US3851173A - Thermal energy receiver - Google Patents

Thermal energy receiver Download PDF

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US3851173A
US3851173A US37335273A US3851173A US 3851173 A US3851173 A US 3851173A US 37335273 A US37335273 A US 37335273A US 3851173 A US3851173 A US 3851173A
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detector
infrared
member
vacuum module
receiver according
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C Taylor
S Whicker
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Texas Instruments Inc
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Texas Instruments Inc
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT COVERED BY ANY OTHER SUBCLASS
    • F25D19/00Arrangement or mounting of refrigeration units with respect to devices or objects to be refrigerated, e.g. infra-red detectors
    • F25D19/006Thermal coupling structure or interface
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B9/00Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point
    • F25B9/14Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point characterised by the cycle used, e.g. Stirling cycle
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J5/02Details
    • G01J5/06Arrangements for eliminating effects of disturbing radiation
    • G01J5/061Arrangements for eliminating effects of disturbing radiation using cooling or thermostating of parts of the apparatus
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2309/00Gas cycle refrigeration machines
    • F25B2309/003Gas cycle refrigeration machines characterised by construction or composition of the regenerator

Abstract

A thermal energy receiver having an infrared detector array mounted in a detector-vacuum module and a refrigerator for cooling the detector to an operating temperature is disclosed. The detector-vacuum module includes a dewar having a cold finger supporting a detector array mount and an infrared detector array attached to the mount. The refrigerator includes a cold finger having at one end a heat transfer mechanism, a regeneratordisplacer having an annulus structure, and an off-axis drive mechanism interconnecting the regenerator-displacer and a compressor piston to a driver motor. The heat transfer mechanism provides greater efficiency in cooling the detector array, the annulus provides a cryogen passage from the compressor to the regenerator-displacer throughout reciprocation thereof to eliminate ''''dead-space'''' when the displacer is mounted in a closed cylinder, and the off-axis drive mechanism structure provides a large bearing structure which resists axial movement due to shock vibration.

Description

United States Taylor et al.

[ Nov. 26, 1974 THERMAL ENERGY RECEIVER Inventors: Carol 0. Taylor, Anna; Stephen L.

Whicker, Dallas, both of Tex.

Assignees Texas instruments incorporated,

Dallas, Tex.

Filed: June 25, 1973 Appl. N0.: 373,352

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 9/1960 Fong 250/352 7/1966 Lederhandler... 250/352 2/1968 Toussaint 250/551 6/l973 Hoffman 250/347 Primary Examiner-Harold A. Dixon Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Harold Levine; Rene E. Grossman; Alva H. Bandy [57] ABSTRACT A thermal energy receiver having an infrared detector array mounted in a detector-vacuum module and a refrigerator for cooling the detector to an operating temperature is disclosed. The detector-vacuum module includes a dewar having a cold finger supporting a detector array mount and an infrared detector array attached to the mount. The refrigerator includes a cold finger having at one end a heat transfer mechanism, a regenerator-displacer having an annulus structure, and an off-axis drive mechanism interconnecting the regenerator-displacer and a compressor piston to a driver motor. The heat transfer mechanism provides greater efficiency in cooling the detector array, the annulus provides a cryogen passage from the compressor to the regenerator-displacer throughout reciprocation thereof to eliminate dead-space" when the displacer is mounted in a closed cylinder, and the off-axis drive mechanism structure provides a large bearing structure which resists axial movement due to shock vibration.

16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures DETECTOR To 124/ a userno OPTtCS,/4

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PATENIE 1291/26 1974 3851.173 sum 2 or 5 PATENTEL W 3,851 1 73 sum 30F s DISPLACER TOP DEAD CENTER A DEAD CENTER- DISPLACER BOTTOM DEAD CENTER COMPRESSOR BOTTOM V DEAD CENTER This invention relates to a thermal energy detector and more particularly to an infrared receiver.

In the past infrared receivers have had the detector array permanently mounted upon the cold finger of the refrigerator, and the refrigerator has been either an open cycle or closed cycle refrigerator system.

Many problems have resulted from use of the abovementioned structures in infrared receivers. These problems stem from the reliability, maintainability, power, heat dissipation, and weight of such prior art systems. For example, the reliability of the prior art systems have been dependent upon the mean time before failare of the refrigerators rather than the detectors; thus, an improved refrigerator would increase the life time of the receiver. For another example, the maintenance of the receiver, with the detector permanently attached to the refrigerator, has required that the entire receiver be returned for repair. Thus, a modular construction would permit the interchange of parts and result in substantial savings in the maintenance and repair of infrared receivers.

Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide an improved, highly reliable thermal energy receiver which is economical to manufacture.

Another object of the invention is to provide a modular thermal energy receiver, which is easy and economical to maintain and repair.

Still another object of the invention is to provide an efficient refrigerator system for a detector-vacuum module of the thermal energy receiver.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide a detector-vacuum module for an infrared receiver which is readily detached from the refrigerator system for replacement purposes.

A further object of the invention is to provide a heat transfer mechanism for increasing the thermal transfer efficiency between the detector-vacuum module and the refrigerator of the thermal energy receiver.

The above and other objects of this invention are accomplished by providing a modular type thermal energy receiver which comprises four separate or independent modules; namely, a cryogenic cooler or refrigerator, an optical scanner, a detector-vacuum module, and an electro-optics module. The cryogenic. cooler may be, for example, either a Joule-Thomson cooler or cryostat, or a closed cycle refrigerator such as that disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,334,491 issued Aug. 8, 1967. The refrigerator disclosed in the patent has been moditied to incorporate novel features such as a modified off-axis drive mechanism and cryogen line arrangement between the compressor and cold chamber to improve the cooling efficiency and reliability of the refrigerator. A novel heat transfer mechanism is provided between the refrigerator cold finger and the cold finger of the detector vacuum module for the efficient cooling of the detector array mounted in the detector-vacuum module. The removable detector-vacuum module includes a cooling member mating with either the cryostat or the cold finger of the refrigerator. The cooling member of the detector vacuum-module forms the interior wall of a dewar vacuum chamber and has electrical leads etched thereon to connect the detectors of the detector array to the multiple pin outlets for the electro-optics module connectors. The electro-optics module may be. for example, that disclosed in US. Pat. No. 3,742,238

issued June 26, 1973, and assigned to common assignee Texas Instruments Incorporated.

