US3865678A - Suede-like raised woven fabric and process for the preparation thereof - Google Patents

Suede-like raised woven fabric and process for the preparation thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
US3865678A
US3865678A US33896273A US3865678A US 3865678 A US3865678 A US 3865678A US 33896273 A US33896273 A US 33896273A US 3865678 A US3865678 A US 3865678A
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Prior art keywords
woven fabric
raised
process
according
preparation
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Expired - Lifetime
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Miyoshi Okamoto
Shusuke Yoshida
Tadashi Imai
Tatsuo Watanabe
Shinzo Nishikaku
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Toray Industries Inc
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Toray Industries Inc
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06NWALL, FLOOR OR LIKE COVERING MATERIALS, e.g. LINOLEUM, OILCLOTH, ARTIFICIAL LEATHER, ROOFING FELT, CONSISTING OF A FIBROUS WEB COATED WITH A LAYER OF MACROMOLECULAR MATERIAL; FLEXIBLE SHEET MATERIAL NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06N3/00Artificial leather, oilcloth or other material obtained by covering fibrous webs with macromolecular material, e.g. resins, rubber or derivatives thereof
    • D06N3/0002Artificial leather, oilcloth or other material obtained by covering fibrous webs with macromolecular material, e.g. resins, rubber or derivatives thereof characterised by the substrate
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D15/00Woven fabrics characterised by the material or construction of the yarn or other warp or weft elements used
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D15/00Woven fabrics characterised by the material or construction of the yarn or other warp or weft elements used
    • D03D15/0061Woven fabrics characterised by the material or construction of the yarn or other warp or weft elements used using threads with microdenier fibers
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS, OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M15/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M15/19Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment with synthetic macromolecular compounds
    • D06M15/37Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D06M15/564Polyureas, polyurethanes or other polymers having ureide or urethane links; Precondensation products forming them
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D2700/00Woven fabrics; Methods of weaving; Looms
    • D03D2700/01Woven fabrics; General weaving methods
    • D03D2700/0133Woven fabrics; General weaving methods characterised by the material of warp or weft
    • D03D2700/0137Combination of different materials
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2321/00Fibres made from polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D10B2321/02Fibres made from polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds polyolefins
    • D10B2321/021Fibres made from polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds polyolefins polyethylene
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2321/00Fibres made from polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D10B2321/02Fibres made from polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds polyolefins
    • D10B2321/022Fibres made from polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds polyolefins polypropylene
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2321/00Fibres made from polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D10B2321/12Fibres made from polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds polymers of cyclic compounds with one carbon-to-carbon double bond in the side chain
    • D10B2321/121Fibres made from polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds polymers of cyclic compounds with one carbon-to-carbon double bond in the side chain polystyrene
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2331/00Fibres made from polymers obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, e.g. polycondensation products
    • D10B2331/02Fibres made from polymers obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, e.g. polycondensation products polyamides
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2331/00Fibres made from polymers obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, e.g. polycondensation products
    • D10B2331/04Fibres made from polymers obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, e.g. polycondensation products polyesters, e.g. polyethylene terephthalate [PET]
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2501/00Wearing apparel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10S428/904Artificial leather
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/23907Pile or nap type surface or component
    • Y10T428/2395Nap type surface
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/23907Pile or nap type surface or component
    • Y10T428/23986With coating, impregnation, or bond
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24355Continuous and nonuniform or irregular surface on layer or component [e.g., roofing, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24438Artificial wood or leather grain surface
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/29Coated or structually defined flake, particle, cell, strand, strand portion, rod, filament, macroscopic fiber or mass thereof
    • Y10T428/2913Rod, strand, filament or fiber
    • Y10T428/2922Nonlinear [e.g., crimped, coiled, etc.]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/29Coated or structually defined flake, particle, cell, strand, strand portion, rod, filament, macroscopic fiber or mass thereof
    • Y10T428/2913Rod, strand, filament or fiber
    • Y10T428/2933Coated or with bond, impregnation or core

