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US3855874A - Double mesh type w-n gear - Google Patents

Double mesh type w-n gear Download PDF

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Publication number
US3855874A
US3855874A US37878673A US3855874A US 3855874 A US3855874 A US 3855874A US 37878673 A US37878673 A US 37878673A US 3855874 A US3855874 A US 3855874A
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Prior art keywords
tooth
gear
gears
line
mesh
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Expired - Lifetime
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S Honma
Y Fujii
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HASEGAWA HAGURUMA KK
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HASEGAWA HAGURUMA KK
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H55/00Elements with teeth or friction surfaces for conveying motion; Worms; Pulleys; Sheaves
    • F16H55/02Toothed members; Worms
    • F16H55/08Profiling
    • F16H55/0826Novikov-Wildhaber profile
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10T74/19Gearing
    • Y10T74/19949Teeth
    • Y10T74/19963Spur
    • Y10T74/19972Spur form

Abstract

So-called ''''initial pitting'''' conventionally unavoidable with some sorts of this type of gears can be effectively prevented by increasing the clearance between the intermediate portions of the mating tooth surfaces and this can be attained by shifting the two points of meshing contact from their normal position respectively in a direction away from the pitch line or by arranging the meshing gears at a center distance slightly smaller than normal. Among additional advantanges are: reduced contamination of lubricating oil, smoother operation and increase in durability.

Description

United States Patent Honma et al. I

[451 Dec. 24, 1974 DOUBLE MESH TYPE W-N GEAR [75] Inventors: Seishi Honma, Yokohama;

Yoshihisa Fujii, Tokyo, both of Japan [73] Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha 'Hasegawa Haguruma, Tokyo, Japan [22] Filed: July 12, 1973 [21] Appl. No.: 378,786

30 Foreign Application Priority Data July 26, 1972 Japan 47-74210 [52] US. Cl. 74/462 [51] Int. Cl. Fl6h 55/06 [58] Field of Search 74/462, 457

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,709,055 1/1973 Grove 74/462 3,756,091 9/I973 Miller 74/462 X Primary Examiner-Leonard H. Gerin Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Oldham & Oldham Co.

[5 7 ABSTRACT So-called initial pitting conventionally unavoidable with some sorts of this type of gears can be effectively prevented by increasing the clearance between the intermediate portions of the mating tooth surfaces and this can be attained by shifting the two points of meshing contact from their normal position respectively in a direction away from the pitch line or by arranging the meshing gears at a center distance slightly smaller than normal. Among additional advantanges are: reduced contamination of lubricating oil, smoother operation and increase in durability.

7 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures PATENTED UEB24I974 SHEET 2 2 DOUBLE MESH TYPE W-N GEAR BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to improvements in or relating to so-called W-N (Wildhaver-Novikov) gears of the double mesh type. The standard tooth profile of basic rack of this type of gears includes circular addendum and dedendum arcs and a straight line portion with which the circular arcs merge smoothly and such gears are of the so-called point contact type, the addendum and dedendum arcs being different from each other in radius of curvature.

W-N gears of the double mesh type generally excel gears of other types including involute gears in loadcarrying capacity, but are liable to so-called initial pitting," which is obviouslyundesirable from the standpoint of service life and lubrication.

In view of the above, the present invention has for its object the provision of a double mesh type W-N gear or a pair of such gears in which the clearance obtainable between the intermediate straight line portions of the mating tooth surfaces is increased effectively to prevent any initial pitting from occurring in such region.

According to one aspect of the present invention, the clearance between the straight line portions of basic rack of the mating tooth surfaces or the spacing obtainable between the mating tooth surfaces in the vicinity of the pitch line, is effectively increased by modifying the tooth profile in a manner so that the two points of FIG. 7 is a sketch similar to FIG. 6, of one tooth of a double mesh type W-N gear embodying the present invention, taken after it has been tested under loaded condition and showing how the initial pitting has been efiectively avoided.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS For a clear understanding of the present invention, description will first be made of the standard tooth profile of W-N gears of the type concerned, with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2.

As shown in the diagram of FIG. 1, the standard tooth profile of basic rack of double mesh W-N gears' includes circular addendum and dedendum arcs AD at a point substantially in the middle of its addendum meshing contact are each shifted in a direction away BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In the drawings:

are with the other gear tooth at apoint substantially in the middle of the dedendum are of the latter. Accordingly, with such gears, the tooth configuration itself cannot serve to give any constant speed ratio and for realization of such speed ratio resort must be had to some form of progressive contact obtainable across the tooth surface. In practice, therefore, gears of ,this type are employed only in the form of helical gears of a tooth width exceeding a certain minimum and the two points of contact 3 and 4 each describe'a straight line parallel to the pitch line. It is for this reason that gears of the tooth profile shownin FIG. 1' are commonly called double mesh type W-N gears.

