US3843563A - Detergent compositions - Google Patents

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US3843563A
US3843563A US23980872A US3843563A US 3843563 A US3843563 A US 3843563A US 23980872 A US23980872 A US 23980872A US 3843563 A US3843563 A US 3843563A
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amine oxide
detergent active
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J Davies
C Gauterin
W Neillie
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Lever Brothers Co
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES AND WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D3/00Other compounding ingredients of detergent compositions covered in group C11D1/00
    • C11D3/02Inorganic compounds ; Elemental compounds
    • C11D3/04Water-soluble compounds
    • C11D3/10Carbonates ; Bicarbonates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES AND WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D1/00Detergent compositions based essentially on surface-active compounds; Use of these compounds as a detergent
    • C11D1/66Non-ionic compounds
    • C11D1/825Mixtures of compounds all of which are non-ionic
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES AND WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D3/00Other compounding ingredients of detergent compositions covered in group C11D1/00
    • C11D3/02Inorganic compounds ; Elemental compounds
    • C11D3/12Water-insoluble compounds
    • C11D3/1233Carbonates, e.g. calcite, dolomite
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES AND WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D1/00Detergent compositions based essentially on surface-active compounds; Use of these compounds as a detergent
    • C11D1/66Non-ionic compounds
    • C11D1/72Ethers of polyoxyalkylene glycols
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES AND WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D1/00Detergent compositions based essentially on surface-active compounds; Use of these compounds as a detergent
    • C11D1/66Non-ionic compounds
    • C11D1/75Amino oxides

Abstract

1. A SOLID DETERGENT COMPOSITION CONSISTING ESSENTIALLY OF FROM ABOUT 5 TO 25% BY WEIGHT OF A MIXTURRE OF (A) AN AMINE OXIDE DETERGENT ACTIVE COMPOUND HAVING THE FORMULA R1R2R3N$O WHERE R1 IS A C10-C22 ALKYL OR ALKENYL GROUP OR A C8-C18 ALKYL BENZYL GROUP OR A C8-C18 ALKYL MIDO GROUP AND R2-C18 ALKYL BENZY GROUP OR A C8-C18 O1 C2:C3 HYDROXYALKYL GROUPS OR WHERE R2 AND R3 ARE CONJOINED TO FORM A HETEROCYCLIC RING WITH THE NITROGEN ATOM, AND (B) A NONIONIC DETERGENT ACTIVE COMPOUND WHIH IS A CONDENSATION PRODUCT OF AN ALIPHATIC ALCOHO OR AN ALKYL PHENOL WITH ETHYLENE OXIDE, THE RATIO OF THE AMINE OXIDE TO THE NONIONIC DETERGENT ACTIVE COMPOUND BEIN FROM ABOUT 3:1 TO 1:10 PARTS BY WEIGHT, FROM ABOUT 25% OF 75% BY WEIGHT OF AN ALKALI METAL CARBONATE DETERGENCY BUILDER, AND FROM ABOUT 10% TO ABOUT 50% BY WEIGHT OF FINELY GROUND CALCIUM CARBONATE.

Description

3,843,563 DETERGENT COMPOSITIONS James Francis Davies, Wirral, Charles Rowland Gauterin,

Farndon, and William Frederick Soutar Neillie, Birkenhead, England, assignors to Lever Brothers Company, New York, N.Y. No Drawing. Filed Mar. 30, 1972, Ser. No. 239,808 Claims priority, applicatio5n(s Gr7eat Britain, Apr. 2, 1971,

Int. 01. C11d 3/26 US. Cl. 252-547 13 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The invention relates to detergent compositions, and in particular to detergent compositions adapted for fabric washing.

Detergent compositions, particularly those adapted for fabric washing, commonly incorporate as major ingredients detergency builders together with detergent active compounds. Conventional detergency builders are commonly inorganic materials, particularly the condensed phosphates, for example sodium tripolyphosphate. It has, however, been suggested that the use of phosphate detergency builders can contribute to eutrophication problems. Alternative detergency builders which have been proposed, for example sodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) and synthetic polyeleetrolyte materials, tend to be more expensive or less efficient than the phosphate detergency builders, or otherwise unsatisfactory for one reason or another.

It is known that sodium carbonate can function as a detergency builder by removing the calcium from hard water in the form of precipitated calcium carbonate. But this precipitation takes some time, during which the unprecipitated calcium can interact with fatty soil and with the detergent active compounds in detergent compositions, leading to inferior detergency when compared with compositions based on sodium tripolyphosphate as the detergency builder, and the precipitated calcium carbonate tends to accumulate on washed fabrics, which can lead to fabric harshness.

We have now found that a detergent composition with an alkali metal carbonate detergency builder is improved by incorporating mixed amine oxide and nonionic detergent active compounds. Such compositions tend to give decreased inorganic deposits on washed fabrics and the fabrics feel softer after washing, compared with commercially available carbonate-based detergent compositions.

According to the present invention, a detergent composition comprises from about 5 to by weight of mixed amine oxide and nonionic detergent active compounds with from about 25 to 90% by weight of an alkali metal carbonate detergency builder.

