US3859060A - Nickel-chromi um-cobalt-molybdenum alloys - Google Patents

Nickel-chromi um-cobalt-molybdenum alloys Download PDF

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US3859060A
US3859060A US16984271A US3859060A US 3859060 A US3859060 A US 3859060A US 16984271 A US16984271 A US 16984271A US 3859060 A US3859060 A US 3859060A
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cobalt
nickel
molybdenum
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Herbert Louis Eiselstein
James Crombie Hosier
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Huntington Alloys Corp
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K35/00Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting
    • B23K35/22Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting characterised by the composition or nature of the material
    • B23K35/24Selection of soldering or welding materials proper
    • B23K35/30Selection of soldering or welding materials proper with the principal constituent melting at less than 1550 degrees C
    • B23K35/3033Ni as the principal constituent
    • B23K35/304Ni as the principal constituent with Cr as the next major constituent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C19/00Alloys based on nickel or cobalt
    • C22C19/03Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel
    • C22C19/05Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium
    • C22C19/051Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W
    • C22C19/055Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W with the maximum Cr content being at least 20% but less than 30%
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/12All metal or with adjacent metals
    • Y10T428/12493Composite; i.e., plural, adjacent, spatially distinct metal components [e.g., layers, joint, etc.]
    • Y10T428/12771Transition metal-base component
    • Y10T428/12861Group VIII or IB metal-base component
    • Y10T428/12944Ni-base component

Abstract

Directed to nickel-chromium-cobalt-molybdenum alloy characterized by good strength in short-time and long-time testing over a range of temperatures up to circa 2,000*F., by excellent resistance to cyclic oxidation, by structural stability when subjected to long-time heating at intermediate temperatures and by excellent workability both hot and cold.

Description

United States Patent Eiselstein et al. 1 1 Jan. 7, 1975 NlCKEL-CHROMI 3,510,294 5/1970 Bieber et a1. 751m UM-COBALT-MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS [75] Inventors: Herbert Louis Eiselstein; James Crombie Hosier, both of jg i j 'f fjfi C M Que Huntington, W. Va. 0 gen (r ac Raymond .1. Kenny [73] Assignee: The International Nickel Company,

Inc., New York, NY.

22 F1 d: A 6 1971 1 [57] ABSTRACT [21] Appl. No.: 169,842

Directed to nickelchromium-cobalt-molybdenum [52] US. Cl 29/193, 75/171, 138/32 alloy characterized by good strength in sh0rt-time and [51] Int. Cl. B2lc 37/00, C22c 19/00 long-time testing over a range of temperatures up to [58] Field of Search 75/171, 170; 148/32, 32.5; circa 2,000F., by excellent resistance to cyclic oxida- 29/193, 193.5, 191.6 tion, by structural stability when subjected to longtime heating at intermediate temperatures and by ex- [56] References Cited cellent workability both hot and cold.

UNITED STATES PATENTS 7/1955 Gresham et a1 75/171 4 Claims, N0 Drawings ALLOYS Development of alloys for use at elevated tempera tures has now been proceeding for a substantial time. As a result, many alloys are currently available which offer satisfactory properties under many conditions of stress and temperature. Most of the available alloys depend for strength at elevated temperatures upon the presence therein of precipitation hardening phases such as the well-known gamma prime phase. It is known that the gamma phase dissolves within the matrix of the alloy when the temperature of exposure is raised sufficiently high. This solution temperature is on the order of l,900 F. Accordingly, alloys which are characterized by compositions which produce the gamma prime phase are not ordinarily considered usable at temperatures at which the gamma prime phase dissolves to any substantial extent. Accordingly, service applications in which the precipitation hardening alloys are employed are generally limited to an upper temperature range of possibly 1,600 F. Of course, many other criteria of usefulness must be applied to a particular alloy depending upon the service requirements. Thus, in certain applications, such as in gas turbine combustion cans where very high operating temperatures (e.g., 2,000 F. and above) are encountered, oxidation resistance and long-time structural stability of the alloy become of major importance. In such service, temperatures are encountered which are sufficiently high to cause substantially complete solution of precipitation hardening phases such as gamma prime. At the very high temperatures, e.g., temperatures on the order of 2,000 F., cyclic oxidation also becomes a problem since it is found that many alloys which may be satisfactory against oxidation at the high temperature involved have such a constitution that the protective oxide breaks down or becomes mechanically separated when cyclic oxidation conditions are encountered, leading to further oxidation of metal upon subsequent heating. Accordingly, under conditions of cyclic oxidation, alloys which might appear to be satisfactory during longterm exposure to oxidation at a very high temperature are found in fact tobe unsatisfactory when cyclic oxidation is encountered. It is known that cyclic conditions are encountered in jet engine operation as in start-up and shut-down. Furthermore, parts which operate at very high temperatures are also subjected to heating and cooling through intermediate temperatures, e.g., 1,400 F. Thus, stability in the intermediate temperature ranges of alloys intended for service at very high temperatures is also of interest to designers for many reasons, including, for example, repair weldability particularly of light-section parts.

