US3868762A - Method of joining wire or rods of compound material with aluminum core and copper casing - Google Patents

Method of joining wire or rods of compound material with aluminum core and copper casing Download PDF

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US3868762A
US3868762A US21751272A US3868762A US 3868762 A US3868762 A US 3868762A US 21751272 A US21751272 A US 21751272A US 3868762 A US3868762 A US 3868762A
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Prior art keywords
wire
part
casing
female
male
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Expired - Lifetime
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Jan Nilsson
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ALMANNA SVENSKA ELEKTRISKA AB
ASEA AB
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ASEA AB
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21FWORKING OR PROCESSING OF METAL WIRE
    • B21F15/00Connecting wire to wire or other metallic material or objects; Connecting parts by means of wire
    • B21F15/02Connecting wire to wire or other metallic material or objects; Connecting parts by means of wire wire with wire
    • B21F15/06Connecting wire to wire or other metallic material or objects; Connecting parts by means of wire wire with wire with additional connecting elements or material
    • B21F15/08Connecting wire to wire or other metallic material or objects; Connecting parts by means of wire wire with wire with additional connecting elements or material making use of soldering or welding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21FWORKING OR PROCESSING OF METAL WIRE
    • B21F15/00Connecting wire to wire or other metallic material or objects; Connecting parts by means of wire
    • B21F15/02Connecting wire to wire or other metallic material or objects; Connecting parts by means of wire wire with wire
    • B21F15/04Connecting wire to wire or other metallic material or objects; Connecting parts by means of wire wire with wire without additional connecting elements or material, e.g. by twisting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K20/00Non-electric welding by applying impact or other pressure, with or without the application of heat, e.g. cladding or plating
    • B23K20/06Non-electric welding by applying impact or other pressure, with or without the application of heat, e.g. cladding or plating by means of high energy impulses, e.g. magnetic energy
    • B23K20/08Explosive welding
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49002Electrical device making
    • Y10T29/49117Conductor or circuit manufacturing
    • Y10T29/49194Assembling elongated conductors, e.g., splicing, etc.
    • Y10T29/49195Assembling elongated conductors, e.g., splicing, etc. with end-to-end orienting

Abstract

For joining wire of compound material having a core of aluminum and a casing of copper, the ends to be joined are shaped to form male and female parts, the male part is inserted in the female part, and a sleeve of explosive is applied around the joint and detonated so that the core and casing are joined in one operation by explosion welding.

Description

United States Patent 1 1' 3,868,762

Nilsson Mar. 4, 1975 METHOD OF JOINING WIRE 0R RODS 0F 3,263,323 8/1966 Maher et a1. 29/421 x COMPOUND MATERIAL WITH ALUMINUM 3,223,831; 3/1323 fiordokg ..l 537238.; 52

, yser 0 et a O AND COPPER CASING 3,535,767 lO/l970 Doherty, Jr. et al 29/4975 X [75] Inventor: Jan Nilsson, Robertsfors, Sweden 3,563,713 2/1971 Rudd 29/4701 UX 3.612.748 5/1971 James 102/28 X [73] Asslgneef svenska Elektl'lska 3,684,820 8/1972 Johnsen 29/628 x Aktrebolaget, Vasteras, Sweden [22] Filed: Jan. 13, 1972 0 Primary E.t'aminerJ. Spencer verholser [21] Appl 217512 Asxislan! l;'.\'aminer-Ronald J. Shore [30] Foreign Application Priority Data Jan. 29, 1971 Sweden 1073/71 [57] ABSTRACT Mar. 11, 1971 Sweden 3106/71 For joining wire of compound material having a core [52] US. Cl. 29/470.1, 29/628 of aluminum and a casing f copper, the ends to be [51] Int. Cl 823k 21/00 joined are shaped to rm mal and ale parts, th [58] Field of Search 29/421 E, 4701, 486, 4975, male part is inserted in the female part. and a sleeve of 29/623 explosive is applied around the joint and detonated so that the core and easing are joined in one operation by [56] References Cited explosion Welding 1 UNITED STATES PATENTS I I 2,367,206 I l/l945 Davis 29/421 9 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures 70 26 7b 20 lo [Ill/l ////l/Il/l/I/' III/I/U I/ PATENTED 41975 3,868,762