Abstract

A suede-like raised woven fabric having raised fibers on the surface thereof; consisting mainly of a yarn or thread which consists of a bundle of extra-fine fibers (the monofilament denier of which is 0.0001 - 0.4 d). The preparation of the fabric comprises weaving, using as weft said yarn and using as warp a yarn having a coil-like crimp or a coil-like potential crimp capacity, in the organization of the woven fabric except for the raised portion, which consists of an elastic polymer dispersed and adhered in a fibrous state, and/or as fine pieces of film throughout the said fabric. Said fabric has a high density of suede-like naps, has excellent pilling resistance and, wrinkle resistance, feel, and is suitable for apparel.

Claims (59)

1. A SUEDE-LIKE RAISED WOVEN FABRIC WHICH COMPRISES RAISED FIBERS COVERING THE SURFACE OF SAID FABRIC AND AN ELASTIC POLYMER IMPREGNATED THROUGHOUT SAID FABRIC, WHEREIN SAID FABRIC IS WOVEN AND COMPRISES WARP AND WEFT YARNS, THE WEFT OF SAID FABRIC BEING A YARN CONSISTING OF A BUNDLE OF EXTRA FINE FIBERS, THE MONO-FILAMENT DIENER OF WHICH IS 0.0001-0.4 DENIER, THE WARPS OF SAID FABRIC ARE YARNS HAVING A COIL-LIKE CRIMP CAPACITY, THE TOTAL DENIER OF SAID WARP YARN BEING 50-300 DENIER, AND AID RAISED FIBERS CONSISTING MAINLY OF SAID EXTRA FINE FIBERS WHICH CONSTITUTE SAID WEFT OF SAID FABRIC.
2. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 wherein said weft yarn is a thread.
2. raising the surface of said woven fabric;
2. removing the sea component from said weft;
3. impregnating throughout said fabric a solution of an elastic polymer in the obtained fabric;
3. impregnating a solution of an elastic polymer in said woven fabric throughout said fabric;
3. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 wherein said warp yarn having coil-like crimp capacity has a coil-like crimp.
4. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 wherein said elastic polymer exists as a plurality of fine pieces of film in said fabric.
4. drying to solidify said elastic polymer; and
4. drying to solidify said elastic polymer;
5. subjecting the surface of the obtained sheet to napping; and
5. removing the sea component of said weft.
5. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 wherein said elastic polymer exists in a fibrous state in said fabric.
6. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 wherein said elastic polymer exists in a dotted state in said fabric.
6. developing the crimp at least once after said step of removing the sea component.
7. The raised wovEn fabric according to claim 1 wherein said weft is a spun yarn consisting of said bundle of extra fine fibers.
8. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 wherein said weft is a spun thread consisting of said bundle of extra fine fibers.
9. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 wherein said warp is a false twisted processed yarn the mono-filament denier of which is 1- 10 deniers.
10. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 wherein said warp is a composite crimped yarn the mono-filament denier of which is 1- 10 deniers.
11. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 wherein said warp is a composite crimp thread the mono-filament of which is 1-10 deniers.
12. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 wherein said weft is a single spun yarn having a size of 70- 3,000 deniers.
13. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 wherein said weft is a twin spun yarn having a size of 70- 3,000 deniers.
14. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 wherein said weft is a triple spun yarn having a size of 70- 3,000 deniers.
15. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 which satisfies the dual relationship: 30 > or = y > 1.4 and U 1 - 7; wherein Y is the denier ratio of the weft to the warp and U is the number of floating wefts on the surface of said fabric.
16. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 which satisfies the dual relationship: 1.4 > or = Y > 0.75 and U 3 - 12; wherein Y is the denier ratio of the weft to the warp and U is the number of floating wefts on the surface of said fabric.
17. The raised fabric according to claim 1 wherein said fabric is a 4-ply satin.
18. The raised woven fabric according to claim 1 wherein said fabric is a 5-ply satin.
19. A process for the preparation of a suede-like raised woven fabric which comprises the following steps:
20. The process according to claim 19 wherein said weft yarn is a thread.
21. The process according to claim 19 wherein said sea component is a mix spun fiber.