Accordingly, a demand has arisen for an alloy which would combine substantial strength at very high temperatures, e.g., 2,000 E, with high resistance to cyclic oxidation and long-time structural stability over a wide range of temperatures. It is to the solution of these problems that the present invention is directed.

It is an object of the present invention to provide an alloy which combines substantial strength at very high temperatures with long-time structural stability upon exposure to a wide range of temperatures and high resistance to the deleterious effects of cyclic oxidation.

Generally speaking, the present invention is directed to an alloy consisting essentially of, by weight, about 20% to about 24% chromium, about 0.8% to about 1.5% aluminum, about 9.5% or about 10% to about 15% or even about 20% cobalt, about 7% to about 12% molybdenum, not more than 0.15% carbon, up to about 0.6% titanium, up to about 0.006% boron, up to about 0.1% zirconium, up to about 0.05% magnesium, and the balance essentially nickel. The alloy should have a low content of incidental elements and impurities such as sulfur (0.015% max.), phosphorus (0.03% max.), and should not contain more than about 1% of copper. The iron content of the alloy should also be limited and for best stress-rupture properties, particularly at 2,000 F., should not normally exceed about 5%, or even about 2%. Titanium, magnesium, boron and zirconium within the aforementioned ranges may be employed individually or in combination as deoxi' dizers in producing the alloy. In view of the low contents of aluminum and titanium in the alloy, essentially no age hardening occurs therein. The contents of cobalt and of molybdenum are extremely important in terms of conferring substantial elevated temperature strength to the alloy. Thus, the molybdenum content should be within the range of about 7% to about 12% and the cobalt content should be within the range of about 9.5% or about 10% to about 15%, or even about 20%, as it is found from experimental data that within these ranges of cobalt and molybdenum the best strength combinations are provided. Chromium and aluminum within the aforementioned ranges are also important in the alloy particularly from the standpoint of providing oxidation resistance, particularly cyclic oxidation resistance, thereto. It is found that tungsten additions are not particularly effective in relation to the effect of this element upon strength. It appears from the available experimental data that tungsten in amounts up to about 8% is not sufficiently useful to compensate for the increased cost and increased density resulting from the use of this element. It is found that small additions of rare earth elements such as cerium (as misch metal) and lanthanum appear to offer some improvement in cyclic oxidation resistance at 2,000 F. Accordingly, up to about 0.15% of these elements may be employed in the alloy for improvement in oxidation resistance without encountering offsetting effects in terms of strength. As previously stated, the carbon content can be up to about 0.15%. Preferably, for best strength at the very high temperatures of 1,800 E, and above, the carbon content is maintained in the range of about 0.04% to about 0.1%, e.g., about 0.06% to about 0.08%. Columbium adversely affects cyclic oxidation resistance of the alloy, and, accordingly, is not present in more than impurity amounts.

Preferred alloys produced in accordance with the invention contain about 0.06% to about 0.08% carbon, about 22.0% chromium, about 1.0% aluminum, about 0.35% titanium, about 12.5% cobalt, about 9.0% molybdenum, about 0.003% boron, and the balance essentially nickel. The alloy in wrought form, annealed at 2,1 50 F. and air cooled, provides at room temperature a yield strength (0.2% offset) of about 42 thousands of pounds per square inch (ksi.), a tensile strength of about 106 ksi, an elongation of about and a reduction in area of about 57%; and at 2,000 F., provides a yield strength (0.2% offset) of about 7 ksi, a tensile strength of about 11 ksi, an elongation of about and a reduction in area of about 77%. Preferred alloys also provide hour rupture lives as follows: at 1,500

F., about 20,000 psi; at 1,700 F., about 8,800 psi; and at 1,900 E, about 3,700 psi.