sum 1 mi 3 I I I I/I/ Fig.3

WWW/W777? METHOD OF JOINING WIRE OR RODS OF COMPOUND MATERIAL WITH ALUMINUM CORE AND COPPER CASING BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The invention relates to the joining of wire or rods of compound material with an aluminium core and a copper casing.

2. The Prior Art Hydrostatic extrusion straight down to the desired final dimensions is uneconomical with very thin wire since the permissible cylinder pressure limits the extrusion ratio. The upper limit when extruding compound wire having an aluminium core and copper casing is less than 2,000, usually less than 1,000. The extrusion ratio possible decreases with increasing copper content. Thus, the extrusion ratio which can be achieved limits the weight of the billet. For high production and good economy in a press for hydrostatic extrusion the extruded wire must have a diameter of at least mm. A diameter of 6 10 mm has been found to be extremely suitable for copper-aluminium wire. Lengths of l,000 m and more can be obtained from one billet. The wire obtained can be machined by drawing to the desired dimension. When the extruded wire is drawn to a diameter of 0.4 mm, about 250,000 metres of wire are obtained from a single billet, which is more than enough for most purposes. However, lengths of 1,000 m are unsatisfactory as starting lengths for drawing in a drawing machine, since in principle drawing is a continuous method which requires enormous starting lengths if the production costs are to be kept low. A number of extruded lengths of wire must therefore be joined together in order to acquire lengths which can be economically drawn. It has been found extremely difficult to join compound wire having an aluminium core and copper casing, however, in such a way that it can be drawn. Most welding methods involve such alterations in the material at and around the joint that the wire breaks during the drawing process. One of the main reasons for this is that hard and brittle alloys are formed in the boundary layer between the casing and the core when the wire is heated. This alteration, which also causes hardness and greater brittleness at the joint, causes complications when drawing the wire to smaller dimensions. The drawing resistance alters when the joint passes a drawing plate and this may give rise to jerks so that the wire breaks. The brittle boundary layer may also be broken during the drawing so that the copper casing separates from the aluminium core and flakes off during the drawing process.

By joining the wire by means of pressure welding and removing the bulge the problem of hard compounds has been solved, but unfortunately a joint is obtained which has no casing. This type ofjoint also causes problems during drawing. Furthermore, the wire at the joint has other properties and a different appearance from the rest of the wire. In order to obtain a compound wire with uniform properties the joint has been provided with a new casing by joining a sleeve with the core and with the casings on either side of the joint by means of blast welding.

Compound wire having a core of aluminium and a casing of copper has also be joined by exposing the core at the joint and welding together the cores of the two wires, for example by means of electron-beam 2 welding, and then applying a casing over the joint by means of blast welding a sleeve or parts of the casing which was removed from the core and bent back so that the cores were accessible for welding.

By explosion welding is meant a welding method in which a material is influenced by a pressure wave and thus pressed against another material with such force that the two materials become metallically bonded.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a method ofjoining wire of compound material having a core of aluminium and a casing of copper. According to the invention, the wire ends to be joined are shaped to form male and female parts, the male part is inserted in the female part, and a sleeve of explosive is applied around the joint and detonated so that the core and casing are joined in one operation by blast welding. The core angle of the female part may be greater than that of the male part, so that the wall of the female part deviates from theopposed wall of the male part. Likewise, the female part may be formed by longitudinal deformation of the wire followed by the formation of a conical recess in the deformed part.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The invention will be further described with reference to the accompanying drawings;

FIG. 1 shows two wire ends shaped as a male and a female part;