The alkali metal carbonate used may be any watersoluble carbonate or mixtures thereof, although the alkali metal carbonates, particularly the sodium salt, are preferred for reasons of cost and efficiency. The carbonate salt may be wholly or partailly neutralised, for example a sequi-carbonate may be used in partial replacement for the carbonate salt. The amount of the alkali metal car- United States Patent 0 Patented Oct. 22, 1974 bonate in a detergent composition can be varied Widely, but should be within the range of from about 25 to 90% by weight, whilst the practical range varies according to the conditions under which the detergent composition is intended to be used. Thus, in a detergent composition intended for use under typical North American washing conditions, that is at low product concentrations, the amount of alkali metal carbonate in a detergent composition would preferably be from about 25 to 75%, particularly from about 45 to by weight. Lower proportions of carbonate within the useful range tend to be more suitable under conditions of higher product concentrations 1n use.

The amine oxide and the nonionic detergent active compounds used should normally be within the range of from about 1:3 to 3:1, preferably from about 2:1 to 1:2 parts by weight, and at a ratio of about 1:1 for optimum detergency. However, for economic reasons it is normally desirable to use less of the amine oxide than the nonionic detergent active compound, that is to operate within the range of about 1:3 to 1:1 parts by weight, respectively, as the amine oxide is usually considerably more expensive than the nonionic compound. The minimum amount of amine oxide for any significant benefits in accordance with the invention is about 1 part to 10 parts of the nonionic compound. The total concentration of the amine oxide and nonionic detergent active compounds is generally within the range of from about 5 to 25%, preferably from about 10 to 14% by weight. If any more than about 20% by weight of the mixed detergent active compounds are used, this can give rise to processing difficulties with very little increased detergency for the extra cost involved, both for the extra amounts of the active ingredients and for overcoming any processing difiiculties.

Any detergent active nonionic compound can be used in the composition of the invention, many such materials being known in the art and being commercially available. They are generally condensation products of organic compounds having a hydrophobic group and a reactive hydrogen atom with an alkylene oxide, usually ethylene oxide. Examples of suitable nonionic compounds include condensation products of alkyl phenols, preferably with about 6-16 carbon atoms in the alkyl groups, with ethylene oxide, generally 5 to 25 E0, (i.e. 5 to 25 units of ethylene oxide per molecule); condensation products of aliphatic (preferably C C natural or synthetic alcohols with ethylene oxide, generally 5 to 15 E0, and condensation products of polypropylene glycol with ethylene oxide. Other nonionic compounds which can be used are the condensation products of diols with alkylene oxides, especially ethylene oxide, for example alkane (C -C diol-5-l2 E0 condensates. Mixed nonionic compounds may be used if desired. Many other suitable nonionic detergent active compounds are described in the ilterature, for example in Surface Active Agents and Detergents," Vols I and II by Schwartz, Perry and Berch.

Any detergent active amine oxides may be used, the more conventional compounds having the general formula:

f: Ii -III O where R is a C -C alkyl or alkenyl group and R and R are C -C alkyl groups or C hydroxyalkyl groups. R is preferably a linear alkyl group and R and R are preferably the same group, for example methyl groups. Specific amine oxides which may be mentioned are dimethyl hardened-tallow amine oxide and dimethyl cocoamine oxide. Alternative amine oxides include compounds containing a benzene ring in the group R with R and R being as before, for example dimethyl (C -C alkyl benzyl amine oxide. Other suitable amine oxides are compounds in which the nitrogen atom is contained in a heterocylic ring, for example N-alkyl morpholine-N-oxides. Other types of amine oxides are described in the literature, for example in the book Surface Active Agents and Detergents mentioned above, and many specific amine oxides, some being novel compounds, are listed in the following Examples. It will be appreciated that amine oxides have a dative or semi-polar bond and as such are not nonionic detergent active compounds for the purposes of this specification, although amine oxides are for convenience sometimes included within that term in the art.

It has been proposed hitherto to use at least the more common types of amine oxides in detergent compositions, especially the amine oxides with high alkyl groups (C and above) which have useful fabric softening properties. However, the benefit of using amine oxides in the present compositions is rather to alleviate the deficiencies of sodium carbonate as a detergency builder, and amine oxides which do not otherwise have any useful fabric softening properties are effective for this purpose. The use of the amine oxides gives other valuable benefits, as more particularly described in the Examples.

In addition to the essential ingredients in the detergent compositions, it is generally desirable to add a proportion of an alkali metal silicate, particularly a sodium silicate, for example sodium alkaline or meta-silicate. A low level of silicate, for example from about 5 to 15% by weight, is usually advantageous in decreasing the corrosion of metal parts in fabric washing machines. The presence of silicate can also contribute to deceased inorganic deposition and at higher levels may give an improvement in detergency. However, the amount of silicate should not normally exceed about 30% by weight of the composition. The amount and type of the silicate also has an effect on the pH of the composition, which is preferably within the range of from about pH to 11, for a 0.1% by weight aqueous solution of the composition.

The detergent compositions of the invention may include any of the usual optional ingredients, for example, perfumes, colourants, fabric softening agents, fungicides, germicides, enzymes, fluorescent agents, anti-redeposition agents such as SCMC, hydrotropes and in the case of liquid compositions opacifiers and organic solvents such as lower aliphatic alcohols. Other ingredients such as chemical bleaches, for example sodium perborate with or without the presence of per-acid precursors, chlorineliberating bleach compounds and inorganic salts such as sodium sulphate and sodium chloride may also be present if desired. The compositions also usually contain amounts of water, for example in the range of from about 5' to by weight in the case of powdered detergent compositions.

Minor amounts of detergent active compounds other than the nonionic and amine oxide compounds may be included in the compositions, but it is preferable to exclude from the compositions any anionic detergent active compounds, as the presence of any significant amounts of these compounds, for example more than about 5% by weight, tends to give decreased detergency, possibly due to some interaction with the amine oxide detergent active compounds.