Alloys in accordance with the invention are preferably produced by vacuum melting as more consistent properties are thereby produced, although air melting may be employed. The alloys are readily workable both hot and cold. Furthermore, the alloys are highly resis-' tant to the effects of cyclic oxidation for prolonged time at 2,000 E, and do not develop embrittling phases after prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of about 1,200 F. to about l,600 F. In addition the alloys are readily weldable by common gas-shielded arc-welding processes, including the metal-inert gas (MIG) process, using'filler metal of matching composition or other standard welding materials. The alloy provided in accordance with the invention is also useful itself as a MIG filler metal, e.g., in the form of wire, strip, etc., in welding other nickel-chromium alloys, and nickel-chromium-iron alloys, especially alloys which have demonstrated a tendency toward cracking when EXAMPLE I A series of 10 kilogram melts was produced having compositions as given in the following Table 1. Alloys 1 through 7 were produced by air induction melting, while Alloys 8 through 10 were produced by vacuum induction melting. The resulting ingots were all successfully forged to 9/ 1 6 inches square bar stock for mechanical testing. In some cases cold rolled strip 0.125 inches thick was also produced from this material for cyclic oxidation testing.

TABLE I Alloy No. %C %Fe %Si %Ni %Cr' %Al %Ti %Co %Mo %B Other 1 0.04 0.13 0.03 Bal 21.82 0.89 0.29 14.14 9.41 0.005 2 0.04 0.10 0.03 Bal 21.96 0.91 0.30 10.24 9.05 0.005 0.038 Ce 3 0.04 0.12 0.03 Bal 21.92 0.97 0.31 10.16 8.85 0.005 0.03 La 4 0.04 0.17 0.08 Bal 21.70 0.92 0.40 9.98 9.10 0.005 5 0.05 3.13 0.03 Ball 21.89 1.02 0.38 10.16 9.24 0.0057 6 0.06 0.16 0.41 Bal 21.94 1.01 0.39 10.12 9.28 0.0046 7 0.04 0.10 0.05 Bal 21.43 0.90 0.30 19.80 9.07 0.005 8 0.007 1.16 0.03 13211 21.62 0.89 0.35 9.92 9.01 0.0079 9 0.016 0.22 0.03 Bal 21.66 0.92 0.35 10.13 9.28 0.0069 10 0.06 0.16 Bal 0.93 0.35 10.04 0.0061

welded using the MIG process in conjunction with other filler materials. Welds produced using the alloy of the invention as filler material are as strong at room temperature and at temperatures up to about 2,000 F. and as oxidation resistant in the weld metal as the wrought alloy of the invention. In general, the alloy can Hotforged square bar material from the heats as set forth in Table 1 were subjected to an anneal at 2,150 F. for 1 hour followed by air cooling, and short-time tensile tests were performed thereon at room temperature and at 2,000 F. with the results set forth in the following Table 11.

TABLE 11 Room Temperature 2000F. Alloy No. 2% Y.S. T. Elong. R.A. 2% Y.S. T.S. Elong R.A.

Ksi Ksi Ksi Ksi be used as a MIG filler metal in welding alloys containing about 19% to chromium, up to about 2% aluminum, e.g., about 0.8% to about 1.7% aluminum, up to about 0.6% titanium, up to about 15% molybdenum,

EXAMPLE II This example illustrates the special utility of the alloy provided in accordance with the invention as a MIG welding filler metal.