Other objects and features of this invention will become more readily apparent from the following detailed description when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the thermal energy receiver constituting the subject matter of this invention;

FIG. 2 is an isometric view of the infrared receiver embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 3 is a view, partly in section, disclosing the offaxis drive mechanism and cryogenic flow system of the refrigerator;

FIG. 4 is a view, partly in section, disclosing the motor drive mechanism for the off-axis drive mechanism of the refrigerator;

FIG. 5 is a plot of the operating cycle of the refrigerator;

FIG. 6 is a partial view of the infrared receiver showing the details and relationship of the heat transfer mechanism to the refrigerator cold finger and the cold finger of the detector-vacuum module;

FIG. 7 is a view partly in section showing the relationship of the parts of the detector-vacuum module to the cold finger of the refrigerator; and

FIG. 8 is an exploded view of the cryostat and adapter embodiment of the invention.

Referring now to the drawings, the thermal radiation receiver 10 is shown in FIG. 1 as a. block diagram to illustrate the operational relationship of the major components. The thermal radiation receiver 10 (FIGS. 1 and 2) comprises an optical scanner 11, detector array 12, electro-optics l4, vacuum module 16, and refrigerator 18. The detector array 12 is in the path of incoming thermal energy scanned by optical scanner 11 to which it is responsive to produce electrical signals representative of the thermal energy image impinging thereon. The electrical signals of the detector array 12 are processed for display in a selected one of many electro-optical systems 14. An example of a suitable electro-optics display system is the system of previously referred to US. Pat. No. 3,742,238 issued June 26, 1973. The detector array 12 is mounted for cooling in a detector-vacuum module 16. The detector or detector array 12 of the detector-vacuum module 16 is cooled by a suitable cooler such as, for example, a refrigerator 18 or cryostat 18 (FIG. 8). The refrigerator 18 (FIGS. 1 and 2) must have a sufficient cooling capacity to cool the detector array to its operating temperature. The system hereinafter described is particularly suitable for cooling an infrared detector array such as, for example, a mercury, cadmium telluride detector array to a temperature of about 77K or below.

In the preferred embodiment of the invention the thermal energy detector 10 is cooled by a closed cycle refrigerator such as a Stirling Cycle Cooler 20 (FIG. 3). The refrigerator system is comprised of two major components; namely, a compressor 22 and a cooling head 24. The major components are interconnected by a common drive mechanism 26 driven by a motor 28. Except for the cooling head which is attached to housing 30, all of the components are mounted in the housing 30. The working fluid or cryogen, which may be for example, helium, flows freely between the compressor and cooling head as will be hereinafter described; that is, no valves are included in the cyrogen system for controlling the flow of the cryogen. The compressor 22 is preferably an air cooled, dry lubricated unit of single piston design. The cooling head 24 (FIG. 3) consists of a regenerator-displacer 32, and an annulus 34 which, as shown, is formed as an integral part of the regenerator-displacer 32.

The motor 28 (FIG. 4) may be, for example, an electrical motor of about one-twentieth horsepower powered by either a dc or a.c. source of power to rotate a drive shaft 36 mounted in ball bearings 38. Drive shaft 36 is connected to a geared speed reducer consisting of spur gears 40 and 42. Spur gear 40 is a driving pinion gear 40 and the other spur gear 42 is a driven gear. The driven gear 42 is mounted on output shaft 44 journaled in ball bearings 46. The output shaft 14, which is driven at about 1,500 rpm, has an eccentric cam 48 (FIG. 3) mounted thereon engaging bearing surface 50 of master piston connecting rod 52. The master piston rod 52 (FIG. 3) is connected to compressor-piston 54 by pin 56 passing through the pistons skirt. The compressor piston 54, which has a diameter of about 1 inch, is mounted in compression cylinder 58, formed in housing 30. A boss 60 is formed on the eye, which has a diameter of about 1 inch, of the master rod 52 at right angles to the rod portion thereof. An auxiliary or slave rod 62 has one end pivotally connected to the boss 60 by pin 64 and at its other end pivotally connected to ears 66 of the regenerator-displacer 32, which has a diameter of about /2 inch, mounted in a cylinder or cold finger 70. This off-axis drive mechanism, when driving the piston and regeneratordisplacer of the above-mentioned sizes, produces no force couple about the crank axis, and the master rod provides a wide bearing seat on the crank that resists rod rotation while maintaining low bearing loads. It has been found that this arrangement increases substantially the reliability of the refrigerator.

The regenerator-displacer 32 includes a displacer cylinder 72 enclosing a heat exchanger 74 such as, for example, a plurality (about 850) of fine (about 325-400) mesh metal (stainless steel) screens. The displacer cylinder 72 is about V2 inch in diameter and is made of plastic such as, for example, Lexan or fiberglass. An annulus 34 is formed in the periphery of the cylinder 72 adjacent the ear bearing end. As the annulus 34 is formed as part of the reciprocating regenerator-displacer, it is referred to as a floating annulus. A plurality of ports 78 are provided in the bottom of the annulus 34 which provide passages to the heat exchanger 74. The cylinder 72 has a plurality of ports 80 in the end opposite the annulus 34; these ports provide passages into a cold chamber 82 defined by the space between the cylinder 72 and the interior of cold finger 70. The annulus 34 of the cylinder 72 is sealed off from the cold chamber 82 and the off-axis drive mechanism chamber by a pair of seals 84 and 86 such as those sold under the trademark Bal Seals (a spring loaded Teflon) which are in sealing engagement with the interior of the cold finger 70 above and below the annulus 34. These seals 84 and 86 also provide axial motion guides for the regenerator-displacer. The floating annulus substantially eliminates the dead space of systems utilizing a stationary cylinder with a reciprocating heat exchanger mounted therein. The only dead space being that of the annulus 34. The minimum annulus volume is determined by the allowable pressure drop therein.

The cold finger has a lower portion defined by an outwardly extending flange 88 and an open end 89. The open end 89 is seated in a bore provided therefore in the housing 30. A sealing ring 90 seals the space be tween the cold finger 70 and the housing 30 to prevent the escape of cryogen from that part of the housing 30 enclosing the off-axis drive mechanism 26. A retaining member 94 has a lower flange 96 attached to housing 30 and an upper flange 98 which has an annular recess 100 in which the flange 88 of the cold finger is seated.