FIG. 2 the same wire ends brought together for joining and surrounded by a sleeve of explosive;

FIG. 3 a wire end clamped in a tool for axial upsetting of the wire end;

FIG. 4 the same wire end after having been upset under the influence of an axial force;

FIG. 5 the upset wire end shaped to a female part;

FIGFSa an alternative design of the outermost part of the female part;

FIG. 6 another alternative design for the ends of the wire to be joined.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS In the drawings, 1a and 1b designate the core and 2a and 2b the casing in two wires or rods which are to be joined. The lefthand wire end is shaped as a male part with a conical point 3 with a cone angle a, the righthand wire end as a female part with a double conical recess 4 with a cone angle a in the core and a cone angle [3 in the casing. Since the recess is in the form of a double cone with the angle a B the area A of the conical surface 5 will be greater than the area B of the conical surface 6. The casing 2a will therefore overlap the casing 2b at the joint. The conical recess 4 is expanded so that a gap 7'is formed when the ends of the wires are fitted together, the size of this gap increasing with the distance from the centre of the wire. A sleeve 8 of explosive is fitted around the joint with an annular firing mechanism 9 connected to a release means, not shown, by means of a cable 10. It may be advisable to upset the ends of the wires axially so that their diameter increases as much as the diameter decreases due to the blast force during the explosion jointing. When the explosive. sleeve is triggered the wire is subjected to a pressure wave moving to the left which forces the material lla and 2a in the female part with considerable force against the material 1b and 2b in the cone 3 in the male part. During the actual joining process the ends of the wire are fixed in relation to each other in a fixture, not shown. Any upset which may be formed at the joint by the casing 1a overlapping the casing 1b should be removed before the wire is drawn to smaller diameter in the drawing plates. When the recess 4 is expanded so that the cone angle is greater than the cone angle a of the male part in order to produce the gap 7 when the wire ends are fitted together, the outermost bevelled part of the copper casing may crack or be stretched differently at different parts of the circumference. An alternative process which avoids this drawback is shown in FIGS. 3 5. By upsetting the wire end which is to form the female part in a tool having two clamps 11 which fix the end of the wire axially, it can be given such a shape that the conical recess 4 can be given the desired cone angle without the previously mentioned expansion. The wire end a is inserted in the clamps 11 which provide a substantially conical opening. A tool, not shown, affects the wire end 12 with a force P so that the wire end a is axially upset and thus deformed to the shape determined by the tool clamps 11, as shown in FIG. 4. The outer part 13 which has not been completely in contact with the tool clamps 11 must be removed. The wire end is cut along a line 14. The conical recess can be shaped in various ways. The most simple design is shown in FIG. where the recess 4 is completely conical. Another design is shown in FIG. 5a where the recess 4 has a smaller cone angle in the outer part, the copper casing 2a, than in the inner part, the aluminium core 1a. This means than the conical copper surface 5 in the female part is wider than the conical copper surface 6 of the male part. The widths are A and B, respectively. This means that the surface 5 will completely cover the surface 6 at the joint.

In the alternative method according to FIG. 6, the diameter of the wire end b is reduced before it is provided with a conical point. It is then possible to eliminate the expansion of the wire end a and in spite of this acquire a satisfactory connection between the casings 1b and 2b. Furthermore, it has been found that the explosion gases damage the surface of the casing 2b at the side of the joint less in this embodiment than in the other embodiments. The gap 7 has substantially the same width along the entire length of the joint. The

male part is provided with a guide point 16 which positions it both radially and axially in the female part and determines the size of the gap 7.

I claim:

1. Method ofjoining wire of compound material having a core of aluminium and a casing of copper, which comprises shaping two ends of said wire to be joined to form male and female parts, inserting the male part so far in the female part that the inner surface of the casing of the female part partly covers the unpointed, unshaped part of the casing of the male part, applying a sleeve of explosive around the joint and detonating it so that the core and casing of one wire end are joined to the core and casing of the other wire end in one operation by means of explosion welding.