Detergency builders other than sodium carbonate may be included in the compositions if desired though they will normally be in small amounts of, say, up to about 10 percent by weight of the composition. Examples of such detergency builders include, for example sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium nitrilotriacetate, sodium citrate, sodium salts of oxidised polysaccharides, sodium carboxymethyloxysuccinate, sodium oxydisuccinate, sodium hydrofuran tetracarboxylate, sodium mellitate and polyelectrolyte builders such as sodium copolyethylene-maleate, and other precipitant builders such as sodium orthophosphate, sodium a-sulphonated fatty acids and sodium (C C alkenyl succinates. It should be noted that some of these detergency builders, especially the sequestrant builders, can have a tendency to inhibit inorganic deposition on washed fabrics. Polyphosphates such as sodium tripolyphosphate are particularly efiicient in this respect, Weaker sequestrant builders such as sodium citrate, tetrasodium cyclopentane dicarboxylate, sodium mellitate and sodium carboxymethyloxysuccinate can also have an inorganic deposition inhibiting effect but they need to be used in higher amounts, of, say, from about 20% to 40% by weight for an appreciable effect, unless they are used in conjunction with other anti-deposition agents.

Other specific additives which can be used to advantage in detergent compositions according to the invention include aromatic solvents containing one or more substituted aromatic rings, which in the latter case may be fused or linked. Dibutyl phthalate and analogous solvents are particularly efficient. When appreciable levels of the solvents are used, it may be desirable to include in the composition a porous substance to absorb the solvent, for example a micro-porous silica or alumino-silicate. The amount of solvent should be from about 4% by weight of the composition up to a maximum level of 1 part solvent to 1 part of total detergent active compounds.

Additives to accelerate the rate of precipitation of calcium carbonate may also be used advantageously, for example nucleating agents such as finely ground calcite or aragonite. For maximum effect as much additive should be used as possible, for example from about 10% to about 50% by weight. However, it should be noted that some such additives may tend to increase inorganic deposition on washed fabrics. Conversely, additives to inhibit inorganic deposition may tend to decrease detergency, so it is neces sary to balance the two effects for optimum properties in the compositions.

The compositions of the invention may be solid compositions, for example in powdered, granular or tablet form, semi-solid paste or gel compositions, or they may be liquids. The compositions can be made by conventional processes, for example by spray-drying aqueous slurries to produce detergent powders, but the nature of the amine oxide and nonionic detergent active compounds used may require that the aqueous slurries so formed have increased moisture levels to provide adequate flow properties for pumping and spray-drying.

In some cases the amine oxide in particular can cause slurry thickening, even when used at low levels and in this case alternative processing techniques may be adopted, for example the amine oxide and nonionic compound may be together or separately added to the slurry immediately prior to spray-drying or sprayed onto the particulate sodium carbonate in a suitable mixing vessel. In this event it may also be helpful to admix with the amine oxide or amine oxide/nonionic mixture a small amount of a solvent, such as isopropyl alcohol, but this compound is volatile and its excessive use should be avoided.

When normal slurry making is used for the production of compositions containing higher levels of nonionic detergent active compounds, it may be beneficial to add materials to decrease the tendency for the nonionic compounds to separate out during slurry-making. Examples of suitable nonionic slurry separation inhibitors are ethylenemaleic anhydride copolymers and vinylmethylether -maleic anhydride copolymers the use of which is described in more detail in our Canadian Pat. No. 704,074. If the resultant powders are sticky, Whether or not the slurry separation inhibitors are used, it may be desirable to add to the resultant powders flow aids, which are commercially available materials, such as Alusil AN, a sodium alumino-silicate.

Whilst the compositions are of particular utility in the field of fabric washing they can also be used for other general or specific cleaning purposes. It should be noted for fabric washing purposes that the action of sodium carbonate in removing the calcium from the hard water in the form of calcium carbonate can take a short time, and it may be desirable to delay the addition of clothes to the wash solution until the free calcium level is decreased to an acceptable level, which may take say, from /2 to, say, 5 minutes or more in adverse conditions. This tends to improve the detergency of the compositions and contribute to decreased inorganic deposition.

The detergent compositions according to the invention are illustrated by the following Examples in all of which parts are by Weight except where otherwise indicated.

EXAMPLE 1 A detergent powder was prepared by conventional slurry-making and spray-drying techniques to the following formulation:

Ingredient: Percentage Dimethyl hardened tallow amine oxide (obtained as Aromox" DMHTD) 8 Sec-alcohol (C -C ;)7EO (obtained as Tergitol 15-S-7) 10 Sodium carbonate 65 Sodium metasilicate 10 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose 1 Fluorescent agent 1 Water to 100 This composition was compared for detergency, fabric feel, inorganic deposition and soil anti-redeposition properties against a commercially available sodium carbonatebuilt detergent powder with a comparable formulation except for the absence of the amine oxide, using identical washing conditions in each case. For these tests 6 soiled tea towels, 6 soiled pillow cases and 6 soiled hand towels were washed in a domestic washing machine at 0.15% product concentration, in water of 18 French hardness (CazMg at 2: 1) at 50 C. The washed fabrics were compared firstly for appearance by a panel of assessors who decided that overall there was a very slight preference for the articles washed in the composition according to the invention.

n repeated washing of the same articles the levels of inorganic deposits on the fabrics were measured and found to increase to maxima of about 0.85% at 1015 wash cycles, for the composition according to the invention, whereas the deposit on fabrics washed in the comparative carbonate-based product increased progressively well beyond that figure as the number of wash cycles was increased to 25. Evaluation of the feel of the same washed fabrics was undertaken by a panel of 24 assessors who decided by a majority of on average over 22 to 2 that after 1, and wash cycles the articles washed by the composition according to the invention were softer.