The cold finger 70 has a manifold 102 having a plurality of ports 104 in communication with the annulus 34 of the regenerator-displacer 32. The manifold 102 is also in communication with an air cooled passage 106 of housing 30 opening into the compression cylinder 58.

The volumes of the compression cylinder 58, housing passage 106, cold finger manifold 102, regeneratordisplacer annulus 34, cylinder 72, and cold chamber 82 form the cryogen line which is filled with a suitable cryogen such as, for example, helium.

In operation, the regenerator-displacer 32 and the compression piston 54 being connected to the off-axis drive mechanism 26, operate along intersecting axes and 90 out of phase with one another. Thus, as the regenerator-displacer 32 reciprocates, the volume of the cold chamber 82 decreases and increases in accordance with the following description of one operating cooling cycle.

The refrigeration cycle may best be understood be referring to FIG. 5 wherein the letters A, B, C, and D represent the positions of the regenerator-displacer 32 and the compression piston 54 as follows: positions A and B represent respectively the top dead center positions of the regenerator-displacer and the compressor piston, and positions C and D represent respectively the bottom dead center positions of the regeneratordisplacer 32 and the compressor piston. It is known that in the Stirling Cycle the cryogen flowing through the regenerator-displacer absorbs heat from the regenerator mass during its flow from the colder end of the regenerator to the hotter end and gives up heat to the regenerator mass during its flow from the hotter end to the cooler end. It is also known that the cryogen is cooled and densified in passing through the regenerator-displacer and during its expansion in the cold chamber. Thus, at position A the regenerator-displacer 32 has reached top dead center and the compressor piston 54 has reached the mid-point of its compression stroke in cylinder 58. At this point the cryogen pressure is approaching its maximum value and the volume of the cold chamber is increasing from a minimum. The regenerator mass is absorbing heat from the cryogen. At position B the regenerator-displacer 32 has been withdrawn through the cryogen flowing into the cold chamber and the volume of the cold chamber has increased to one-half its maximum; the compressor piston 54 has arrived at top dead center to complete its upward stroke. The cryogen has passed its maximum pressure point and the pressure has returned to an intermediate value. At point C the regenerator-displacer 32 is at bottom dead center and the compression piston 54 has proceeded downwardly to the midpoint of compression cylinder 58. The cryogen pressure has further decreased and the cold chamber is at its maximum volume. The cryogen at this point is approaching the completion of its expansion and its flow is back through the regenerator mass collecting heat on its way to the compression cylinder 58. At point D, the regeneratordisplacer has moved upwardly to reduce in half the volume of the cold chamber 82 and the compressor piston has reached bottom dead center. At this point the cryogen has passed its lowest pressure point and the pressure is on the rise; the volume of the cold chamber has passed its maximum volume and its volume has reduced to about one-half its maximum volume. The cryogen is now being compressed and is flowing out of the compression cylinder 58. The cycle is completed when the regenerator-displacer returns to its position at point A. It will be understood that the heat of compression of the cryogen is dissipated through the housing 31) and the cryogen enters the regenerator at the ambient temperature on its way to the cold chamber 82 where it reaches its cooling temperature, and upon its return through the regenerator mass it collects heat and leaves the regenerator at the ambient temperature and reenters the compression cylinder for another cycle.

The cold finger 70, as previously mentioned, is cooled by the extraction of heat therefrom by the re frigerator and in the past, the detector array was mounted directly on the exterior wall of the cold finger 70 and the dewar was formed therewith. However, to improve maintenance capability a detector-vacuum module 16 (FIG. 7) which is removable from the cold finger 70 is used in the embodiment of the present invention. To alleviate the loss of cooling capacity the cold finger 7th is provided with a heat transfer mechanism 110 (FIG. 6). The heat transfer mechanism includes a coupling member 112 having an H crosssection. The lower portion of the coupling member 112 is configured after the configuration of the cold finger 70 upon which it is mounted and secured by brazing, for example. The upper portion of the coupling member is opened and seats a coil spring 114 together with a depending portion of flanged member 116. The spring 114 biases the flanged member 116 into engagement with the detector-vacuum module 16. The heat transfer mechanism may be coated with a material having a high heat transfer coefficient such as a silver filled silicon grease, or the flanged member 116 may include a flexible heat transfer strip 118 of a heat conducting metal as shown in dotted lines in FIG. 6. The heat conducting metal flex strip 118 has one end portion attached to the flanged member 116 and the other end attached to the cross member of the coupling member 112, or if the cross-memberis cut out as shown in FIG. 6, to the end of the cold finger 71). Another arrangement for the heat transfer mechanism eliminates the coupling member 112 by making the flanged member 116 a coupling member which fits slidingly over the cold finger with the spring 114 therebetween.

The detector-vacuum module 16 (FIG. 7) includes a cylinder or second cold-finger 120. The cylinder 120 has walls 122 formed of a suitable insulating material such as a hard glass sold as Corning Glass No. 7052, an open end and a closed end 124 of a suitable metal or glass. The metal end 124 is constructed of a metal alloy having a glass matching coefficient of expansion such as the metal alloy sold under the trademark Kovar. The combination of Coming Glass No. 7052 and Kovar is preferred as the temperature coefficients of expansion are compatible. The open end of the cylinder is formed by a metal ring 126 also constructed, for example, of the Kovar metal alloy. The metal ring 126 is attached to an adapter 128 having a lower flange 130 and an upper support flange 132. The lower flange 130 receives O-ring 134 and fasteners such as screwed or bolts 136 for attachment to the upper flange 98 of the cold finger retaining member 94.

The detector array 12 is attached by a suitable bonding material such as an epoxy to a mount 138 attached to the metal or glass end 124 of cylinder 120. A plurality of leads 141) (220 for a 180 element detector array) are provided which connect the detectors of the detector array 12 to a plurality of lead terminals 142 of leads 144. The lead terminals 142 are formed on insulating material attached to the metal end 124, and the leads are attached by any suitable technique such as ball bonding. The leads 144 are preferably metalized on the glass walls 122 of cylinder 120, and are connected to ends of a lead pattern 146 formed on a flat annular disk 148. The disk 148 is formed from an insulating material which, for example, may be of a ceramic material. The annular ring 148 circumscribes the cylinder 120 and is supported by the upper support flange 132. The lead pattern 146 may be formed by metalizing a lead pattern on the ceramic ring 148.