As will readily be understood, gears of this type gen erally exhibit a substantial resistance to pitting, i.e., ex-

' foliation of tooth material or cratering in the tooth sur- FIG. 1 is a diagram showing the standard tooth pro- I file of a double mesh type W-N gear;

FIG. 2 is a diagram showing the manner in which two W-N gears of the standard tooth profile of FIG. 1 mesh with each other; v

FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating the tooth profile of a double mesh type W-N gear modified according to the present invention;

FIG. 4 is a diagram similar to FIG. 2, showing the manner in which two W-N gears of the modified tooth profile mesh with each other;

FIG. 5 is a diagram similar to FIGS. 2 and 4, illustrating the meshing engagement of a pair of W-N gears of the standard tooth profile arranged according to the present invention with a center distance reduced below normal;

FIG. 6 is a photographic sketch of one tooth of an ordinary double mesh type W-N gear, taken after it has been tested under loaded condition; and

face, which is approximately two or three times as high as that of involute or other types of gear. Further, in the case of double mesh type W-N gears, meshing contact takes place between a convex surface and a concave surface, but not between convex surfaces as in the case of involute gears and this accounts for substantial reduction in Hertzian stress and increase in load-carrying capacity. On the other hand, double mesh type W-N gears have previously involved the disadvantage that they are liable to pitting in the initial period of service, that is, immediately after they have been put into oper ation for the first time under actual load. As typically illustrated in FIG. 6 at q, such pitting usuallyoccurs in the vicinity of the pitch line in a pattern of linear distri-- bution along the whole width of the gear teeth and is a kind of so-called initial pitting," which slows down as the gear teeth get to fit each other and does not impair the durability itself of the gears to any substantial extent. Such phenomenon, however, is not only undesirable in nature but causes lubrication problems as particles of tooth material dislodged contaminate the lubricating oil, affording deleterious effects upon the tooth surfaces, bearings and other parts of the system.

The reason for such initial pitting occurring in the vi-.

cinity of the pitch line of conventional double mesh W-N gears can possibly be explained as follows. Seeing the geometrical configuration of the gear teeth, any double meshing teeth should theoretically make contact with each other only at two points 3 and 4, leaving some clearance between the mating tooth surfaces in the vicinity of the pitch line, as shown in FIG. 2. In actual loaded condition, however, double meshing gear teeth are shifted from their normal theoretical position away from each other on account of a number of factors, including deflection of the teeth themselves and the gear shafts, radial clearance and deflection of the shaft bearings and the plus tolerance on distance faces, causing high local stresses therein. This naturally gives an account for the start and progress of initial pitting in the tooth surfaces.

On the other hand, in the manufacture of gear cutting tools, it is'difficult to make the arcuate portions of the tool surface merge smoothly withthe straight portion thereof and ridges are liable to be formed along the line of merger between the arcuate and straight portions. As will be apparent, use of gear cutting tools formed with such ridges results in gears with corresponding ridges formed thereon and, with such gears, initial pitting will take place also along such ridges.

Under these circumstances, the present invention proposes to increase the clearance between the involute portions of the mating surfaces of two gear teeth in mesh thereby to effectively prevent and initial pitting" in the tooth surfaces.

Onepreferred embodiment of the invention is diagrammatically illustrated in FIG. 3 by solid lines as a modification of the standard tooth form 1 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. The modified tooth profile 8 is basically similar to the standard form 1 in that it is constituted of circular arcs AD and BC and a straight line segment AB and there is no need of changing the ratio of the radius of curvature, r,, of arc AD to that, r,,, of arc BC to any substantial extent, but in the modified profile the distance 10 of the center 5 of the arc BC from the pitch line 7 is made larger than that in the standard profile 1. In other words, the distance 10 in the modified tooth profile 8 is made 0.1 module or over in contrast to that in the standard profile of approximately.0.06 module. 1

In FIG. 1, the dotted lines 1 represent a standard tooth profile of the same module as that of the modified profile 8.