Two l-inch thick heat joints were made between hot rolled plate specimens of an oxidation-resistant alloy an ingot about 1 1 inches-X 45 inches X 50 inches. Portions of the heat were converted to 2 inch plate, 34 inch diameter hot rolled bar and 0.062 inch cold rolled sheet. No difficulties were experienced in either hot or cold processing of the material. In cold finishing the sheet a cold reduction of 58.7% was employed. The

heat (Alloy No. 11) contained about 0.02% carbon,

about 0.04% manganese, about 0.23% iron, about 0.05% silicon, 57.5% nickel, about 21.85% chromium, about 1.07% aluminum, about 0.4% titanium, about 0.028% magnesium, about 9.94% cobalt, about 8.86% molybdenum, and about 0.0018% boron. Properties of the hot rolled rod product annealed at 2,150 F. for 1 hour and air cooled, and the cold rolled sheet product containing about 0.07% carbon, about 60% nickel, 15 annealed at 2,150 for about 5 minutes and then air about 1.3% aluminum, about 23% chromium, about 0.33% titanium, about 0.16% silicon and the balance essentially iron under conditions of severe restraint and I with a joint design of the V-groove butt type, using the cooled, were determined by means of the short-time tensile test at various temperatures in the annealed condition with the results set forth in the following Table IV.

MIG process with argon shielding gas and matching composition filler metal 0.062 inches in diameter. For one weld the voltage was 33 to 35 and for the other the voltage was 29 to 31. was 270 to 290 DCRP. Filler wire was fed at about 173 inches per minute. Both weldments revealed a heavy oxide on the deposited weld beads. Radiographic examination revealed oxide particles in the deposited weld metal. Side bend tests on transverse slices cut from the welds revealed numerous fissures in the weld deposits. In addition, hot cracking was observed by macroexamination of the welds. The welds were clearly unsatisfactory.

The foregoing experiment was repeated using filler metal of essentially Alloy No. 4 composition. The weld beads appeared to be relatively free of oxide and were of good quality. Radiographic examination of the welds revealed essentially no defects in the welds. Side bend tests on transverse slices cut from the welds revealed no fissures when bent about a pin 1.5 inches in diameter. No hot cracking was evident. A cyclic oxidation test at 2,000 F. in air for 300 hours using a 15 minute heating and a 5 minute coolingcycle performed upon a specimen rfi-inch thick machined from the welded plate and measuring 3 inches by 54 inches with the weld appearing transverse of the center of the specimen indicated no loss of oxidation resistance in the weld area.

EXAMPLE III A five thousand pound heat was produced in a commercial vacuum induction furnace and was cast to form The sheet in the cold rolled condition had no difficulty passing a severe bend test upon itself after annealing in the temperature range of 1,800 F. to 2,l50 F.

Stress-rupture tests performed on the rod stock and on the sheet so produced demonstrated that, in the 2,150 F annealed condition, the material exhibited a hour life at 1,500 F. and a stress of 17,500 psi, at 1,700 F. and a stress of 71000 psi, and at 2,000 F. and a stress of 3100 psi.

EXAMPLE IV A further 5,000 pound heat was produced in a commercial vacuum induction furnace and was flux cast in air to form an ingot about 11 inches X 45 inches X 50 inches. The heat (Alloy No. 12) contained about 0.07% carbon, about 0.13% iron, about 0.04% silicon, about 22.51% chromium, about 1.05% aluminum, about 0.41% titanium, about 0.029% magnesium, about 12.67% cobalt, about 8.91% molybdenum, about 0.0051% boron and the balance essentially nickel. The ingot was press forged to a slab about 9.5 inches X 42 inches in section and was then hot rolled to a slab 2 inches by 50 inches in section at 2,200 F. with no difficulty. Three 2 inch X 2 inch X 50 inch billets were abrasive cut from the slab and were hot rolled to inch diameter rod. The remainder of the slab was cut in half and hot rolled to hot bands which were about 0.32 inch X 52 inch in section. One of the hot bands was annealed in a continuous furnace at 1,950 F. and was cold rolled to 0.190 inch gauge. At this point, the material was again annealed at 1,950 F. and was cold rolled to 0.062 inch gauge. The 0.062 inch gauge material was continuously annealed at 2,150 F. Tensile tests were conducted at various temperatures upon hot rolled rod and upon the sheet material annealed at 2,150 F. for 1 hour with the results set forth in the following Table V.

Annealing tests on the sheet demonstrated that material annealed at temperatures of 2,100 F and higher withstood the bend test upon itself without cracking.

Stress rupture tests conducted upon the hot rolled rod annealed at 2,l50 F. for 1 hour indicated a 100 hour life at 1,500 F. and 20,000 psi, at 1,700 F. and 9,400 psi and at 2,000 F. and 4,500 psi.