The lead pattern 146 includes at ends opposite those connected to leads 144 a plurality of terminals connected to conductor posts 150 mounted in holes in the ceramic ring 148. The posts 150 extend above and below the ceramic ring 148. A plurality of resistor biasing packs 152 are attached beneath the ceramic ring 148. For example, four biasing packs 152 are provided each carrying 45 resistors 154 connected to the lower ends of conductor posts 150. The lower ends of posts 150 are also attached to a corresponding number of leads which may be formed on an H film 156 having their other ends attached to receptacle 157 for the electrical input terminals of the detector-vacuum module 16. The receptacle 157 is supported by bracket and gusset 160. The electrical input terminals 158, which are connected to the output terminals 157 of the infrared receiver, are attached to the electro-optics package 14, and supply a bias for the detector circuits from a bias power source and receive the biased output of the detector array 12.

The detector array 12 is enclosed by a cylinder 166 having an open end secured to a flange of adapter 170. The other end of the adapter is attached to a support member 172 sealing the adapter to the ceramic ring 148 to form a vacuum chamber 174 between the cylinders 120 and 166. A pinch tube 175 is used to provide the vacuum in vacuum chamber 174.

The vacuum chamber is equipped with a getter 176 mounted in cylinder 166. The active getter 176 is connected to a source of power (not shown) and fired on an as required basis to maintain the vacuum in the vacuum chamber 174. The getter 176 which may be, for example, SAES non-evaporable active getter material, extends substantially the life of the detector-vacuum module 16. A shield 178 surrounds a substantial portion of the walls of cylinder 120 to protect the cold finger and cylinder 122 from the action of the getter 176 and to reduce dewar thermal heat leak; it is mounted in the support member 172.

A housing 181) encloses the components of the detector-vacuum module 16. The housing 180 has an in wardly extending flange 182 to which a retaining member 1183 is attached by screws 184 to support flange 130 for rotation. The rotation of flange 130 permits positional adjustment of the detector array to the optical scanner 11 to effect proper scanning action for the field of view.

The biased outputs of the detectors of the detector array 12 are fed to the electro-optical system l4. Although the electro-optical system 14 is determined by the type of display desired, many systems are known to those skilled in the art. A suitable electro-optical system is shown in the above-mentioned US. Pat. No. 3,742,238 issued June 26, 1973.

In another embodiment of the invention the refrigerator is replaced by a suitable cryostat such as, for example, Joule-Thomson cryostat 18' shown in FIG. 8. To provide a versatile system; that is, one which can use either a refrigerator or a cryostat with the detectorvacuum module, the detector-vacuum module 16 is designed to receive the cold finger '70 of the refrigerator or an adapter member 186 (FIG. 8) for a cryostat. The adapter 186 is made of a suitable material such as, for example, an expanded synthetic resinous material sold under the trademark Styrofoam. To make a cryostat operative it is essential that the cryogen pass down the cryostat walls in close approximation thereof. The adapter 186 fills the space between the cylinder 120 of the detector-vacuum module and the cryostat l8 necessary for the proper operation of the cryostat.

In operation of the infrared receiver 10, the refrigerator 18 is activated to cool the detector array 12 to its operating temperature. The infrared receiver is then directed to a desired field of view; infrared energy emanating from the subject of the field of view impinges upon the detectors of the detector array 112. The detectors produce electrical signals representative of the intensity of the infrared energy. These electrical signals are biased by a standard bias to provide signals of a strength suitable for processing by the electro-optical system 14. Processing includes amplification of the signals and applying them to light emitting diodes for producing visible light signals which may be televised, displayed upon a screen, or viewed directly as desired.

Although several embodiments of this invention have been described herein, it will be apparent to a person skilled in the art that various modifications to the details of construction shown and described may be made without departing from the scope of this invention.

What is claimed is:

l. An infrared receiver comprising:

a. an infrared detector in a scanning path of infrared energy emanating from a source thereof for producing electrical signals representative of impinging infrared energy;

b. a detector-vacuum module including an elongated vacuum chamber one end wall of which forms a first cold finger having integral therewith a seat portion rigidly supporting the infrared detector thereon, and an electrical conductor means coupled to the detector for collecting the electrical signals produced by the detector;

c. a refrigerator means having a motor driven compressor, a cooling member including a second elongated cold finger, means for selectively coupling the second cold finger of the cooling member in sealing engagement within and in conductive contact with said end of the first cold finger of the detector-vacuum module for cooling the detector to an operative temperature for producing the electrical signals, said detector-vacuum module removably attached to said cooling member; and

d. an electro-optical system coupled to the electrical conductor means of the detector-vacuum module for processing video signals from the electrical signals produced by the infrared detector.

2. An infrared receiver according to claim I wherein said infrared detector is a mercury cadmium telluride detector array.

3. An infrared receiver comprising:

a. an optical scanner for scanning a scene;

b. an infrared detector in the scanning path of infra red energy emanating from the scene scanned by the optical scanner for producing electrical signals representative of impinging infrared energy;

0. a detector-vacuum module having a first tubular member having an open end with an outwardly extending flange, a detector seat to which the infrared detector is attached, said detector seat closing the end of the first tubular member opposite to the open end; a second tubular member surrounding the first tubular member to form a vacuum chamber therebetween and electrical conductors having terminals mounted on the detector seat connecting the infrared detector and terminals exteriorly of the second tubular member;

(1. a refrigerator means having a motor driven compressor, a cooling member, and an outwardly extending flange corresponding to the outwardly extending flange of the detector-vacuum module, the cooling member in contact with the detector seat of the detector-vacuum module for cooling the detector to an operative temperature for producing electrical signals representative of the scanned scene, said outwardly extending flange member at the open end of the detector-vacuum module being attached for rotation on the corresponding flange of the refrigerator for positionally adjusting the detector as to the optical scanner; and

e. an electro-optical system coupled to the electrical conductor means of the detector-vacuum module for processing video signals from the electrical signals produced by the infrared detector.

41. An infrared receiver according to claim 3 wherein the refrigerator cooling member is a cryostat and the detector-vacuum module further includes a guide member in sealing engagement with the first tubular member of the detector-vacuum module, said guide member operative to retain the flow of gas from the cryostat adjacent the cryostat;

5. An infrared receiver according to claim 3 wherein portions of the detectors electrical conductors are leads metalized on the first tubular member.