In assessing the soil anti-redeposition properties of the compositions, clean test cloths of a variety of different types were washed together with the soiled fabrics mentioned above, when it was found that the amount of soil deposited on the test cloths made of nylon and polyester fibres were significantly lower on using the composition of the invention. I

The detergent composition of this Example was further evaluated in machine washing trials against a commercially-available sodium tripolyphosphate-built detergent powder containing 40% sodium tripolyphosphate, 16% sodium linear sec-alkyl benzene sulphonate, 5% alkaline silicate and the usual fluorescent agent and anti-redeposition additives. The results showed an improvement in detergency for the amine oxide-nonionic active based composition according to the invention, whilst the fabric feel and antiredeposition properties of both compositions were very satisfactory.

EXAMPLE 2 In order to compare the detergencies of detergent compositions containing mixed amine oxide and nonionic detergent active compounds with compositions containing the same compounds alone, and with comparative commercially-available products, a series of compositions were prepared and the detergencies determined using a variety of difierent standard soiled test cloths under standard conditions at 0.15% product concentration in water of 18 French hardness (CazMg at 2:1) at 50 C. The results were as follows in Table I.

TABLE I 1 65% Dacron polyester/35% cotton test cloth soiled with vacuum cleaner dust.

"A cotton test cloth soiled with a mixed fatty soil and particulate soil (10%) of indian ink and ferric oxide.

3 A cotton poplin test cloth soiled with 4 parts of fatty soil and egg albumin and 1 part of particulate soil.

Aromox DMCDW (dimethylcocoamine oxide).

These results show that the amine oxide/nonionic mixture in formulation A is better than either of the formulations with the amine oxide or the nonionic detergent active compound alone and over the full rang-e of test cloths the composition of the invention is better than either of the commercially-available detergent compositions.

EXAMPLES 3 TO 7 A series of detergent compositions were prepared in order to determine the optimum content of the amine oxide and nonionic detergent active compounds. The compositions had the formulation: 1

Ingredient: Percentage Dimethyl cocoamine oxide 1 x Sec-alkyl (C -C )-9EO (Tergitol 15-S-9) 1 x Sodium carbonate 60 Alkaline silicate 10 Water to 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8% in Examples 3 to 7, respectively, as shown in Table 2 below.

The detergencies of the compositions were determined using standard procedures and the same variety of test cloths as described in Example 2 'with the following results in Table 2, which includes the results for a comparative product A built with sodium tripolyphosphate (as described in Example 1).

These results show increasing detergency up to a total concentration of the amine oxide and nonionic compound of 12% in Example 5, after which there is little benefit from any additional detergent active compounds.

- EXAMPLE 8.

A further batch of the detergent composition of Example 5 was tested for detergency with a variety of test cloths under standard conditions as described in Example 2, except for varying total product concentrations. For comparative purposes the same tests were undertaken with a commercially-available sodium tripolyphosphatebuilt detergent powder A, as described in Example 1. The results were as follows in Table 3, the detergencies for the comparative powder A being shown in parenthesis following each result for the composition according to the invention:

These results show that, overall, the detergency of the composition according to the invention is significantly better than the comparative composition at lower product concentrations, and is generally comparable at higher product concentrations when the detergency would otherwise be expected to be much worse than the sodium tripolyphosphate-based product.

EXAMPLE 9 A detergent composition was prepared by conventional spray-drying techniques with the following formulation:

Ingredient: Percentage Dimethylcocoamine oxide (Aromox" DMCDW) J 6 Sec-alkyl (C C )-9EO ("Iergitol 15-5-9) 6 Sodium carbonate r 60 SCMC .1 Fluorescent agent 1 Water to 100 This composition was assessed for detergency, fabric feel and for inorganic deposition against the commercially available sodium carbonate and sodium tripolyphosphate-based products as described in Example 1. Using the detergency test described in Example 1 to compare the composition of the invention with the commerciallyavailable sodium tripolyphosphate-based detergent powder, there was distinct preference for the appearance of the halved articles washed using the former composition.

The halved articles were assessed for fabric feel by a panel of experienced assessors who showed only a slight preference for the conventional sodium tripolyphosphate based composition, whereas conventional sodium carbonate based products normally cause much interior fabric feel properties. J

On repeated washing of the same halved articles in the composition of the invention the levels of inorganic deposition were found to increase as follows, the much worse ash levels for the comparative sodium carbonatebased product being also given for purposes of comparison. 1

Inorganic deposit, percent at No. of wash cycles Example 9 Comparative product 80 These results show a very marked improvement for the composition of the invention.

8 EXAMPLES 10 To 21 A series of detergent compositions were prepared with the following formulation:

Ingredient: Percentage Sec-alkyl (C -C )-9 E0 (Tergitol-15S 9) 6 Amine oxide 1 6 Sodium carbonate 60 Sodium alkaline silicate Water to 100.

lhe amine oxide was varied in each example as shown in Table 4 below; and in a control product the 6% of amine oxide was replaced by a further 6% of the same nonionic compound.