22. The process according to claim 19 wherein said warp yarn having coil-like crimp capacity has coil-like crimp.
23. The process according to claim 19 wherein the impregnated solution of step 3 is an emulsion and its main medium is water.
24. The process according to claim 19 wherein the drying of step 4 is accomplished by wet coagulation.
25. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 19 wherein said yarn capable of developing crimp is a potentially crimped composite fiber and said fabric is heated to develop crimp at least before imparting said elastic polymer to said fabric.
26. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 25 wherein said development of crimp is effected at the same time with dyeing of said fabric.
27. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 19 wherein said woven fabric is raised before removal of said sea component of said weft.
28. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 19 wherein said woven fabric is raised after removal of said sea component of said weft.
29. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 19 wherein removal of said sea component of said weft is effected by immersing said woven fabric in a solvent for said sea component.
30. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 19 wherein the concentration of said solution of said elastic polymer is 1- 9% by weight.
31. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 23 wherein the concentration of said emulsion of said elastic polymer is 1- 9% by weight.
32. A process for the preparation of a suede-like raised woven fabric which comprises the following steps:
33. The process according to claim 32 wherein said weft yarn is a thread.
34. The process according to claim 32 wherein said sea component is a mix spun fiber.
35. The process according to claim 32 wherein said warp yarn having coil-like crimp capacity has a coil-like crimp.
36. The process according to claim 32 wherein the impregnated solution of step 3 is an emulsion and its main medium is water.
37. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 32 wherein said yarn capable of developing a coil-like crimp is a potentially crimped composite fiber and said woven fabric is heated at least before said elastic polymer is imparted to said woven fabric to develop said crimp.
38. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 37 wherein said development of crimp is effected at the same time with dyeing of said woven fabric.
39. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 32 wherein said woven fabric is raised before removal of said sea component.
40. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 32 wherein said woven fabric is raised after removal of said sea component.
41. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 32 wherein removal of said sea component of said weft is effected by immersing said woven fabric in a solvent for said sea component.
42. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 32 wherein the concentration of said solution of said elastic polymer is 1- 9% by weight.
43. The process according to claim 42 wherein said solution is an emulsion.
44. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 19 wherein said warp is a false twisted processed yarn.
45. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 32 wherein said warp is a false twisted processed yarn.
46. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 26 wherein the opposite surface of the surface subjected to napping is singed before dyeing of said fabric.
47. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 26 wherein the opposite surface of the surface subjected to napping is buffed before dyeing of said fabric.
48. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 26 wherein the opposite surface of the surface subjected to napping is singed after dyeing of said fabric.
49. The process for the preparation of a raised woven fabric according to claim 26 wherein the opposite surface of the surface subjected to napping is buffed after dyeing of said fabric.
50. The process according to claim 32 wherein the solidification of step 4 is accomplished by wet coagulation.
US3865678B1 1972-03-07 1973-03-07 Expired - Lifetime US3865678B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2276672A JPS5428500B2 (en) 1972-03-07 1972-03-07
JP4090172A JPS5013879B2 (en) 1972-04-25 1972-04-25

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US3865678A true US3865678A (en) 1975-02-11
US3865678B1 US3865678B1 (en) 1982-10-19

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FR (1) FR2175017B1 (en)
GB (1) GB1397471A (en)

Cited By (54)