6. An infrared receiver according to claim 5 wherein portions of the detectors leads include an H film pattern of electrical leads interconnecting theplurality of electrical conductor posts of the insulator disk to the output terminals of the detector-vacuum module.

7. An infrared receiver according to claim 3 wherein the refrigerator cooling member includes a cold finger.

8. An infrared receiver according to claim 7 wherein the cold finger of said refrigerator means includes a spring biased heat transfer mechanism.

9. An infrared receiver according to claim 7 wherein the cold finger of said refrigerator means comprises a tubular member correspondingly shaped to fit within the vacuum chamber of the detector-vacuum module, said tubular member having an open end in communication with the refrigerator and a closed end with a recess forming a wall therein, a spring biased plate member mounted in said well, the spring of said spring biased plate member operative to maintain the plate member in Contact with the detector-vacuum'module seat for the infrared detector.

10. An infrared receiver according to claim 9 wherein said spring biased plate member further includes an expandable heat conducting ribbon for conducting heat from the infrared detector seat to the cold finger.

11. An infrared receiver according to claim 10 wherein the spring biased plate member further in cludes a base plate member attached to the end of the spring biased plate member opposite the plate and wherein said expandable heat conducting ribbon is positioned between the plates with end portions attached thereto.

12. An infrared receiver according to claim 3 further including an electrical feedthrough comprising an insulator disk extending beyond the second tubular member and having an aperture through which the first tubular member is positioned, said insulator disk including a plurality of electrical conductor posts mounted in the insulator disk exteriorly of the second tubular member and a lead pattern of electrical conductors metalized on the insulator disk, the leads connected tothe electrical conductor posts and extending inwardly toward the inner periphery of the insulator disk, the insulator disk, lead pattern and posts forming a feedthrough through the second tubular member for the detector's electrical conductors.

L3. An infrared receiver according to claim 12 furth er including plurality of resistor biasing packs conne'cted to the insulator disk, the packs including a plurality of resistor circuits selectively coupled to the electrical conductor posts of the insulator disk for electrically biasing the detector outputs.

14. An infrared receiver according to claim 13 wherein the detector is a mercury cadmium telluridc detector and portions of the detectors lead include an H film pattern of electrical leads interconnecting the plurality of electrical conductor posts of the insulator disk to the output terminals of the detector-vacuum module and input of biasing power.

15. An infrared receiver according to claim 3 further including a getter means in communication with the vacuum chamber and operatively responsive to electrical signals for maintaining a vacuum in said vacuum chamber.

16. An infrared receiver according to claim 15 further including a radiation shield for protecting the cooling member from radiation.

Claims (16)

1. An infrared receiver comprising: a. an infrared detector in a scanning path of infrared energy emanating from a source thereof for producing electrical signals representative of impinging infrared energy; b. a detector-vacuum module including an elongated vacuum chamber one end wall of which forms a first cold finger having integral therewith a seat portion rigidly supporting the infrared detector thereon, and an electrical conductor means coupled to the detector for collecting the electrical signals produced by the detector; c. a refrigerator means having a motor driven compressor, a cooling member including a second elongated cold finger, means for selectively coupling the second cold finger of the cooling member in sealing engagement within and in conductive contact with said end of the first cold finger of the detector-vacuum module for cooling the detector to an operative temperature for producing the electrical signals, said detector-vacuum module removably attached to said cooling member; and d. an electro-optical system coupled to the electrical conductor means of the detector-vacuum module for processing video signals from the electrical signals produced by the infrared detector.
2. An infrared receiver according to claim 1 wherein said infrared detector is a mercury cadmium telluride detector array.
3. An infrared receiver comprising: a. an optical scanner for scanning a scene; b. an infrared detector in the scanning path of infrared energy emanating from the scene scanned by the optical scanner for producing electrical signals representative of impinging infrared energy; c. a detector-vacuum module having a first tubular member having an open end with an outwardly extending flange, a detector seat to which the infrared detector is attached, said detector seat closing the end of the first tubular member opposite to the open end; a second tubular member surrounding the first tubular member to form a vacuum chamber therebetween and electrical conductors having terminals mounted on the detector seat connecting the infrared detector and terminals exteriorly of the second tubular member; d. a refrigerator means having a motor driven compressor, a cooling member, and an outwardly extending flange corresponding to the outwardly extending flange of the detector-vacuum module, the cooling member in contact with the detector seat of the detector-vacuum module for cooling the detector to an operative temperature for producing electrical signals representative of the scanned scene, said outwardly extending flange member at the open end of the detector-vacuum module being attached for rotation on the corresponding flange of the refrigerator for positionally adjusting the detector as to the optical scanner; and e. an electro-optical system coupled to the electrical conductor means of the detector-vacuum module for processing video signals from the electrical signals produced by the infrared detector.
4. An infrared receivEr according to claim 3 wherein the refrigerator cooling member is a cryostat and the detector-vacuum module further includes a guide member in sealing engagement with the first tubular member of the detector-vacuum module, said guide member operative to retain the flow of gas from the cryostat adjacent the cryostat.
5. An infrared receiver according to claim 3 wherein portions of the detector''s electrical conductors are leads metalized on the first tubular member.
6. An infrared receiver according to claim 5 wherein portions of the detector''s leads include an ''''H'''' film pattern of electrical leads interconnecting the plurality of electrical conductor posts of the insulator disk to the output terminals of the detector-vacuum module.
7. An infrared receiver according to claim 3 wherein the refrigerator cooling member includes a cold finger.
8. An infrared receiver according to claim 7 wherein the cold finger of said refrigerator means includes a spring biased heat transfer mechanism.
9. An infrared receiver according to claim 7 wherein the cold finger of said refrigerator means comprises a tubular member correspondingly shaped to fit within the vacuum chamber of the detector-vacuum module, said tubular member having an open end in communication with the refrigerator and a closed end with a recess forming a wall therein, a spring biased plate member mounted in said well, the spring of said spring biased plate member operative to maintain the plate member in contact with the detector-vacuum module seat for the infrared detector.
10. An infrared receiver according to claim 9 wherein said spring biased plate member further includes an expandable heat conducting ribbon for conducting heat from the infrared detector seat to the cold finger.
11. An infrared receiver according to claim 10 wherein the spring biased plate member further includes a base plate member attached to the end of the spring biased plate member opposite the plate and wherein said expandable heat conducting ribbon is positioned between the plates with end portions attached thereto.
12. An infrared receiver according to claim 3 further including an electrical feedthrough comprising an insulator disk extending beyond the second tubular member and having an aperture through which the first tubular member is positioned, said insulator disk including a plurality of electrical conductor posts mounted in the insulator disk exteriorly of the second tubular member and a lead pattern of electrical conductors metalized on the insulator disk, the leads connected to the electrical conductor posts and extending inwardly toward the inner periphery of the insulator disk, the insulator disk, lead pattern and posts forming a feedthrough through the second tubular member for the detector''s electrical conductors.
13. An infrared receiver according to claim 12 further including a plurality of resistor biasing packs connected to the insulator disk, the packs including a plurality of resistor circuits selectively coupled to the electrical conductor posts of the insulator disk for electrically biasing the detector outputs.
14. An infrared receiver according to claim 13 wherein the detector is a mercury cadmium telluride detector and portions of the detector''s lead include an ''''H'''' film pattern of electrical leads interconnecting the plurality of electrical conductor posts of the insulator disk to the output terminals of the detector-vacuum module and input of biasing power.
15. An infrared receiver according to claim 3 further including a getter means in communication with the vacuum chamber and operatively responsive to electrical signals for maintaining a vacuum in said vacuum chamber.
16. An infrared receiver according to claim 15 further including a radiation shield for protecting the cooling member from radiation.
US3851173A 1973-06-25 1973-06-25 Thermal energy receiver Expired - Lifetime US3851173A (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3851173A US3851173A (en) 1973-06-25 1973-06-25 Thermal energy receiver

