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US3851428A - Building panel connection means and method - Google Patents

Building panel connection means and method Download PDF

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Publication number
US3851428A
US3851428A US32518873A US3851428A US 3851428 A US3851428 A US 3851428A US 32518873 A US32518873 A US 32518873A US 3851428 A US3851428 A US 3851428A
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plate
panel
panels
connector
vertical
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B Shuart
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B Shuart
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/02Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials
    • E04C2/04Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of concrete or other stone-like material; of asbestos cement; of cement and other mineral fibres
    • E04C2/06Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of concrete or other stone-like material; of asbestos cement; of cement and other mineral fibres reinforced
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/04Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stone-like material
    • E04B1/043Connections specially adapted therefor

Abstract

A building construction comprising tilt-up wall panels having connector plates cast in connection therewith such that a first one of said panels has a connector plate spaced from a vertical edge of the panel and a second panel, at its vertical edge, has a connector plate coinciding with the first connector plate of the first panel and such that the vertical edges of the panels are disposed in overlapping relation to each other, the panels being assembled in contiguous overlapped relation and the connector plates being welded in custom fitted position so as to compensate for various minor dimensional differences in the panels as well as angular differences in them as they are supported on a foundation. The disclosure also relates to a novel coupling plate which is provided with large holes, larger than bolts projecting from the first connector plate connected to the first panel, and wherein the coupling plate is connected to the second connector plate of the second panel at an inner side of the first panel, whereby large holes in the coupling plate are greater in diameter than the diameter of bolts extending from the first connector plate to allow for relative expansive and contractive movement or other environmental movement of the panels relative to each other, after being assembled. The disclosure also relates to a method of panel connection in accordance with the foregoing disclosure description.

Description

ilitem Shnart tet 1 Dec. 3, 1974 [76] Inventor: Barry L. Shuart, 3739-W. Ocotillo Rd., Phoenix, Ariz. 85019 22 Filed: Jan. 19, 1973 21 Appl. No.: 325,188

[52] US. Cl 52/285, 52/542, 52/583, 52/587, 52/758 B, 52/543 [51] Int. Cl 1304b 2/88 [58] Field of Search 52/587, 295, 601, 521, 52/542, 285, 127, 583, 758 B [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,796,048 3/1931 Robinson 52/601 X 2,178,097 10/1939 Davison et a1. 52/601 X 2,310,442 2/1943 Knudsen 52/601 2,497,887 2/1950 Hilpert 52/601 X 3,228,161 1/1966 McCown 52/285 3,279,135 10/1966 Jacobsen 52/583 X 3,494,092 2/1970 Johnson et a1. 52/583 X 3,600,863 8/1971 Nachtsheim 52/583 X 3,604,174 9/1971 Nelson 52/601 3,733,757 5/1973 Scott 52/583 X 3,735,549 5/1973 Shuart 52/262 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 13,881 5/1929 Australia 52/285 974,238 11/1964 Great Britain 52/127 595,894

4/1960 Canada ..52/600 Primary Examiner--I-lenry C. Sutherland Assistant ExaminerLeslie A. Braun [57] ABSTRACT A building construction comprising tilt-up wall panels having connector plates cast in connection therewith such that a first one of said panels has a connector plate spaced from a vertical edge of the panel and a second panel, at its vertical edge, has a connector plate coinciding with the first connector plate of the first panel and such that the vertical edges of the panels are disposed in overlapping relation to each other, the panels being assembled in contiguous overlapped relation and the connector plates being welded in custom fitted position so as to compensate for various minor dimensional differences in the panels as well as angular differences in them as they are supported on a foundation. The disclosure also relates to a novel coupling plate which is provided with large holes, larger than bolts projecting from the first connector plate connected to the first panel, and wherein the coupling plate is connected to the second connector plate of the second panel at an inner side of the first panel,

whereby large holes in the coupling plate are greater in diameter than the diameter of bolts extending from the first connector plate to allow for relative expansive and contractive movement or other environmental movement of the panels relative to each other, after being assembled. The disclosure also relates to a method of panel connection in accordance with the foregoing disclosure description.