EXAMPLE V Hot rolled rod material from alloys 6, 8, 9,- 10, 1 l and 12 annealed at 2, 150 F. for 1 hour were subjected to long-time exposure at 1,200, l,300, 1,400, 1,500 and l,600 F. and then subjected to impact testing with 0 tion furnaces or electroslag furnaces. It is useful in applications such as gas turbine combustion liners, in ducting systems for aircraft, etc. It is particularly useful in any application in which cyclic oxidation at temperatures about 1,800 F., e.g., 2,000 F. and higher, are encountered.

Tests in aqueous solutions of common mineral acids demonstrated that the alloy has good resistance to corrosion therein. Thus, the alloy displayed good resistance to various concentrations of nitric acid, together with good resistance to sulfuric acid in concentrations up to 30% at 80 C. and up to 10% at boiling temperatures. Moderate resistance was found to hydrochloric acid in concentrations to 30% or more at 80 C. as well as an excellent resistance to all concentrations of phosphoric acid at 80 C. even in the presence of up to 1% hydrofluoric acid. Accordingly, the alloy is useful in areas where resistance to acid corrosion is required.

Although the present invention has been described in conjunction with preferred embodiments, it is to be understood that modifications and variations may be resorted to without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, as those skilled in the art will readily understand. Such modifications and variations are considered to be within the purview and scope of the invention and appended claims.

We claim:

1. A welding material in wire or strip form for use in inert gas shielded metal arc welding consisting essentially of by weight, about 20% to about 24% chromium,

the results set forth 1n the following Table VI. about 0.8% to 1.5% aluminum, about 9.5% to about TABLE VI Heat Treatment Alloy No. 6 Alloy No. 10 Alloy No. 11 Alloy No. 12 Temp. F. Time Impact CVN Hardness Impact CVN Hardness Impact CVN Hardness Impact CVN Hardness hrs. ft. lbs. R ft. lbs. R ft. lbs. R ft. lbs. R,,

X-ray examination of the material after long-time heating established that the only phase which appeared as a result of the heating was a carbide phase corresponding to the M c, phase.

EXAMPLE VI 20% cobalt, about 7% to about 12% molybdenum, not more than 0.15% carbon, up to about 0.6% titanium, up to about 0.006% boron, up to about 0.1% zirconium, up to about 0.05% magnesium and the balance essentially nickel.

2. A (i) solid-solution, (ii) essentially non-agehardenable, (iii) weldable nickel-base alloy characterized by not only (iv) good resistance to oxidation but also by (v) high resistance to cyclic oxidation at temperatures as high as 2,000 F., the alloy also processing, (vi) structural stability after long-time heating and (vii) substantial strength at room temperature and at elevated temperatures, said alloy consisting essentially of,

LII

3. An alloy in accordance with claim 2 containing about 10% to about 15% cobalt.

4. An alloy in accordance with claim 2 containing about 0.06% to about 0.08% carbon, about 22% chr0- mium, about 1% aluminum, about 0.4% titanium, about 12.5% cobalt, about 9% molybdenum, up to about 0.006% boron and the balance essentially nickel.

Claims (4)