Applications Claiming Priority (9)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3851173A US3851173A (en) 1973-06-25 1973-06-25 Thermal energy receiver
IT5123374A IT1013261B (en) 1973-06-25 1974-05-27 Continuation of receivers in the detectors for infrared radiation
NL7407375A NL7407375A (en) 1973-06-25 1974-05-31
GB2764974A GB1472774A (en) 1973-06-25 1974-06-21 Themal energy receiver
JP7220174A JPS5839294B2 (en) 1973-06-25 1974-06-24
DK337974A DK337974A (en) 1973-06-25 1974-06-24
DE19742430469 DE2430469A1 (en) 1973-06-25 1974-06-25 Infrared receiver
SE7408354A SE405510B (en) 1973-06-25 1974-06-25 Infrarodmottagare comprising a infraroddetektor to be cooled through a cooling device having a compressor and a cooling element, the compressor and the cooling element s interconnected by means of a drive, ...
FR7422044A FR2270570B1 (en) 1973-06-25 1974-06-25

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US4005288A (en) * 1975-09-19 1977-01-25 Honeywell Inc. Photodetector mounting and connecting
US4062107A (en) * 1976-07-14 1977-12-13 U.S. Philips Corporation Method of manufacturing infra-red detector
DE2730495A1 (en) * 1976-07-09 1978-02-09 Honeywell Inc Double walled cooling vessel for radiation sensitive detector - has ring connected to flange and insulated conductors embedded in inner vessel
US4156458A (en) * 1977-05-31 1979-05-29 International Business Machines Corporation Flexible thermal connector for enhancing conduction cooling
US4190106A (en) * 1976-03-18 1980-02-26 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Optimized cooler dewar
US4241592A (en) * 1977-10-03 1980-12-30 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Cryostat for borehole sonde employing semiconductor detector
US4262200A (en) * 1978-06-21 1981-04-14 U.S. Philips Corporation Detectors, and envelope arrangements and mounts for detectors
US4312192A (en) * 1979-06-21 1982-01-26 Schlumberger Technology Corp. Borehole logging tool cryostat
US4324104A (en) * 1980-04-03 1982-04-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Noncontact thermal interface
EP0058645A1 (en) * 1981-02-09 1982-08-25 SELENIA INDUSTRIE ELETTRONICHE ASSOCIATE S.p.A. Infrared radiation detector device
US4365982A (en) * 1981-12-30 1982-12-28 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Cryogenic refrigerator
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FR2523699A1 (en) * 1982-03-16 1983-09-23 Kryovacs Scient Corp miniature cryogenic cooling apparatus, in particular for infrared sensors
US4412427A (en) * 1980-04-03 1983-11-01 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Noncontact thermal interface
FR2530382A1 (en) * 1982-07-16 1984-01-20 Thomson Csf cryostatic device of small dimensions for photodetectors
US4450693A (en) * 1983-05-24 1984-05-29 Honeywell Inc. Cryogenic cooler thermal coupler
US4479367A (en) * 1981-12-28 1984-10-30 Santa Barbara Research Center Thermal filter
US4479358A (en) * 1982-03-16 1984-10-30 Kryovacs Scientific Corp. Miniature cryogenic cooling system with split-phase dual compressor and phase-shifting device
US4495782A (en) * 1983-11-16 1985-01-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Transmissive Dewar cooling chamber for optically pumped semiconductor ring lasers
US4501131A (en) * 1984-01-03 1985-02-26 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Cryogenic cooler for photoconductive cells
US4509342A (en) * 1983-10-19 1985-04-09 U.S. Philips Corporation Infrared receiver having a cooled radiation detector
US4528449A (en) * 1982-12-27 1985-07-09 Honeywell Inc. Detector dewar assembly
EP0154947A2 (en) * 1984-03-12 1985-09-18 Honeywell Inc. Dewar apparatus
US4575629A (en) * 1983-12-29 1986-03-11 Uop Inc. Detector for raman spectra and other weak light
EP0194668A2 (en) * 1985-03-15 1986-09-17 Honeywell Inc. Dewar apparatus
EP0225138A1 (en) * 1985-11-20 1987-06-10 British Aerospace Public Limited Company Heat conducting device
WO1987005990A1 (en) * 1986-03-25 1987-10-08 Ortec, Incorporated Modular photon detector cryostat assembly and system
US4713939A (en) * 1986-05-23 1987-12-22 Texas Instruments Incorporated Linear drive motor with symmetric magnetic fields for a cooling system
WO1988004833A1 (en) * 1986-12-19 1988-06-30 Hughes Aircraft Company Infrared detector with improved heat dissipation
US4766316A (en) * 1985-08-07 1988-08-23 Honeywell Inc. Disc detector assembly having vacuum chamber
FR2611384A1 (en) * 1986-12-03 1988-09-02 Telecommunications Sa Modular cryostatic device for photosensitive detectors and method for implementation
US4833898A (en) * 1987-01-07 1989-05-30 Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Multi-detector dewar
US4851684A (en) * 1986-03-25 1989-07-25 Ortec Incorporated Modular photon detector cryostat assembly and system
EP0339836A2 (en) * 1988-04-29 1989-11-02 Inframetrics, Inc., Miniature integral stirling cryocooler
US4918308A (en) * 1986-11-21 1990-04-17 Santa Barbara Research Center Integrated detector dewar cryoengine
US4918929A (en) * 1987-07-01 1990-04-24 Ford Aerospace Corporation Multi-detector dewar
US4952810A (en) * 1989-08-23 1990-08-28 Santa Barbara Research Center Distortion free dewar/coldfinger assembly
US5012102A (en) * 1989-05-10 1991-04-30 U.S. Philips Corp. Methods of producing vacuum devices and infrared detectors with a getter
US5177364A (en) * 1990-06-22 1993-01-05 U.S. Philips Corp. Infrared detector construction including a getter and method for manufacturing same
US5404016A (en) * 1984-08-31 1995-04-04 Santa Barbara Research Center Dewar detector assembly
US5542254A (en) * 1993-04-15 1996-08-06 Hughes Aircraft Company Cryogenic cooler
US5552608A (en) * 1995-06-26 1996-09-03 Philips Electronics North America Corporation Closed cycle gas cryogenically cooled radiation detector
US5606870A (en) * 1995-02-10 1997-03-04 Redstone Engineering Low-temperature refrigeration system with precise temperature control
FR2747767A1 (en) * 1996-04-23 1997-10-24 Cryotechnologies Cryostat for cryogenic cooler and coolers having such a cryostat
US5693991A (en) * 1996-02-09 1997-12-02 Medis El Ltd. Synchronous twin reciprocating piston apparatus
EP0811134A1 (en) * 1995-03-01 1997-12-10 Apd Cryogenics Inc. Vibrationally isolated cryogenic device
US5968637A (en) * 1996-05-07 1999-10-19 Thomson-Csf Use of nitride barrier to prevent the diffusion of silver in glass
US6070414A (en) * 1998-04-03 2000-06-06 Raytheon Company Cryogenic cooler with mechanically-flexible thermal interface
US20040031593A1 (en) * 2002-03-18 2004-02-19 Ernst Donald M. Heat pipe diode assembly and method
US20070114429A1 (en) * 2005-11-23 2007-05-24 Oxford Instruments Analytical Limited X-ray detector and method
EP2100988A1 (en) 2008-03-12 2009-09-16 Acktar Ltd. Thin-layered structure
US20100090121A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2010-04-15 Morgan Thomas Burks Hand-held, mechanically cooled, radiation detection system for gamma-ray spectroscopy
US20110179808A1 (en) * 2008-09-22 2011-07-28 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Neck deicer for liquid helium recondensor of magnetic resonance system
WO2016146572A1 (en) 2015-03-13 2016-09-22 Thales Stirling cooler with fluid transfer by deformable conduit