5 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures PATENTELDEE 3l974 SHEEI' 1 0f 2 BUILDING PANEL CONNECTION MEANS AND METHOD BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The building panelconnection means and method disclosed in the present'applicationis related to building construction such as disclosed in United States Patent 3,735,549

In accordance with prior art panel connection means' and methods, it has been difficult to cast connectors to concrete or other similar panels so that they will coincide accurately when the panels are placed in upright position in overlapped relation to each other, and it has been very difficult to provide casting facilities and methods to cast large panels accurately enough so that holes in connector means on one panel will exactly coincide with boltsprojecting from connector means on an adjacent overlapping panel. Large building panels which are cast on the foundation and tilted up are of I such magnitude that slight angularv or elevational differ- I ences in the panels will cause difficulty in alignment of bolts projecting from one connector to openings in another connector, and consequently many custom alterations have been resorted to in accordance with prior I art practices in order to make connectors coincide where bolted structures are used'on precast wall panels which are eventually assembled by tilting them up in overlapped relationship to eachother. Furthermore, some of the prior art panel connection devices have had portions of the metal structures thereof exposed at the outer sides of the panels and have been vulnerable to heat from fir'es'which may occur externally of the buildings 'utilizin'g such exposed panel connection means or connection plates which allow the panels to be bolted together. A

From the foregoing it will be appreciated that it has been a substantialproblem to artisans in the prior .art

to cast large wall panels on 1a floor or other area and then subsequently to tilt them up with connectors cast therein and to accurately assemble bolts into openings where the bolts are connected toon e of the panels and I of time and effort has been expended at the time when such precast or tilt-up panels are assembled, in a manher to provide for firm connection of the panels, yet

with some freedom thereof to shift relative to each other in response to various environmental conditions,

and particularly where connector means on the panels utilizes projecting bolts from one of the panels and connector means having corresponding'large openings on the other of the panels to fit over'the bolts properly to 'allow relative movement of the panels in several directions while they are firmly connected together.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a building panel connection means and method which is particularly important relative to the assembly of precast wall panels where it is desired to fix the panels together in overlapped relation and also to provide for some relative freedom of the panels to move in direction parallel to their sides and in response to various environmental conditions.

The invention comprises connection means which is adapted to couple first and second panels together, the means including a first connection plate secured to the inner side of the first panel in spaced relation to its adjacent vertical edge, the second panel having connection means fixed to its vertical edge to coincide with the connection means of the first panel, and when the panels are disposed in contiguous relationship with their lower edges resting on a foundation, the first and second connection plates secured to the first and second panels are welded together, generally at the inner side of the first panel and at the one overlapping edge of the second panel. Thus the panels may be assembled in contiguous position an custom fitted together and welded in fixed relationship. I

Another combination of the invention includes a sim' ilar arrangement, wherein a coupling plate is fixed to A large openings in the coupling plate are spaced in surrounding relation with the peripheries of the bolts projecting from the first coupling plate in connection with the first panel, so that when large washers are placed over the bolts and nuts are placed adjacent to washers, Y

the washers overlie the large openings in the coupling plate and allow the coupling plate,-together with the secondconne'ctor plate to move relative to the first connector plate which is fixed to the first panel. Ac-

cordingly, the first and second panels may move in varito which the panels are related.

The overlapping portions of the panels of the invention are in contiguous relationship to each other and the adjacent vertical edges are spaced apart, and a first connector plate is recessed in the inner side of the first panel in spaced relationship to its vertical edge, and a second connector plate is secured to the vertical edge of the second panel, spaced from the vertical edge of the first panel whichis disposed in contiguous relation with the outer side of the second panel. The first and second connector plates being fixed together and thus Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a novel method for securing building wall panels together in custom fitted relationship to each other and in a'custom fitted relationship which allows relative freedom of movement of the panels in directions parallel to the sides thereof in response to various environmental conditions.

Another object of the invention is to provide a novel building panel connection means which allows custom fitting and fixing of precast building wall panels together with a minimum of time and adjustment.