The levels of inorganic deposits formed on washing terry towelling with these compositions were determined, using water of 18 French hardness (Ca +:Mg 2:1) at 50 C. and a product concentration of 0.15%, the washing load being added 30 seconds after the composition in each case, as in all washing tests in the Examples. The results after 10 and 20 wash cycles were as follows:

TABLE 4 Percent inorganic deposit 10 wash 20 wash Amine oxide cycles cycles Example 10- Pyridine-Noxide 2. 8 6. 1 11 Dimethylcoeoamine oxide 1. 6 2. 1 12 Dimeithyl dihardened tallow amine 1. 5 2. 0

on e. 13 Dirnethyl-N-(heptyiamido) propyl- 1.9 2.1

amine oxide. 14 Dimethyl-N-(undeeylarnido) pro- 1.6 1.9

pylamine oxide. 15 Dimethyl-N-(tridecylamido) pro- 1.3 1.6

pylamine oxide. 16 Dimet-hyl-N-(heptadecylamido) 1.4 1.4

propylamine oxide. 17 Dimeithyl-N-(trideeoylethyl) amine 1.7 1.8

on e. 18 Amine oxide of acetylated poly- 1.3 1.7

ethyleneimine. 19--..-- N-dodecyl morpholine N-oxide 1.4 20 Dimethyl secondary alkyl (C 3.0 6.0

014) amino oxide. 21 1, 3-diaminopropane-N-stearoyl-N- 1.4 1.7

dimethyl-N-oxide. Control. 4.0 8.0

These results show very considerable reductions in inorganic deposits for several of the amine oxides, though two of them, when used alone, namely in Examples 10 and 20, do not give as great a reduction as would be desired.

EXAMPLES 22 TO 34 IA. series of laboratory tests were undertaken using both an amine oxide and sodium tripolyphosphate to inhibit inorganic deposition. The general formulation used was the same as described in Examples 10 to 21 except for the addition of 0.3% of sodium tripolyphosphate. The following amine oxides were found to give no noticeable inorganic deposit after 5 Wash cycles using the same conditions as described for Examples 10 to 21.

EXAMPLES 35 TO 38 The procedure of Examples 22 to 34 was repeated with four amine oxides which under the conditions of Examples 22 to 34 did give appreciable inorganic deposits, except that the amount of sodium tripolyphosphate was increased to 0.4% in Examples 35 and 36 and to 0.8% in Examples 37 and 38, whereupon no inorganic deposits were found.

Ex. Amine oxide 35 Dimethyl-N-(p-octylbenzyl sulphonamido-propyDamine oxide.

36 1,2-diaminoethane-N,N, '-trimethyl-N-(heptadecylamldoethyl) diamine oxide.

37.... Pyridine-N-oxide.

38 Tri(2-hydroxyethy1)amine oxide.

EXAMPLE 39 1 0 EXAMPLES 40-54 A series of detergent solutions were prepared with varying proportions of an amine oxide (Aromox DWCDW) and different nonionic detergent active compounds totaling in each example 12%, or with 12% of either of the detergent active compounds alone for comparative purposes, with either (in Examples -42 and comparative products (a) and (b)) or 40% (in Examples 43-54 and comparatives (c) t (i)) of sodium carbonate and with 10% of sodium alkaline silicate. The compositions were compared for their fabric washing detergency using a Terg-O-Tometer at a product concentration of 0.15% in water of 18 French Hardness (Ca+:Mg*+, 2:1) at C. Test cloths as described in Example 2 were used and added after the composition in each case, and washing was carried out for 10 minutes followed by a 1 minute rinse. The percentage detergency was determined by calculation from the light reflectances of the test cloths before and after washing: the results are shown in Table ture content (3%). A mixture of 8 parts of Tergitol 20 5 below.

TABLE 5 Percent Detergency Nonlonlc Amine Example compound oxide Nonlonic VCD ERTC 41A.

40 Tergltol15-S9 3 9 29 77 42 .do 9 3 34 70 Comparative:

51 -do 9 8 39 72 Comparative:

(g) .do 0 12 34 70 (h) .do 12 0 33 70 52. TEA-11 E0 L 3 9 36 72 53 TEA-11 E0 6 6 35 77 54. TEA-11 E0 4 9 3 35 74 Comparative:

(i) TEA-ll E0 4 0 12 32 67 (J) TEA-11 E0 4 12 0 33 69 1 Secondary linear alcohol (Cu-OrQ-QEO. 1 Alcohol (Cu-OrQ-QEO (80% linear alcohol, 20% a-methyl branchedchain alcohol).

1 Primary linear alcohol l Tallow ethanolamide-11EO 15-S7 (secondary alcohol (C C )7EO), 6 parts of Aromox DMCDW (dirnethyldicocoamine oxide) and 3 parts of isopropyl alcohol of 70 C. was sprayed onto the spray dried powder in a mixing vessel and thoroughly mixed in, during which procedure the isopropyl alcohol evaporated. This gave a powder of rather high bulk density (34 lbs./cu.ft.) which was slightly sticky and had the following formulation:

Ingredient: Percentage Sodium carbonate 65 Sodium silicate 10 Tergitol 15-S-7 8 Aromox DMCDW 6 Fluorescent agents 1 Sodium carboxymcthyl cellulose 0.5

Water to 100.

The addition of 2% of Alusil AN flow aid gave a considerable reduction in stickiness and consequent improvement in flow properties.

In a further processing trial, it was found that the addition of 2% of tallow soap gave a product of lower bulk density (23 lbs/cu. ft.) without any deterioration in other properties.

Percent inorganic deposit 10 washes 20 washes When no amine oxide was present in the compositions, i.e. as in comparative products (a), (C), (g) and (i) the levels of inorganic deposits were all about 4% after 10 washes and 8% after 20 washes.