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Cited By (72)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4104789A (en) * 1975-09-19 1978-08-08 Honeywell, Inc. Photodetector mounting and connecting
US4005288A (en) * 1975-09-19 1977-01-25 Honeywell Inc. Photodetector mounting and connecting
US4190106A (en) * 1976-03-18 1980-02-26 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Optimized cooler dewar
DE2730495A1 (en) * 1976-07-09 1978-02-09 Honeywell Inc Double walled cooling vessel for radiation sensitive detector - has ring connected to flange and insulated conductors embedded in inner vessel
US4062107A (en) * 1976-07-14 1977-12-13 U.S. Philips Corporation Method of manufacturing infra-red detector
US4156458A (en) * 1977-05-31 1979-05-29 International Business Machines Corporation Flexible thermal connector for enhancing conduction cooling
US4241592A (en) * 1977-10-03 1980-12-30 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Cryostat for borehole sonde employing semiconductor detector
US4262200A (en) * 1978-06-21 1981-04-14 U.S. Philips Corporation Detectors, and envelope arrangements and mounts for detectors
US4313317A (en) * 1979-06-21 1982-02-02 Schlumberger Technology Corp. Borehole logging tool cryostat
US4312192A (en) * 1979-06-21 1982-01-26 Schlumberger Technology Corp. Borehole logging tool cryostat
US4315417A (en) * 1979-06-21 1982-02-16 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Borehole logging tool cryostat
US4412427A (en) * 1980-04-03 1983-11-01 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Noncontact thermal interface
US4324104A (en) * 1980-04-03 1982-04-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Noncontact thermal interface
EP0058645A1 (en) * 1981-02-09 1982-08-25 SELENIA INDUSTRIE ELETTRONICHE ASSOCIATE S.p.A. Infrared radiation detector device
EP0078470A1 (en) * 1981-11-04 1983-05-11 Licentia Patent-Verwaltungs-GmbH Method for the production of an optical radiation sensor
US4479367A (en) * 1981-12-28 1984-10-30 Santa Barbara Research Center Thermal filter
US4365982A (en) * 1981-12-30 1982-12-28 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Cryogenic refrigerator
FR2523699A1 (en) * 1982-03-16 1983-09-23 Kryovacs Scient Corp miniature cryogenic cooling apparatus, in particular for infrared sensors
US4479358A (en) * 1982-03-16 1984-10-30 Kryovacs Scientific Corp. Miniature cryogenic cooling system with split-phase dual compressor and phase-shifting device
FR2530382A1 (en) * 1982-07-16 1984-01-20 Thomson Csf cryostatic device of small dimensions for photodetectors
US4487037A (en) * 1982-07-16 1984-12-11 Thomson-Csf Small-sized cryostatic device for photodetectors
EP0102262A1 (en) * 1982-07-16 1984-03-07 Thomson-Csf Cryostatic device of small dimensions for photodetectors
US4528449A (en) * 1982-12-27 1985-07-09 Honeywell Inc. Detector dewar assembly
US4450693A (en) * 1983-05-24 1984-05-29 Honeywell Inc. Cryogenic cooler thermal coupler
EP0127109A3 (en) * 1983-05-24 1985-10-23 Honeywell Inc. Infrared energy receiver
EP0127109A2 (en) * 1983-05-24 1984-12-05 Honeywell Inc. Infrared energy receiver
US4509342A (en) * 1983-10-19 1985-04-09 U.S. Philips Corporation Infrared receiver having a cooled radiation detector
EP0139335A2 (en) * 1983-10-19 1985-05-02 Philips Electronics N.V. Infrared receiver having a cooled radiation detector
EP0139335A3 (en) * 1983-10-19 1986-07-02 N.V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken Infrared receiver having a cooled radiation detector
US4495782A (en) * 1983-11-16 1985-01-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Transmissive Dewar cooling chamber for optically pumped semiconductor ring lasers
US4575629A (en) * 1983-12-29 1986-03-11 Uop Inc. Detector for raman spectra and other weak light
US4501131A (en) * 1984-01-03 1985-02-26 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Cryogenic cooler for photoconductive cells
EP0154947A2 (en) * 1984-03-12 1985-09-18 Honeywell Inc. Dewar apparatus
EP0154947A3 (en) * 1984-03-12 1987-05-20 Honeywell Inc. Dewar apparatus
US5404016A (en) * 1984-08-31 1995-04-04 Santa Barbara Research Center Dewar detector assembly
EP0194668A2 (en) * 1985-03-15 1986-09-17 Honeywell Inc. Dewar apparatus