FIG. 4 illustrates the manner in which two gear teeth 8 and 9 of the profile modified as described above mesh each other. In the case of the standard tooth profile, the points of contact 3 and 4 between two mating tooth surfaces lie substantially in the middle of respective circular arcs BC and AD, giving a pressure angle of less than 30, as observed in FIGS. 1 and 2. In contrast to this, in the case of the tooth profile modified according to the present invention, the points of contact 3 and 4 are shifted away from each other toward the top and bottom of the' meshing gear teeth, giving a pressure angle of 30 or over, as illustrated in FIG. 4. As the result, the clearance between the mating tooth surfaces in the vicinity of the pitch line 7 is increased to a substantial extent'relative to that conventionally obtained. It will be appreciated, therefore, that, with the modified tooth profile,-even if the points of contact 3 and 4 are shifted toward the pitch line 7 under loaded condition due to deflection of the associated parts 'or clearance therein, there still remains a substantial clearance in the vicinity of the pitch line, that is, between the involute portions of the mating tooth surfaces and thus occurrence of any initial pitting in this area is effectively prevented to realize an ideal state of driving contact between the double meshing W-N gears.

Another embodiment of the present invention is diagrammatically illustrated in FIG. 5.- While in the embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4 the meshing gears are held at the normal center distance with the pitch lines 7 of the meshing teeth 8 and 9 coinciding with each other, they are arranged in the embodiment of FIG. 5 at a center distance 0.015 to 0.06 module smaller than the normal center distance according to the present invention, though they are of the same tooth profile as that shown in FIG. 2 at 1 or 2. In other words, the pitch lines 7 and 12 of the respective gear teeth 1 and 2 are spaced apart from each other, according to the present invention, by a distance of 0.015 to 0.06 module so that the points of contact3 and 4 are shifted away from each other toward the top and bottom of the mating tooth surfaces, giving a pressure angle of 30 or over. In this manner, the clearance between the mating tooth surfaces in the vicinity of the pitch lines 7 and 12 is increased and occurrence of anyv initial pitting is effectively prevented, as with case of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 3 and It will be apparent 'from the foregoing that double mesh type W-N gears designed according to the present invention are free from any initial pitting and thus capable of exhibiting its load-carrying capacity, excelling that of involute gears, to a full extent. Such advantageous features of the present invention have been confirmed experimentally. The photographic sketch of FIG. 7 illustrates oneof the results obtained in the experiments. As observed inthis figure, any initial pitting such as shown in FIG. 6 has not occurred in the vicinity of the pitch point though the tooth surface has naturally been subjected to some wear in the vicinity of the two points of meshing contact.

From the foregoing it is seen that a novel and improved double mesh type W-N gear device has been provided in various forms and that the objects of the invention have been achieved.

What is claimed is:

l. A double mesh type W-N gear with a basic rack on a transverse plane or on a normal plane characterized in that modifications are introduced so that the two points of contact between the mating tooth surfaces are shifted respectively in a direction away from the pitch line so as to give a pressure angle of not less than 30 thereby to obtain an increased clearance between intermediate straight portions of the mating profiles, the gear teeth profiles each including circular addendum and dedendum arcs connected by an intermediate straight line segment at the pitch line area, the arcs being of different radii centered on the pitch line or on points adjacent thereto, the two points of contact on one gear tooth being one on the addendum and one on the dedendum arc for contact with a gear tooth on the other gear.

2. A double mesh type W-N gear as claimed in claim 1, having a tooth profile modified by spacing the center of the circular dedendum arc (BC) from the pitch line by a distance of not less than 0.1 module.

3. In a double mesh type W-N gear as in claim 1 where the gear teeth profiles each include said circular addendum and dedendum arcs that merge smoothly into the intermediate straight line segment, the center of the circular dedendum arc being spaced from the pitch line by a distance of not less than 0.1 module.

4. In a double mesh type W-N gear as in claim 3 where the circular addendum arc is centered on the pitch line.

5. A gear device including a pair of double mesh type W-N gears, characterized in that the two gears are held in mesh with each other at a center distance slightly smaller than the normal center distance so that the two points of contact between the mating tooth surfaces are shifted from their normal position respectively in a direction away from the pitch line.

6. In a double mesh type W-N gear as in claim 5 where the gear teeth profiles each include circular addendum and dedendum arcs that merge smoothly into an intermediate straight line segment, the arcs having radii of curvature different from each other, the pitch lines of the gear teeth of the two gears being spaced from each other by a distance of 0.0l5 to 0.06 module to provide increased tooth clearance between mating tooth surfaces in the vicinity of the pitch lines. I

7. In a double mesh type W-N gear as in claim 6 where the mating tooth surfaces at the contact point have a pressure angle of at least 30.

