en) * 1997-03-07 2000-11-14 Cardiac Science, Inc. Defibrillation system having segmented electrodes
US6073039A (en) * 1997-11-07 2000-06-06 The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health And Human Services Device and method for real-time monitoring of an electrocardiogram during magnetic resonance imaging
WO1999038437A1 (en) 1998-01-30 1999-08-05 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. System and method for enhancing and separating biopotential signals
US6327486B1 (en) * 1998-06-22 2001-12-04 Polar Electro Oy Screen
US6600942B2 (en) * 1998-06-22 2003-07-29 Polar Electro Oy Screen
US6287328B1 (en) 1999-04-08 2001-09-11 Agilent Technologies, Inc. Multivariable artifact assessment
US6510333B1 (en) 2000-05-16 2003-01-21 Mark J. Licata Sensor for biopotential measurements
US7039455B1 (en) 2001-10-09 2006-05-02 Medrad, Inc. Apparatus and method for removing magnetic resonance imaging-induced noise from ECG signals
US20070066876A1 (en) * 2003-10-17 2007-03-22 Hallin Rolf G Multielectrode
US7738939B2 (en) * 2003-10-17 2010-06-15 Uppsala Lakarkonsult Ab Multielectrode
US8201327B2 (en) 2003-10-17 2012-06-19 Uppsala Lakarkonsult Ab Multielectrode
US20100212155A1 (en) * 2003-10-17 2010-08-26 Uppsala Lakarkonsult Ab Multielectrode
US20060025666A1 (en) * 2004-06-10 2006-02-02 Kinesense, Inc. "Bulls-eye" surface electromyographic electrode assembly
US20090247858A1 (en) * 2004-06-10 2009-10-01 Kinesense, Inc. "bulls-eye" surface electromyographic electrode assembly
US20140081099A1 (en) * 2006-09-07 2014-03-20 Sotera Wireless, Inc. Hand-held vital signs monitor
US10136827B2 (en) 2006-09-07 2018-11-27 Sotera Wireless, Inc. Hand-held vital signs monitor
US20100256474A1 (en) * 2007-10-09 2010-10-07 Wireless Patient Recording Medical As Device for an Electrode Part for a Wireless Biopotential Measurement Unit
AU2008311471B2 (en) * 2007-10-09 2012-03-15 Wireless Patient Recording Medical As Electrode part comprising interference shielding for a wireless biopotential measurement unit
WO2009048334A1 (en) 2007-10-09 2009-04-16 Wireless Patient Recording Medical As Electrode part comprising interference shielding for a wireless biopotential measurement unit
US8311603B2 (en) 2007-10-09 2012-11-13 Wireless Patient Recording Medical As Device for an electrode part for a wireless biopotential measurement unit
US9445740B1 (en) * 2013-06-28 2016-09-20 West Affum Holdings Corp. Patient signal sensing device
US20170188864A1 (en) * 2016-01-06 2017-07-06 Healmet, Inc. Spherical handheld biosensor array device for physiological status monitoring

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3500823A (en) Electrocardiographic and bioelectric capacitive electrode
Venables et al. On the measurement of the level of skin potential
Burke et al. A micropower dry-electrode ECG preamplifier
Myers et al. Normal variations in multiple precordial leads
US3610229A (en) Electrocardiograph electrodes with conductive jelly supply means
KR910005914B1 (en) Electrode fixed and stabilised by vacuum
Spach et al. Skin-electrode impedance and its effect on recording cardiac potentials
Neuman Biopotential amplifiers
SAMSON et al. Mechanism of ST segment alteration during acute myocardial injury
Chi et al. Wireless non-contact EEG/ECG electrodes for body sensor networks
US8615283B2 (en) Biomedical electrode system and method for detecting localized electrical signals and providing electrical stimulation
US6961601B2 (en) Sensor system for measuring biopotentials
EP0617915A1 (en) ECG diagnostic pad
Nagel Biopotential amplifiers
US7136693B2 (en) Method and apparatus for generating a twelve-lead ECG from fewer than ten electrodes
US3753433A (en) Electroencephalophone and feedback system
JP4587008B2 (en) Standard 12-lead ECG construction method and electrocardiography devices
Ishijima Monitoring of electrocardiograms in bed without utilizing body surface electrodes
US3565060A (en) Biopotential sensor employing integrated circuitry
US5307818A (en) Wireless electrocardiographic and monitoring system and wireless electrode assemblies for same
US4318412A (en) Arrangement for cardiac electrode implementation
Elble et al. Mechanistic components of normal hand tremor
Sutter et al. The optic nerve head component of the human ERG
US6839587B2 (en) Electrocardiograph leads-off indicator
US4344440A (en) Microprobe for monitoring biophysical phenomena associated with cardiac and neural activity