11 EXAMPLES 54 TO 57 Four detergent compositions were prepared with mixed detergency builders and their inorganic deposition properties were determined by the procedure described for Examples 4-1, 44, 47, 50 and 53 with the results shown in Table 6 below. All the compositions had the formulation:

The figures demonstrate much lower inorganic deposits with the addition of a small amount of an additional sequestrant builder. Sodium tripolyphosphate is particularly efiicient in this respect.

EXAMPLES 58 TO 61 Four detergent compositions were prepared of which two included a solvent, dibutyl phthalate, to improve the detergency in respect of fatty soil on synthetic fabrics. The compositions were evaluated in a Terg-O-Tometer to determine the percentage detergency with a 65 Dacron polyester/ cotton test cloth soiled with used motor vehicle crankcase oil, using a procedure in which the test cloth was firstly rubbed with a stitf (70%) paste of the product, rinsed and then washed and rinsed normally using water of 18 French Hardness (Ca +:Mg 2:1) at 50 C. using a product concentration of 0.2%. The formulations and their detergencies were as follows:

These results were very good for a difiicultly removable soil, and a significant benefit is shown for the addition of the solvent. In further tests it was found that the solvent benefit was not achieved with some other amine oxides in admixture with nonionic compounds or with the use of dimethyl hardened tallow amine oxides alone as the detergent active compound. For a significant improvement in detergency it appeared that a minimum amount of about 4% of the dibutyl phthalate was needed and that there should be an excess of the nonionic detergent compound over the amine oxide, but not more than about 7 parts of the nonionic compound to two parts of the amine oxide.

EXAMPLES 62 TO 65 Four detergent compositions were prepared to a similar formulation except for one optional ingredient which was either calcium carbonate (in the form of finely ground aragonite or calcite), additional sodium carbonate or sodium sulphate. The base formulation was as follows:

12 Ingredient Percentage Nonionic detergent (Alfol l412-8'EO) 6 Amine oxide (Aromox DMCDW) 6 Sodium carbonate 40 Sodium alkaline silicate 8 Additive (see Table 7) 30 Water to The compositions were tested for their detergencies in a Terg-O-Tometer using standard test cloths as described in Example 2, with water of 18 French hardness (Ca Mg, 2:1) at 50 C. and with a product concentration of 0.15%. The results are shown in Table 7.

TABLE 7 Percent detergency ERTC Additive VCD 41!.

Example:

62 Calcite 45 79 44 81 44 82 40 75 These results show the benefit of having either calcite or aragonite or additional sodium carbonate present, at least under the low product concentration test conditions. It should be noted that the compositions of Examples 62 and 63 have a lower pH than the composition of Example 64- and is correspondingly safer for domestic use.

What is claimed is:

1. A solid detergent composition consisting essentially of from about 5 to 25% by weight of a mixture of (a) an amine oxide detergent active compound having the formula R R R N O where R is a C -C alkyl or alkenyl group or a C C al-kyl benzyl group or a C -C alkyl amido group and R and R are C -C alkyl groups or C C hydroxyalkyl groups or Where R and R are conjoined to form a hcterocyclic ring with the nitrogen atom, and (B) a nonionic detergent active compound which is a condensation product of an aliphatic alcohol or an alkyl phenol with ethylene oxide, the ratio of the amine oxide to the nonionic detergent active compound being from about 3:1 to 1:10 parts by weight, from about 25% to 75% by weight of an alkali metal carbonate detergency builder, and from about 10% to about 50% by weight of finely ground calcium carbonate.

2. A composition according to claim 1, wherein the alkali metal carbonate detergency builder is sodium carbomate.

3. A composition according to claim 1, wherein the amount of the alkali metal carbonate is from about 45% to 70% by weight of the composition.

4. A composition according to claim 1, wherein the ratio of the amine oxide to the nonionic detergent active compound is from about 3:1 to 1:3 parts by weight.

5. A composition according to claim 1, wherein the ratio of the amine oxide to the nonionic detergent active compound is about 1:1 parts by weight.

6. A composition according to claim 1, wherein the amine oxide detergent active compound has the general formula:

wheren R is a C -C alkyl or alkenyl group and R and R are the same or diiierent C -C alkyl groups or C -C hydroxy alkyl groups.

7. A composition according to claim 11, wherein the group R is a linear alkyl group and the groups R, and R are methyl groups.

8. A composition according to claim 1, wherein the amount of the mixed amine oxide and nonionic detergent active compounds is from about 10% to 14% by weight.

9. A composition according to claim 1, additionally comprising an aromatic solvent in an amount of from about 4% by weight to a level not greater than that of the total detergent active compounds.

10. A composition according to claim 9, wherein the 5 solvent is dibutyl phthalate.

11. A composition according to claim 1, additionally comprising not more than about 10% by weight of sodium tripolyphosphate.

12. A composition according to claim 1, additionally comprising from about 5 to 15% by weight of sodium silicate.

13. A detergent composition according to claim 1, in particulate form.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,537,993 11/1970 Coward et a1. 252135 1 4 3,590,001 6/1971 Taylor et al 252-547 3,574,125 4/1971 Paassen 252-551 OTHER REFERENCES Uses and Applications of Chemicals and Related Materials; Gregory, Volume II, 1944, p. 60.

DeSotos New Syndet, Detergents and Specialties, pp. 40, 41, 1970.