Claims (7)

1. A double mesh type W-N gear with a basic rack on a transverse plane or on a normal plane characterized in that modifications are introduced so that the two points of contact between the mating tooth surfaces are shifted respectively in a direction away from the pitch line so as to give a pressure angle of not less than 30* thereby to obtain an increased clearance between intermediate straight portions of the mating profiles, the gear teeth profiles each including circular addendum and dedendum arcs connected by an intermediate straight line segment at the pitch line area, the arcs being of different radii centered on the pitch line or on points adjacent thereto, the two points of contact on one gear tooth being one on the addendum and one on the dedendum arc for contact with a gear tooth on the other gear.
2. A double mesh type W-N gear as claimed in claim 1, having a tooth profile modified by spacing the center of the circular dedendum arc (BC) from the pitch line by a distance of not less than 0.1 module.
3. In a double mesh type W-N gear as in claim 1 where the gear teeth profiles each include said circular addendum and dedendum arcs that merge smoothly into the intermediate straight line segment, the center of the circular dedendum arc being spaced from the pitch line by a distance of not less than 0.1 module.
4. In a double mesh type W-N gear as in claim 3 where the circular addendum arc is centered on the pitch line.
5. A gear device including a pair of double mesh type W-N gears, characterized in that the two gears are held in mesh with each other at a center distance slightly smaller than the normal center distance so that the two points of contact between the mating tooth surfaces are shifted from their normal position respectively in a direction away from the pitch line.
6. In a double mesh type W-N gear as in claim 5 where the gear teeth profiles each include circular addendum and dedendum arcs that merge smoothly into an intermediate straight line segment, the arcs having radii of curvature different from each other, the pitch lines of the gear teeth of the two gears being spacEd from each other by a distance of 0.015 to 0.06 module to provide increased tooth clearance between mating tooth surfaces in the vicinity of the pitch lines.
7. In a double mesh type W-N gear as in claim 6 where the mating tooth surfaces at the contact point have a pressure angle of at least 30*.
US3855874A 1972-07-26 1973-07-12 Double mesh type w-n gear Expired - Lifetime US3855874A (en)

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JP7421072A JPS5412582B2 (en) 1972-07-26 1972-07-26

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CA (1) CA981060A (en)
DE (1) DE2336570A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2194279A5 (en)
GB (1) GB1432164A (en)

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4031770A (en) * 1975-04-07 1977-06-28 Kabushiki Kaisha Hasegawa Haguruma Dual tooth contact type W-N gear
US4051745A (en) * 1975-04-16 1977-10-04 Kabushiki Kaisha Hasegawa Haguruma Multiple-contact type w-n gear
US4121482A (en) * 1976-08-24 1978-10-24 Kabushiki Kaisha Hasegawa Haguruma W-N gear having a maximum surface strength
US5423232A (en) * 1993-10-22 1995-06-13 Imo Industries Inc., Boston Gear Division Self-lubricating gear system
US5454702A (en) * 1991-11-27 1995-10-03 John S. Barnes Gmbh Invalute gearset
US5546824A (en) * 1993-10-22 1996-08-20 Imo Industries Inc. Visual method and apparatus for adjusting gears and pinions
WO1998045623A1 (en) * 1997-04-10 1998-10-15 Genesis Partners, L.P. Gear form constructions
US6178840B1 (en) 1997-04-10 2001-01-30 Genesis Partners, L.P. Gear form constructions
US20030198526A1 (en) * 2002-04-22 2003-10-23 Colbourne John R. Gear tooth profile
US6837123B2 (en) * 2001-03-23 2005-01-04 Hawkins Richard M Non-involute gears with conformal contact
US20050132836A1 (en) * 2003-12-18 2005-06-23 Genesis Partners, L.P. Gear tooth profile curvature
CN102678829A (en) * 2012-05-28 2012-09-19 阜新德尔汽车部件股份有限公司 Spiral gear with circular tooth profile and for hydraulic device
US20130091970A1 (en) * 2010-06-21 2013-04-18 O-Oka Corporation Free-form surface gear
US20140366668A1 (en) * 2013-06-14 2014-12-18 Enplas Corporation Gear
WO2017088980A1 (en) * 2015-11-27 2017-06-01 Sew-Eurodrive Gmbh & Co. Kg Gearbox having a first gearwheel and a second gearwheel
WO2017100517A1 (en) * 2015-12-11 2017-06-15 Gear Innovations Llc Conjugate gears with continuous tooth flank contact