2. Method according to claim 1, in which a gap is formed between the two wire ends when they are brought together.

3. Method according to claim 2, in which the shaping comprisesshaping the male and female parts differently so that the gap formed between the two wire ends, which are brought together, increases towards the periphery of the wire.

4. Method according to claim 1, in which the shaping comprises shaping the male part with a conical point and the female part with a conical recess.

5. Method according to claim 4, in which the shaping comprises expanding the conical recess of the female part with a cone angle less acute than that of the male part.

6. Method according to claim 5, in which the shaping comprises shaping the female part with a conical recess which at the outer portion defined by the casing has a smallercone angle than the inner portion.

7. Method according to claim 4, in which the shaping comprises upsetting the wire end which is to form the female part to conical form, and thereafter providing it with a conical recess.

8. Method according to claim 4, in which the shaping comprises machining the wire end which is to form the male part to a smaller diameter and providing it with a conical point.

9. Method according to claim 1, which comprises upsetting the wire ends axially to greater diameter before shaping them to male and female parts.

Claims (9)

1. METHOD OF JOINING WIRE OF COMPOUND MATERIAL HAVING A CORE OF ALUMINUM AND A CASING OF COPPER, WHICH COMPRISES SHAPING TWO ENDS OF SAID WIRE TO JOINED TO FORM MALE AND FEMALE PARTS, INSERTING THE MALE PART SO FAR IN THE FEMALE PART THAT THE INNER SURFACE OF THE CASING OF THE FEMALE PART PARTLY COVERS THE UNPOINTED, UNSHAPED PART OF THE CASING OF THE MALE PART, APPLYING A SLEEVE OF EXPLOSIVE AROUND THE JOINT AND DETONATING IT SO THAT THE CORE AND CASING OF ONE WIRE END ARE JOINED TO THE CORE AND CASING OF THE OTHER WIRE END IN ONE OPERATION BY MEANS OF EXPLOSION WELDING.
2. Method according to claim 1, in which a gap is formed between the two wire ends when they are brought together.
3. Method according to claim 2, in which the shaping comprises shaping the male and female parts differently so that the gap formed between the two wire ends, which are brought together, increases towards the periphery of the wire.
4. Method according to claim 1, in which the shaping comprises shaping the male part with a conical point and the female part with a conical recess.
5. Method according to claim 4, in which the shaping comprises expanding the conical recess of the female part with a cone angle less acute than that of the male part.
6. Method according to claim 5, in which the shaping comprises shaping the female part with a conical recess which at the outer portion defined by the casing has a smaller cone angle than the inner portion.
7. Method according to claim 4, in which the shaping comprises upsetting the wire end which is to form the female part to conical form, and thereafter providing it with a conical recess.
8. Method according to claim 4, in which the shaping comprises machining the wire end which is to form the male part to a smaller diameter and providing it with a conical point.
9. Method according to claim 1, which comprises upsetting the wire ends axially to greater diameter before shaping them to male and female parts.
US3868762A 1971-01-29 1972-01-13 Method of joining wire or rods of compound material with aluminum core and copper casing Expired - Lifetime US3868762A (en)

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SE310671 1971-03-11

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4057187A (en) * 1974-11-27 1977-11-08 Western Electric Company, Inc. Joining wire-like members
US4231506A (en) * 1979-05-21 1980-11-04 Canadian Industries Limited Method of welding metal pipe sections with explosives
US4807795A (en) * 1985-07-05 1989-02-28 General Dynamics Pomona Division Method of making a bimetallic shaped-charge liner
US6481069B1 (en) * 2000-10-17 2002-11-19 Howard Cheng Bracelet connector
US20100015369A1 (en) * 2006-06-07 2010-01-21 Hydro Aluminium Deutschland Gmbh Method for producing a container from aluminum sheets
US20100051174A1 (en) * 2008-09-01 2010-03-04 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Connection method of thermoplastic resin long body
US20110206943A1 (en) * 2010-02-25 2011-08-25 Technical Materials Inc. Methods for creating side-by-side metallic bonds between different materials using solid-phase bonding and the products produced thereby