I Another object of the invention is to provide a novel building panel connection means including a pair of panels, the pair comprising first and second panels having vertical edges and inner and outer sides, the vertical edges of the panels being overlapped, the first panel being at the outer side of the second panel and having a connector cast therein in spaced relation from the vertical edges of the first panel, the second panel having a connector plate cast thereto at its vertical edge to coinicide with the first connector plate of the first panel, and either a weldment or a coupling plate fixes the first and second connector plates together in custom fitted relationship and when the coupling plate is used it employs largeopenings disposed over relatively smaller bolts on the first connector plate to permit-relative freedom of movement of the first and second panels relative to each other in directions parallel to their sides but limiting the movement of the panels laterally of each other.

Anotherobject of the invention is to provide a panel connection means in which the metal parts thereof are effectively shielded from a source of heat externally of the building panels when assembled.

Further objects and advantages of the invention may be apparent from the following specification, appended claims and accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a fragmentary perspective view of a plurality of wall panels secured together in accordance with the building panel connection means and method of the invention;

FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view showing a panel connection means similar to that shown in FIG. I;

FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken from the line 33 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 2 but showing a modified panel connection means of the inventionjand FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIGS. 2 and 4 but showing a panel connection means of the invention adapted for connecting panels at the corner of a building.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS 4 As shown in FIG. 1, the invention relates to a panel connection means for connecting panels together and constitutes an improvement over structures such as those shown is Pat. No. 3,279,135 and application of applicant, Ser. No. lOl ,864 filed Dec. 28, 1970 for building construction.

As shown in FIG. 1 of the drawings, a plurality of panels 10, II and 12 are arranged in overlapped relationship to each other and in vertical disposition, and connected together by the building panel connection means of the invention. The connection of the panels 11 and I2 will be used as an example in following description:

The panel I1 is provided with outer and inner sides 14 and 16, respectively, and the panel 12 is provided with outer and inner sides 18 and 20, respectively, and these sides are disposed in substantially a vertical position, as shown in FIG. 1. The panel 11 is also provivded with upper and lower edges 22 and 24, respectively, while the panel 12 is provided with upper and lower edges 26 and 30, respectively. The lower edges 24 and 30 of the panels 11 and 12 are adapted to rest on a foundation and in many cases these panels are cast on the foundation and then tilted up into vertical position and are connected together in an overlapping relationship.

Vertical edges 32 and 34 of the panels 11 and 12, respectively, are disposed in overlapped relationship to each other as shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 of the drawings, such that the inner side 16 of the panel 11 is contiguous with the outer side 18 of the panel 12 at an area designated 36 in FIG. 1 of the drawings.

As shown best in FIG. 3 of the drawings, the panel 11 is provided with a connector plate 38 which is cast into the inner surface 16 of the panel 11 with one edge 40 of the plate 38 remove from the vertical edge 32 of the panel 1 1.

Welded to the connector plate 38 are reinforcing bars 42 which are disclosed in FIG. 3 in solid lines, and in FIG. 4 in broken lines.

The plate 38 is provided with an inner surface 44 substantially flush with the surface 16 of the panel 11 and welded or otherwise fixed at 46 are bolts 48 provided with ends 50 which project away from the inner side 16 of the panel 11.

These bolts 48 project through large openings 52 in a coupling plate 54 and the openings 52 are substantially larger than the diameter of the bolt 48 so as to provide for freedom of movement as will be hereinafter described.

A large washer 56 is held contiguous with the coupling plate 54 and in overlapping relation with the large opening 52 by means of a nut 58 screwthreaded on the end 50 of the bolt 48.

The coupling plate 54 is welded at 60 to a connector plate 62 cast into the edge 34 of the panel 12. This connector plate 34 is substantially L-shap'ed and extends around a corner of the edge 34 into contiguous relation with the outer side 44 of the connector plate 38, all as shown best in FIG. 3 of thedrawings.

Reinforcing bars 64 are welded to the connector plate 62 and are cast into the panel 12 for securely holding the connector plate 34 in contiguous and flush relationship with the vertical edge 34 of the panel 12.