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DE2654128A1 (en) * 1976-06-17 1977-12-22 Toray Industries textile product A suede-like and process for its manufacture
US4109038A (en) * 1977-03-17 1978-08-22 Teijin Limited Suede-like raised woven fabric and process for the preparation thereof
DE2831601A1 (en) * 1977-07-25 1979-02-08 Asahi Chemical Ind Textile pile fabric with a pile surface made of extremely fine acrylic polymer fibers and methods for their production
DE2830836A1 (en) * 1977-08-03 1979-02-15 Teijin Ltd A method for manufacturing a suede-like fabric
US4232073A (en) * 1976-06-17 1980-11-04 Toray Industries, Inc. Fibrous sheet materials resembling a deer skin and process for preparing same
US4234022A (en) * 1977-12-09 1980-11-18 Toray Industries, Inc. Woven fabric
US4241122A (en) * 1978-10-31 1980-12-23 Kanebo, Ltd. Artificial leather having chinchilla-like appearance and natural suede-like feeling and a method for producing the same
US4318949A (en) * 1976-09-16 1982-03-09 Toray Industries, Inc. Composite nap sheet and process for preparing the same
US4331724A (en) * 1978-05-22 1982-05-25 Milliken Research Corporation Fibrillated polyester textile materials
US4333976A (en) * 1978-03-15 1982-06-08 Toray Industries, Incorporated Composite woven or knitted fabric
US4381274A (en) * 1978-01-25 1983-04-26 Akzona Incorporated Process for the production of a multicomponent yarn composed of at least two synthetic polymer components
DE2947103C1 (en) * 1978-04-13 1983-10-20 Teijin Ltd., Osaka, Jp
US4574018A (en) * 1983-01-07 1986-03-04 Toray Industries, Inc. Pile fabric production process
US4661260A (en) * 1983-06-24 1987-04-28 Toray Industries, Inc. Endotoxin detoxifying process
US5416958A (en) * 1992-01-21 1995-05-23 Basf Corporation Easy nap textile fabric and process for making
US5637385A (en) * 1994-02-07 1997-06-10 Toray Industries, Inc. High-strength ultra-fine fiber construction, method for producing the same and high-strength conjugate fiber
US5860613A (en) * 1993-05-10 1999-01-19 Milliken Research Corporation Film cartridge
US6306498B1 (en) * 1997-12-22 2001-10-23 Asahi Kasei Kabushiki Kaisha Fibers for electric flocking and electrically flocked article
US6305431B1 (en) * 1998-06-09 2001-10-23 Girmes In-Tex Gmbh & Co. Kg Cleaning cloth
US6490771B1 (en) * 1998-12-28 2002-12-10 Burlington Industries, Inc. Velvet-like jacquard fabrics and processes for making the same
US6547655B1 (en) * 2001-06-29 2003-04-15 Schaffner Manufacturing Company, Inc. Flame-resistant buffing wheel and method
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US20070283498A1 (en) * 2006-06-12 2007-12-13 Shelby Timothy W Encapsulated and filtered mattress
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US20080149264A1 (en) * 2004-11-09 2008-06-26 Chung-Chih Feng Method for Making Flameproof Environmentally Friendly Artificial Leather
US20080187715A1 (en) * 2005-08-08 2008-08-07 Ko-Feng Wang Elastic Laminate and Method for Making The Same
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US20070283498A1 (en) * 2006-06-12 2007-12-13 Shelby Timothy W Encapsulated and filtered mattress
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US20080138271A1 (en) * 2006-12-07 2008-06-12 Kuo-Kuang Cheng Method for Making Ultra-Fine Carbon Fibers and Activated Ultra-Fine Carbon Fibers
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US9085835B2 (en) * 2010-11-11 2015-07-21 Weiren Tang Kind of microfiber artificial leather and its manufacturing methods
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US20130255324A1 (en) * 2012-03-30 2013-10-03 Deckers Outdoor Corporation Density enhancement method for wool pile fabric
US9181646B2 (en) * 2012-07-12 2015-11-10 Chen Feng Method of manufacturing velvet plush and article thereof
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
FR2175017A1 (en) 1973-10-19 application
US3865678B1 (en) 1982-10-19 grant
GB1397471A (en) 1975-06-11 application
FR2175017B1 (en) 1976-11-05 grant

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