EP0194668A3 (en) * 1985-03-15 1987-07-22 Honeywell Inc. Dewar apparatus
US4766316A (en) * 1985-08-07 1988-08-23 Honeywell Inc. Disc detector assembly having vacuum chamber
EP0225138A1 (en) * 1985-11-20 1987-06-10 British Aerospace Public Limited Company Heat conducting device
US4851684A (en) * 1986-03-25 1989-07-25 Ortec Incorporated Modular photon detector cryostat assembly and system
WO1987005990A1 (en) * 1986-03-25 1987-10-08 Ortec, Incorporated Modular photon detector cryostat assembly and system
US4713939A (en) * 1986-05-23 1987-12-22 Texas Instruments Incorporated Linear drive motor with symmetric magnetic fields for a cooling system
US4918308A (en) * 1986-11-21 1990-04-17 Santa Barbara Research Center Integrated detector dewar cryoengine
FR2611384A1 (en) * 1986-12-03 1988-09-02 Telecommunications Sa Modular cryostatic device for photosensitive detectors and method for implementation
WO1988004833A1 (en) * 1986-12-19 1988-06-30 Hughes Aircraft Company Infrared detector with improved heat dissipation
US4833898A (en) * 1987-01-07 1989-05-30 Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Multi-detector dewar
US4918929A (en) * 1987-07-01 1990-04-24 Ford Aerospace Corporation Multi-detector dewar
EP0339836A2 (en) * 1988-04-29 1989-11-02 Inframetrics, Inc., Miniature integral stirling cryocooler
EP0339836A3 (en) * 1988-04-29 1992-08-05 Inframetrics, Inc., Miniature integral stirling cryocooler
US5012102A (en) * 1989-05-10 1991-04-30 U.S. Philips Corp. Methods of producing vacuum devices and infrared detectors with a getter
US4952810A (en) * 1989-08-23 1990-08-28 Santa Barbara Research Center Distortion free dewar/coldfinger assembly
US5177364A (en) * 1990-06-22 1993-01-05 U.S. Philips Corp. Infrared detector construction including a getter and method for manufacturing same
US5542254A (en) * 1993-04-15 1996-08-06 Hughes Aircraft Company Cryogenic cooler
US5749243A (en) * 1995-02-10 1998-05-12 Redstone Engineering Low-temperature refrigeration system with precise temperature control
US5606870A (en) * 1995-02-10 1997-03-04 Redstone Engineering Low-temperature refrigeration system with precise temperature control
EP0811134A4 (en) * 1995-03-01 1999-03-03 Apd Cryogenics Inc Vibrationally isolated cryogenic device
EP0811134A1 (en) * 1995-03-01 1997-12-10 Apd Cryogenics Inc. Vibrationally isolated cryogenic device
US5811816A (en) * 1995-06-26 1998-09-22 U.S. Philips Corporation Closed cycle gas cryogenically cooled radiation detector
US5552608A (en) * 1995-06-26 1996-09-03 Philips Electronics North America Corporation Closed cycle gas cryogenically cooled radiation detector
US5693991A (en) * 1996-02-09 1997-12-02 Medis El Ltd. Synchronous twin reciprocating piston apparatus
EP0803687A1 (en) * 1996-04-23 1997-10-29 Cryotechnologies Cryostat for cryogenic refrigerator and refrigerators comprising such a cryostat
FR2747767A1 (en) * 1996-04-23 1997-10-24 Cryotechnologies Cryostat for cryogenic cooler and coolers having such a cryostat
US5968637A (en) * 1996-05-07 1999-10-19 Thomson-Csf Use of nitride barrier to prevent the diffusion of silver in glass
US6070414A (en) * 1998-04-03 2000-06-06 Raytheon Company Cryogenic cooler with mechanically-flexible thermal interface
US20040031593A1 (en) * 2002-03-18 2004-02-19 Ernst Donald M. Heat pipe diode assembly and method
US20070114429A1 (en) * 2005-11-23 2007-05-24 Oxford Instruments Analytical Limited X-ray detector and method
US20100090121A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2010-04-15 Morgan Thomas Burks Hand-held, mechanically cooled, radiation detection system for gamma-ray spectroscopy
US7732781B2 (en) * 2007-04-20 2010-06-08 Lawrence Livermore National Security, Llc Hand-held, mechanically cooled, radiation detection system for gamma-ray spectroscopy
EP2100988A1 (en) 2008-03-12 2009-09-16 Acktar Ltd. Thin-layered structure
US9200359B2 (en) 2008-03-12 2015-12-01 Acktar Ltd. Thin-layered structure
US20110179808A1 (en) * 2008-09-22 2011-07-28 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Neck deicer for liquid helium recondensor of magnetic resonance system
WO2016146572A1 (en) 2015-03-13 2016-09-22 Thales Stirling cooler with fluid transfer by deformable conduit

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