Families Citing this family (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS4968153A (en) * 1972-11-09 1974-07-02
JPS5710304B2 (en) * 1974-04-24 1982-02-25
JPS5758548B2 (en) * 1974-04-24 1982-12-10 Shigeyoshi Osada
GB2153958B (en) * 1984-02-09 1986-11-26 Pa Consulting Services Gearwheel
DE4107659A1 (en) * 1991-03-09 1992-09-10 Bosch Gmbh Robert worm gear

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3709055A (en) * 1971-01-04 1973-01-09 L Grove Gear tooth profile
US3756091A (en) * 1970-02-19 1973-09-04 Uniroyal Inc Positive power transmission system

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3756091A (en) * 1970-02-19 1973-09-04 Uniroyal Inc Positive power transmission system
US3709055A (en) * 1971-01-04 1973-01-09 L Grove Gear tooth profile

Cited By (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4031770A (en) * 1975-04-07 1977-06-28 Kabushiki Kaisha Hasegawa Haguruma Dual tooth contact type W-N gear
US4051745A (en) * 1975-04-16 1977-10-04 Kabushiki Kaisha Hasegawa Haguruma Multiple-contact type w-n gear
US4121482A (en) * 1976-08-24 1978-10-24 Kabushiki Kaisha Hasegawa Haguruma W-N gear having a maximum surface strength
US5454702A (en) * 1991-11-27 1995-10-03 John S. Barnes Gmbh Invalute gearset
US5546824A (en) * 1993-10-22 1996-08-20 Imo Industries Inc. Visual method and apparatus for adjusting gears and pinions
US5423232A (en) * 1993-10-22 1995-06-13 Imo Industries Inc., Boston Gear Division Self-lubricating gear system
WO1998045623A1 (en) * 1997-04-10 1998-10-15 Genesis Partners, L.P. Gear form constructions
US6101892A (en) * 1997-04-10 2000-08-15 Genesis Partners, L.P. Gear form constructions
US6178840B1 (en) 1997-04-10 2001-01-30 Genesis Partners, L.P. Gear form constructions
US6837123B2 (en) * 2001-03-23 2005-01-04 Hawkins Richard M Non-involute gears with conformal contact
US6964210B2 (en) 2002-04-22 2005-11-15 Genesis Partners, L.P. Gear tooth profile
WO2003089174A2 (en) 2002-04-22 2003-10-30 Genesis Partners, L.P. Gear tooth profile
US20030198526A1 (en) * 2002-04-22 2003-10-23 Colbourne John R. Gear tooth profile
US7077026B2 (en) 2003-12-18 2006-07-18 Genesis Partners, L.P. Gear tooth profile curvature
US20050132836A1 (en) * 2003-12-18 2005-06-23 Genesis Partners, L.P. Gear tooth profile curvature
US9091338B2 (en) * 2010-06-21 2015-07-28 O-Oka Corporation Free-form surface gear
US20130091970A1 (en) * 2010-06-21 2013-04-18 O-Oka Corporation Free-form surface gear
CN102678829B (en) 2012-05-28 2014-08-20 阜新德尔汽车部件股份有限公司 Spiral gear with circular tooth profile and for hydraulic device
CN102678829A (en) * 2012-05-28 2012-09-19 阜新德尔汽车部件股份有限公司 Spiral gear with circular tooth profile and for hydraulic device
US20140366668A1 (en) * 2013-06-14 2014-12-18 Enplas Corporation Gear
CN104235308A (en) * 2013-06-14 2014-12-24 恩普乐斯股份有限公司 gear
US9052010B2 (en) * 2013-06-14 2015-06-09 Enplas Corporation Gear
WO2017088980A1 (en) * 2015-11-27 2017-06-01 Sew-Eurodrive Gmbh & Co. Kg Gearbox having a first gearwheel and a second gearwheel
WO2017100517A1 (en) * 2015-12-11 2017-06-15 Gear Innovations Llc Conjugate gears with continuous tooth flank contact

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
CA981060A1 (en) grant
JPS5412582B2 (en) 1979-05-24 grant
JPS4932039A (en) 1974-03-23 application
DE2336570A1 (en) 1974-02-07 application
FR2194279A5 (en) 1974-02-22 application
GB1432164A (en) 1976-04-14 application
JP987737C (en) grant
CA981060A (en) 1976-01-06 grant

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