In a modification of the invention, the connector plate 38 is constructed similar to the plate 38 shown in FIG. 3, however, the bolts 48 are omitted from the plate 38 and the plate 38 is fixed to the connector plate 62 by means of a weld 63, all as will be hereinafter described in detail in accordance with an assembly method of the invention.

As shown in FIG. 5, the panel connection means of the invention comprises means for connecting'panels at the corner of a building. The panels at the corner of the building, as shown in FIG. 5 are designated 66 and 68 and are provided with respective outer sides 70 and 72 and respective inner sides 74 and 76. The panel 66 is provided with a connector plate 78 cast thereinto and having an end 80 substantially flush with a vertical edge 82 of the panel 66. Welded to the plate 78 are reinforcing bars 84 which are cast into the panel 66.

The panel 72 is provided with a connector plate 86 panel 72 and welded to this plate 86 are reinforcing members 88 which are cast into the panel 72.

Weld structure 90 is welded to the plates 78 and 86 to fix them together upon assembly in accordance with the method of the invention as will be hereinafter described in detail.

In accordance with the method of the invention, the panels 11 and 12 and other related panels are secured together after they have been tilted up or placed in vertical overlapping position, and as for example the adjacent ends 32 and 34 of the panels 11 and 12 are arranged in overlapped relation, and the connector plates 38 and 62 are cast in relation to the panels 11 and 12 respectively. The coupling plate is then placed in location and is so disposed that the openings 52 as shown in FIG. 3 are placed substantially concentric about the bolts 48. The bolts 43 are then provided with the washers 56 and nuts 58 to hold the respective coupling plate 54 in position. The vertical edge 34 of the panel 18 is so adjusted that the connector plate 62 ismoved into close proximity to an adjacent edge 53 of the coupling plate 54 and the weld 60 is then applied in a custom fitted relationship so that variations in the elevation of the panels 11 and 12 relative to each other, when resting at their lower edges 24 and 30 on a foundation, are automatically compensated for and any angular displacement may also be compensated for.

I It will be seen that the custom positioning of the weld 60 custom fixes the panels in relation to each other such that the large openings 52 are substantially concentric with the bolt 48 and that the large washers 56 overlap the openings 52 and clamp the coupling plate 54 to the connector plate 38 and thereby clamp the outer side 18' of the panel 12 in contiguous'relation' with the-inner side 16 of the'panel 11.

'which is substantially flush with the inner side 76 of the Also it will be noted that the contiguousrelationship I of the panels ll and 12 at; 36 provide a fire stop between the outer side 18 of the panel 12 and the edge of the connector plate 38 so as to minimize the fire hazard to the metal structure of the plate when a fire exists-"on the outer side of-the panels 11 and 12.

Further, according to the method of the invention, it will be seen that while the structures shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 of the drawings do not utilize an adjustable coupling plate 54, the welds 63 and 90 between the plates 38 and 62 as shown in FIG. 4 and. between the plates 78 and 86 as shown in FIG. 5, provide for custom fitting of the panels in a manner to accurately connect them together regardless of slight discrepancies in the cast panels.

The coupling plate 54 with its large opening 52 surrounding the bolt 48 provide for relative movement of the panels ll and 12in directions parallel to their inner and outer sides in accordance with environmental conditions such as, for example, expansion and contraction or slight settling of the. structure, such as the foundation or the like, thus the panel 11 may move relative to the panel 12, or vice versa, within the limits of the difference in diameter between the large openings 52 and the diameters of the bolts 48.

The structures as shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 of the drawing while they utilize substantially the same method, do not include the coupling plate 54 and these structures may be used where it is not necessary to have or provide for relative movement of the panels, depending upon the architectural design.

As shown in FIG. 1 of the drawings, the panel connection means of the invention may apply to both the upper and lower edge areas of the panels 10, 11 and 12, and the method of providing the welds 60 may be similar to that as hereinbefore described in relation to FIG. 3 of the drawings.

It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various modifications of the invention may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of the invention.