1. A WELDING MATERIAL IN WIRE OR STRIP FORM FOR USE IN INERT GAS SHIELDED METAL ARE WELDING CONSISTING ESSENTIALLY OF BY WEIGHT, ABOUT 20% TO ABOUT 24% CHROMIUM, ABOUT 0.8% TO 1.5% ALUMINUM, ABOUT 9.5% TO ABOUT 20% COBALT, ABOUT 7% TO ABOUT 12% MOLYBDENUM, NOT MORE THAN 0.15% CARBON, UP TO ABOUT 0.6% TITANIUM, UP TO 0.006% BORON, UP TO ABOUT 0.1% ZIRCONIUM, UP TO ABOUT 0.05% MAGNESIUM AND THE BALANCE ESSENTIALLY NICKEL.
2. A (i) solid-solution, (ii) essentially non-age-hardenable, (iii) weldable nickel-base alloy characterized by not only (iv) good resistance to oxidation but also by (v) high resistance to cyclic oxidation at temperatures as high as 2,000* F., the alloy also processing, (vi) structural stability after long-time heating and (vii) substantial strength at room temperature and at elevated temperatures, said alloy consisting essentially of, by weight, about 20% to about 24% chromium, about 0.8% to about 1.5% aluminum, about 9.5% to about 20% cobalt, about 7% to about 12% molybdenum, not more than 0.15% carbon, up to about 0.6% titanium, up to about 0.006% boron, up to about 0.1% zirconium, up to about 0.05% magnesium, up to about 0.15% of a metal from the group consisting of cerium and lanthanum, and the balance essentially nickel.
3. An alloy in accordance with claim 2 containing about 10% to about 15% cobalt.
4. An alloy in accordance with claim 2 containing about 0.06% to about 0.08% carbon, about 22% chromium, about 1% aluminum, about 0.4% titanium, about 12.5% cobalt, about 9% molybdenum, up to about 0.006% boron and the balance essentially nickel.
US16984271 1971-08-06 1971-08-06 Nickel-chromi um-cobalt-molybdenum alloys Expired - Lifetime US3859060A (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
BE787254D BE787254A (en) 1971-08-06 Nickel-chromium
US16984271 US3859060A (en) 1971-08-06 1971-08-06 Nickel-chromi um-cobalt-molybdenum alloys
CA129,901A CA974096A (en) 1971-08-06 1971-12-10 Nickel-chromium-cobalt-molybdenum alloys
IT5196672A IT961870B (en) 1971-08-06 1972-08-04 League nickel cobalt chromium molybdenum
GB3651872A GB1336409A (en) 1971-08-06 1972-08-04 Nickel-chromium alloys
FR7228349A FR2149935A5 (en) 1971-08-06 1972-08-04
SE1016372A SE374934B (en) 1971-08-06 1972-08-04
DE19722265685 DE2265685C2 (en) 1971-08-06 1972-08-05
DE19722238609 DE2238609C2 (en) 1971-08-06 1972-08-05
DE19722265686 DE2265686C2 (en) 1971-08-06 1972-08-05
DE19722265684 DE2265684C2 (en) 1971-08-06 1972-08-05
AT679172A AT317563B (en) 1971-08-06 1972-08-07 Nickel-chromium alloy
JP47079054A JPS5227614B2 (en) 1971-08-06 1972-08-07
JP9012576A JPS5715998B2 (en) 1971-08-06 1976-07-28

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CA (1) CA974096A (en)
DE (4) DE2265684C2 (en)
FR (1) FR2149935A5 (en)
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US9802387B2 (en) 2013-11-26 2017-10-31 Scoperta, Inc. Corrosion resistant hardfacing alloy
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US8973806B2 (en) 2011-03-23 2015-03-10 Scoperta, Inc. Fine grained Ni-based alloys for resistance to stress corrosion cracking and methods for their design
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US10345252B2 (en) 2013-10-10 2019-07-09 Scoperta, Inc. Methods of selecting material compositions and designing materials having a target property
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US9802387B2 (en) 2013-11-26 2017-10-31 Scoperta, Inc. Corrosion resistant hardfacing alloy
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US10173290B2 (en) 2014-06-09 2019-01-08 Scoperta, Inc. Crack resistant hardfacing alloys
US10465267B2 (en) 2014-07-24 2019-11-05 Scoperta, Inc. Hardfacing alloys resistant to hot tearing and cracking
US10465269B2 (en) 2014-07-24 2019-11-05 Scoperta, Inc. Impact resistant hardfacing and alloys and methods for making the same
US10329647B2 (en) 2014-12-16 2019-06-25 Scoperta, Inc. Tough and wear resistant ferrous alloys containing multiple hardphases
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JPS5242441A (en) 1977-04-02
SE374934B (en) 1975-03-24
DE2265684C2 (en) 1983-03-10
GB1336409A (en) 1973-11-07
DE2265685C2 (en) 1991-03-07
AT317563B (en) 1974-09-10
FR2149935A5 (en) 1973-03-30
BE787254A (en) 1973-02-05
JPS5715998B2 (en) 1982-04-02
DE2238609C2 (en) 1985-01-31
CA974096A (en) 1975-09-09
JPS5227614B2 (en) 1977-07-21
IT961870B (en) 1973-12-10
DE2265686C2 (en) 1983-03-10
CA974096A1 (en)
JPS4825643A (en) 1973-04-03
DE2238609A1 (en) 1973-03-01
BE787254A1 (en)

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