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2367206A (en) * 1942-03-11 1945-01-16 Du Pont Method of joining objects
US3263323A (en) * 1965-10-21 1966-08-02 United Aircraft Corp Fabrication of a continuous peripheral joint
US3455017A (en) * 1967-01-27 1969-07-15 Horst H Lemet Chromium Van Der Method for welding together tubular construction parts and tubular construction parts so welded
US3520049A (en) * 1965-10-14 1970-07-14 Dmitry Nikolaevich Lysenko Method of pressure welding
US3535767A (en) * 1965-08-19 1970-10-27 Aerojet General Co Method for joining metallic tubes by explosive bonding
US3563713A (en) * 1968-02-29 1971-02-16 Amf Inc Explosive welding
US3612748A (en) * 1969-05-21 1971-10-12 Ideal Ind Explosion connector
US3684820A (en) * 1969-12-02 1972-08-15 Raufoss Ammunisjonsfabrikker Joints for high tension lines, cables and the like

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2367206A (en) * 1942-03-11 1945-01-16 Du Pont Method of joining objects
US3535767A (en) * 1965-08-19 1970-10-27 Aerojet General Co Method for joining metallic tubes by explosive bonding
US3520049A (en) * 1965-10-14 1970-07-14 Dmitry Nikolaevich Lysenko Method of pressure welding
US3263323A (en) * 1965-10-21 1966-08-02 United Aircraft Corp Fabrication of a continuous peripheral joint
US3455017A (en) * 1967-01-27 1969-07-15 Horst H Lemet Chromium Van Der Method for welding together tubular construction parts and tubular construction parts so welded
US3563713A (en) * 1968-02-29 1971-02-16 Amf Inc Explosive welding
US3612748A (en) * 1969-05-21 1971-10-12 Ideal Ind Explosion connector
US3684820A (en) * 1969-12-02 1972-08-15 Raufoss Ammunisjonsfabrikker Joints for high tension lines, cables and the like

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4057187A (en) * 1974-11-27 1977-11-08 Western Electric Company, Inc. Joining wire-like members
US4231506A (en) * 1979-05-21 1980-11-04 Canadian Industries Limited Method of welding metal pipe sections with explosives
US4807795A (en) * 1985-07-05 1989-02-28 General Dynamics Pomona Division Method of making a bimetallic shaped-charge liner
US6481069B1 (en) * 2000-10-17 2002-11-19 Howard Cheng Bracelet connector
US20100015369A1 (en) * 2006-06-07 2010-01-21 Hydro Aluminium Deutschland Gmbh Method for producing a container from aluminum sheets
US20100051174A1 (en) * 2008-09-01 2010-03-04 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Connection method of thermoplastic resin long body
US8038818B2 (en) * 2008-09-01 2011-10-18 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Connection method of thermoplastic resin long body
US20110206943A1 (en) * 2010-02-25 2011-08-25 Technical Materials Inc. Methods for creating side-by-side metallic bonds between different materials using solid-phase bonding and the products produced thereby
WO2011106074A1 (en) * 2010-02-25 2011-09-01 Technical Materials, Inc. Methods for creating side-by-side metallic bonds between different materials using solid-phase bonding and the products produced thereby
CN102883848A (en) * 2010-02-25 2013-01-16 技术材料公司 Methods for creating side-by-side metallic bonds between different materials using solid-phase bonding and the products produced thereby
US8999081B2 (en) 2010-02-25 2015-04-07 Technical Materials Inc. Methods for creating side-by-side metallic bonds between different materials using solid-phase bonding and the products produced thereby

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