I claim:

1. In a building panel connection means, the combination of: first and second substantially vertical wall panels each having inner and outer sides, vertical edges and lower portions, and also holding adjacent substantially vertical edges overlapped relative to each other such that an inner side of said first wall panel is substantially contiguous with the outer side of said second wall panel between said overlapped edges; a first connector plate disposed at said inner side of said first wall panel in a location to coincide with said vertical edge of said second wall panel; said first connector plate having first anchor means cast in said first wall panel; a second connector plate disposed at said-vertical edge and outer side of said second wall panel; said second connector plate having'second anchor means in said second wall panel; said first and. second connector plates disposed to coincide with each other when lower portions of said. first and second wall panels aresupported on a foundation; bolts secured to (in) said first connector plate and projecting in a direction away from said innerside of said first wall panel; a coupling plate having openings therein larger than the diameter of said bolts and generally coinciding therewith; large washers overlying said openings insaid coupling plate; nuts on said bolts bearing against said washers; and weld structure fixing said coupling plate'to said second connector plate whereby said openings in said coupling plate being larger'than the diameter of saidbolts provide for relative movement of said first and second panels relative to each other due to contraction or expansion in response to varying environmental conditions; said first wall panel having first anchor means spaced from its vertical edge"; said first connector plate and said coupling plate extending beyondsaid vertical edge of said second wall panel, at the inner side of said first wall panel, whereby said openings of said coupling plate may be placedover said bolts before said coupling plate is welded to said second connector plate.

2. The invention as defined in claim 1, wherein: said first connector plate is recessed flush with the inner side of said first wall panel.

3. The invention as defined in claim 2, wherein: said first connector plate is spaced from said vertical edge of said first wall panel and said inner and outer sides of said first and second panels, respectively, being contig-' -uous to each other to shield said first connector plate from heat of fire which may be disposed at outer sides of said panels.

4. The invention as defined in claim 1, wherein: said wall structure being so disposed that it fixes said coupling plate and said second connector plate together in a custom fitted position, depending on elevation and lateral, as well as angular disposition of said first and second panels at said overlapped edges as they are placed in assembled position relative to each other with said lower portions thereof supported on a foundation.

5. A building panel connection method, comprising: casting first and second substantially flat wall panels with inner and outer sides and lower portions, and with normally vertical edges; casting first and second connector plates in connection with said first and second panels at locations spaced from a vertical edge of the first panel and at the vertical edge of the second panel, respectively, then placing said panels in substantially vertical position with their vertical edges overlapping such that said connector plates are substantially coinciding, and providing bolts extending from first connector plate in a direction away from the inner side of said first wall panel; preparing a coupling plate with holes larger than the bolts and placing coupling plate in position with the holes surrounding said bolts and adjacent said first connector plate while the first and second wall panels are held in contiguous relationship to each other at their respective inner and outer sides, then welding said coupling plate to said second connector plate of said second wall panel, then placing large washers around said bolts, then placing nuts on said bolts to bear against said washers such that the washers overlie said openings and clamp said coupling plate to said first connector plate, whereby the large openings in the coupling plate allow for relative movement of the first and second panels in directions parallel to the inner and outer sides of said panels, respectively.

Claims (5)