RALPH S. KENDALL, Primary Examiner E. L. ROLLINS, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

252-139, Dig. 1, 528

Claims (1)

1. A SOLID DETERGENT COMPOSITION CONSISTING ESSENTIALLY OF FROM ABOUT 5 TO 25% BY WEIGHT OF A MIXTURRE OF (A) AN AMINE OXIDE DETERGENT ACTIVE COMPOUND HAVING THE FORMULA R1R2R3N$O WHERE R1 IS A C10-C22 ALKYL OR ALKENYL GROUP OR A C8-C18 ALKYL BENZYL GROUP OR A C8-C18 ALKYL MIDO GROUP AND R2-C18 ALKYL BENZY GROUP OR A C8-C18 O1 C2:C3 HYDROXYALKYL GROUPS OR WHERE R2 AND R3 ARE CONJOINED TO FORM A HETEROCYCLIC RING WITH THE NITROGEN ATOM, AND (B) A NONIONIC DETERGENT ACTIVE COMPOUND WHIH IS A CONDENSATION PRODUCT OF AN ALIPHATIC ALCOHO OR AN ALKYL PHENOL WITH ETHYLENE OXIDE, THE RATIO OF THE AMINE OXIDE TO THE NONIONIC DETERGENT ACTIVE COMPOUND BEIN FROM ABOUT 3:1 TO 1:10 PARTS BY WEIGHT, FROM ABOUT 25% OF 75% BY WEIGHT OF AN ALKALI METAL CARBONATE DETERGENCY BUILDER, AND FROM ABOUT 10% TO ABOUT 50% BY WEIGHT OF FINELY GROUND CALCIUM CARBONATE.
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US3932316A (en) * 1974-11-13 1976-01-13 The Procter & Gamble Company Free flowing detergent compositions containing benzoate salts
US3954649A (en) * 1974-09-16 1976-05-04 Lever Brothers Company Detergent compositions containing coated particulate calcium sulfate dihydrate
US3992314A (en) * 1974-09-27 1976-11-16 The Procter & Gamble Company Process for the preparation of spray-dried calcium carbonate-containing granules
US4013578A (en) * 1973-08-15 1977-03-22 Lever Brothers Company Detergent ingredient
US4022702A (en) * 1974-05-30 1977-05-10 Lever Brothers Company Production of detergent compositions containing calcium carbonate
US4051054A (en) * 1973-10-01 1977-09-27 Lever Brothers Company Detergent compositions
US4065409A (en) * 1975-08-01 1977-12-27 Corporate Brands, Inc. Hard surface detergent composition
US4126586A (en) * 1976-02-10 1978-11-21 Lever Brothers Company Process of spray drying nonionic surfactant-containing detergents also containing a cationic nitrogen compound
US4129527A (en) * 1974-11-07 1978-12-12 The Clorox Company Liquid abrasive detergent composition and method for preparing same
US4138352A (en) * 1977-03-07 1979-02-06 The Dow Chemical Company Detergent compositions with antisoil and antiredeposition properties
US4174304A (en) * 1975-08-01 1979-11-13 Bullen Chemical Company Midwest, Inc. Surfactant system
US4203872A (en) * 1975-08-01 1980-05-20 Flanagan John J Surfactant system
USRE30472E (en) * 1979-08-20 1981-01-06 The Dow Chemical Company Detergent composition with antisoil and antiredeposition properties
US4247424A (en) * 1979-10-11 1981-01-27 The Procter & Gamble Company Stable liquid detergent compositions
US4261869A (en) * 1977-07-01 1981-04-14 Lever Brothers Company Detergent compositions
US4264479A (en) * 1978-12-18 1981-04-28 Flanagan John J Surfactant system
US4276205A (en) * 1980-02-04 1981-06-30 The Procter & Gamble Company Detergent compositions containing amine oxide and nonionic surfactants and polyethylene glycol
US4284532A (en) * 1979-10-11 1981-08-18 The Procter & Gamble Company Stable liquid detergent compositions
US4359413A (en) * 1981-03-17 1982-11-16 The Procter & Gamble Company Solid detergent compositions containing alpha-amine oxide surfactants
US4391726A (en) * 1980-11-28 1983-07-05 The Procter & Gamble Company Detergent composition containing low levels of amine oxides
US4474678A (en) * 1982-03-29 1984-10-02 Shell Oil Company Alkanol ethoxylate-containing detergent compositions
US4490279A (en) * 1979-10-17 1984-12-25 Basf Wyandotte Corporation Foam-stabilized compositions
US4666940A (en) * 1984-08-20 1987-05-19 Werner & Mertz Gmbh Acaricidal cleaning composition for controlling house dust mites and process of using
US4741863A (en) * 1984-02-10 1988-05-03 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Alkaline degreasing solution comprising amine oxides
US5376300A (en) * 1993-06-29 1994-12-27 Church & Dwight Co., Inc. Carbonate built laundry detergent composition
US5442113A (en) * 1992-01-31 1995-08-15 Albright & Wilson Limited Nitrosamine and nitrite inhibition
WO2002070810A2 (en) * 2001-03-06 2002-09-12 Interface, Inc. Moisture barrier fabric and methods of making same
EP2766464A4 (en) * 2011-10-12 2015-06-17 Ecolab Usa Inc Moderately alkaline cleaning compositions for proteinaceous and fatty soil removal at low temperatures

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US4225471A (en) * 1978-06-28 1980-09-30 Chemed Corporation Cleaning composition containing mineral spirits alkanolamide, and oleyl dimethylamine oxide
GB8311002D0 (en) * 1983-04-22 1983-05-25 Unilever Plc Detergent compositions
GB9102311D0 (en) * 1991-02-02 1991-03-20 Albright & Wilson Nitrosamine inhibition
US5516459A (en) * 1994-08-12 1996-05-14 Buckeye International, Inc. Aircraft cleaning/degreasing compositions