1. In a building panel connection means, the combination of: first and second substantially vertical wall panels each having inner and outer sides, vertical edges and lower portions, and also holding adjacent substantially vertical edges overlapped relative to each other such that an inner side of said first wall panel is substantially contiguous with the outer side of said second wall panel between said overlapped edges; a first connector plate disposed at said inner sIde of said first wall panel in a location to coincide with said vertical edge of said second wall panel; said first connector plate having first anchor means cast in said first wall panel; a second connector plate disposed at said vertical edge and outer side of said second wall panel; said second connector plate having second anchor means in said second wall panel; said first and second connector plates disposed to coincide with each other when lower portions of said first and second wall panels are supported on a foundation; bolts secured to (in) said first connector plate and projecting in a direction away from said inner side of said first wall panel; a coupling plate having openings therein larger than the diameter of said bolts and generally coinciding therewith; large washers overlying said openings in said coupling plate; nuts on said bolts bearing against said washers; and weld structure fixing said coupling plate to said second connector plate whereby said openings in said coupling plate being larger than the diameter of said bolts provide for relative movement of said first and second panels relative to each other due to contraction or expansion in response to varying environmental conditions; said first wall panel having first anchor means spaced from its vertical edge; said first connector plate and said coupling plate extending beyond said vertical edge of said second wall panel, at the inner side of said first wall panel, whereby said openings of said coupling plate may be placed over said bolts before said coupling plate is welded to said second connector plate.
2. The invention as defined in claim 1, wherein: said first connector plate is recessed flush with the inner side of said first wall panel.
3. The invention as defined in claim 2, wherein: said first connector plate is spaced from said vertical edge of said first wall panel and said inner and outer sides of said first and second panels, respectively, being contiguous to each other to shield said first connector plate from heat of fire which may be disposed at outer sides of said panels.
4. The invention as defined in claim 1, wherein: said wall structure being so disposed that it fixes said coupling plate and said second connector plate together in a custom fitted position, depending on elevation and lateral, as well as angular disposition of said first and second panels at said overlapped edges as they are placed in assembled position relative to each other with said lower portions thereof supported on a foundation.
5. A building panel connection method, comprising: casting first and second substantially flat wall panels with inner and outer sides and lower portions, and with normally vertical edges; casting first and second connector plates in connection with said first and second panels at locations spaced from a vertical edge of the first panel and at the vertical edge of the second panel, respectively, then placing said panels in substantially vertical position with their vertical edges overlapping such that said connector plates are substantially coinciding, and providing bolts extending from first connector plate in a direction away from the inner side of said first wall panel; preparing a coupling plate with holes larger than the bolts and placing coupling plate in position with the holes surrounding said bolts and adjacent said first connector plate while the first and second wall panels are held in contiguous relationship to each other at their respective inner and outer sides, then welding said coupling plate to said second connector plate of said second wall panel, then placing large washers around said bolts, then placing nuts on said bolts to bear against said washers such that the washers overlie said openings and clamp said coupling plate to said first connector plate, whereby the large openings in the coupling plate allow for relative movement of the first and second panels in directions parallel to the inner and outer sides of said panels, respectively.
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US3993341A (en) * 1975-01-14 1976-11-23 Bentley Charles A Deck structure and connector for building construction
US4273377A (en) * 1979-04-09 1981-06-16 Alexander Ronald R Tonneau cover apparatus for pickup truck vehicles
GB2142952A (en) * 1983-05-25 1985-01-30 Freyssinet Int Stup Curtain walling with allowance for thermal expansion and contraction of panels
US4569167A (en) * 1983-06-10 1986-02-11 Wesley Staples Modular housing construction system and product
US5048243A (en) * 1988-03-11 1991-09-17 Ward John D Earthquake restraint mechanism
US5493836A (en) * 1993-12-20 1996-02-27 Lopez-Munoz; Humberto Building system based upon preformed modules
WO1999006642A1 (en) * 1997-07-29 1999-02-11 Strathclyde Technologies, Inc. Building panels for use in the construction of buildings
ES2125157A1 (en) * 1995-12-21 1999-02-16 Bscp Building System With Conc Process for constructing buildings by means of prefabricated reinforced-concrete pieces
ES2279655A1 (en) * 2004-05-13 2007-08-16 Jose Gonzalez Hernandez Mechanized system for constructing houses and buildings uses panels and slabs that include all technical installations of house in addition to metallic connectors and welded metallic mesh
US20070194670A1 (en) * 2006-02-22 2007-08-23 Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. Showcase
GB2441134A (en) * 2006-08-23 2008-02-27 Mehdi Robert Teers Pre-cast concrete building system with dry-form assembly methods
ES2345229A1 (en) * 2008-04-17 2010-09-17 Francisco Lopez Hinojosa System for joining reinforced concrete plates in prefabricated buildings.
US20120213961A1 (en) * 2011-02-16 2012-08-23 Robert Graham Modular building system
US20150020463A1 (en) * 2013-07-17 2015-01-22 University Of Dayton Rapid assembly of a modular structure
US20150159362A1 (en) * 2006-12-22 2015-06-11 Simpson Strong-Tie Company Inc. Moment frame connector

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
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