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NL60879C (en) * 1940-12-30
NL286242A (en) * 1961-12-04
NL286808A (en) * 1961-12-21
DE1792163A1 (en) * 1967-08-24 1971-10-14 Atlantic Richfield Co detergent
US3450637A (en) * 1968-05-03 1969-06-17 Procter & Gamble Detergent containing hydroxy alkyl amine oxide

Cited By (33)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4013578A (en) * 1973-08-15 1977-03-22 Lever Brothers Company Detergent ingredient
US4051054A (en) * 1973-10-01 1977-09-27 Lever Brothers Company Detergent compositions
US4022702A (en) * 1974-05-30 1977-05-10 Lever Brothers Company Production of detergent compositions containing calcium carbonate
US3954649A (en) * 1974-09-16 1976-05-04 Lever Brothers Company Detergent compositions containing coated particulate calcium sulfate dihydrate
US3992314A (en) * 1974-09-27 1976-11-16 The Procter & Gamble Company Process for the preparation of spray-dried calcium carbonate-containing granules
US4049586A (en) * 1974-09-27 1977-09-20 The Procter & Gamble Company Builder system and detergent product
US4129527A (en) * 1974-11-07 1978-12-12 The Clorox Company Liquid abrasive detergent composition and method for preparing same
US3932316A (en) * 1974-11-13 1976-01-13 The Procter & Gamble Company Free flowing detergent compositions containing benzoate salts
US4065409A (en) * 1975-08-01 1977-12-27 Corporate Brands, Inc. Hard surface detergent composition
US4203872A (en) * 1975-08-01 1980-05-20 Flanagan John J Surfactant system
US4174304A (en) * 1975-08-01 1979-11-13 Bullen Chemical Company Midwest, Inc. Surfactant system
US4126586A (en) * 1976-02-10 1978-11-21 Lever Brothers Company Process of spray drying nonionic surfactant-containing detergents also containing a cationic nitrogen compound
US4138352A (en) * 1977-03-07 1979-02-06 The Dow Chemical Company Detergent compositions with antisoil and antiredeposition properties
US4261869A (en) * 1977-07-01 1981-04-14 Lever Brothers Company Detergent compositions
US4264479A (en) * 1978-12-18 1981-04-28 Flanagan John J Surfactant system
USRE30472E (en) * 1979-08-20 1981-01-06 The Dow Chemical Company Detergent composition with antisoil and antiredeposition properties
US4284532A (en) * 1979-10-11 1981-08-18 The Procter & Gamble Company Stable liquid detergent compositions
US4247424A (en) * 1979-10-11 1981-01-27 The Procter & Gamble Company Stable liquid detergent compositions
US4490279A (en) * 1979-10-17 1984-12-25 Basf Wyandotte Corporation Foam-stabilized compositions
US4276205A (en) * 1980-02-04 1981-06-30 The Procter & Gamble Company Detergent compositions containing amine oxide and nonionic surfactants and polyethylene glycol
US4470923A (en) * 1980-11-28 1984-09-11 The Procter & Gamble Company Detergent composition containing low levels of amine oxides
US4391726A (en) * 1980-11-28 1983-07-05 The Procter & Gamble Company Detergent composition containing low levels of amine oxides
US4359413A (en) * 1981-03-17 1982-11-16 The Procter & Gamble Company Solid detergent compositions containing alpha-amine oxide surfactants
US4474678A (en) * 1982-03-29 1984-10-02 Shell Oil Company Alkanol ethoxylate-containing detergent compositions
US4741863A (en) * 1984-02-10 1988-05-03 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Alkaline degreasing solution comprising amine oxides
US4666940A (en) * 1984-08-20 1987-05-19 Werner & Mertz Gmbh Acaricidal cleaning composition for controlling house dust mites and process of using
US5442113A (en) * 1992-01-31 1995-08-15 Albright & Wilson Limited Nitrosamine and nitrite inhibition
US5376300A (en) * 1993-06-29 1994-12-27 Church & Dwight Co., Inc. Carbonate built laundry detergent composition
WO2002070810A2 (en) * 2001-03-06 2002-09-12 Interface, Inc. Moisture barrier fabric and methods of making same
WO2002070810A3 (en) * 2001-03-06 2003-09-18 Interface Inc Moisture barrier fabric and methods of making same
US6839945B1 (en) 2001-03-06 2005-01-11 Chatham, Inc. Moisture barrier fabric and methods of making same
EP2766464A4 (en) * 2011-10-12 2015-06-17 Ecolab Usa Inc Moderately alkaline cleaning compositions for proteinaceous and fatty soil removal at low temperatures
US9803160B2 (en) 2011-10-12 2017-10-31 Ecolab Usa Inc. Moderately alkaline cleaning compositions for proteinaceous and fatty soil removal at low temperatures

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BE781434A1 (en) grant
NL179066C (en) 1986-07-01 grant
JPS5734320B1 (en) 1982-07-22 grant
DE2215371A1 (en) 1972-10-19 application
FR2132274B1 (en) 1977-01-14 grant
DE2215371C2 (en) 1986-02-06 grant
GB1379024A (en) 1975-01-02 application
CA974138A1 (en) grant
NL179066B (en) 1986-02-03 application
ES401392A1 (en) 1975-02-16 application
CA974138A (en) 1975-09-09 grant
NL7204495A (en) 1972-10-04 application
BE781434A (en) 1972-09-29 grant

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