US384324A - mallett - Google Patents

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US384324A US384324DA US384324A US 384324 A US384324 A US 384324A US 384324D A US384324D A US 384324DA US 384324 A US384324 A US 384324A
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    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/02Channels characterised by the type of signal
    • H04L5/04Channels characterised by the type of signal the signals being represented by different amplitudes or polarities, e.g. quadriplex


(No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 1.


No. 384,824. Patented June 12, 1888.

WITNESSES Eda/67 596L063,

a fitter-nay N. PETERS PhulbLilllnmphAr. Wahmginn. D-C.

4 Sheets-Sheet 2.

(No Model.)


AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPHY. N0. 384,324. Patentedjune 12, 1888.

Iynamo ynama WITNESSES l [JV'VEWTOR Emai 9 1 9*. M

W fltidrney N. PETERS. Pholu'ubcgnpher. WnhL-nglun. D. C.

(No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 3. E, J. MALLETT. AUTOMATIG TELEGRAPHY.

Patented June 12, 1888.

mam; 'urren WITNESSES Eda/an 5968 1652,


(No Model.)

No. 384,324. Patented June 12, 1888.


v i 7 ,VW flttorney,





5PECIPICAI'ION forming part of Letters Patent No. 384,324, dated June 12, 1888.

Application filed April 5, 1888. Serial No. 269,685. (No mo el.l

T 0 all whom, it may concern:

Be it known that I, EDWARD J. MALLETT, rection, and so on.

of the city, county, and State ot' New York, have-invented certain new and useful Improvements in Automatic Telegraphy, of which'the following is a specification.

In my Letters Patent No. 348,042, of June 1,1SS6,I have described a system of automatic telegraphy involving, among other things, an automatic transmitter containing stopping mechanism, together with releasing devices, brought into action by the operation of the stopping mechanism and automatically operating when thus brought into action to release the transmitter from the control of the stopping mechanism. The stopping mechanismin said patented system is controlled by a fillet or card having the code signals or indications thereon in transverse lines, and the car or holder for said card is intermittently fed once for each revolution of the trailer and in the inter al between the use of any two successive transverse lines on the card.

Myprcscntinventioninvolvcsthesesamegeneral features, and is an improvement upon the organization described in my said LettersPatent in illustration of the said system. It is directed to simplifying and rendering more eflicient the means for automatically stopping the transmitter, For automatically starting the transmitter-,0), i n other \vords,releasing it from the control of the stopping mechanism,aud for effecting or controlling the feed of the car or holder which contains the prepared card. .The feed of the car or holder is controlled by a polarized escapement included in the trailercircnit-that is to say,thc circuit in which are placed the trailer-arm, its co operating sun flower-disk, and the transmittingkeys that are operated by the prepared card-Which escapement permits the ear to feed a distance of one tooth on the completion ofa revolution of the trailer arm, and while the latterispass ing over the interval-segment or car-se ment, asit may be termed, on the sunflowerdisk. The car-escapement armature must thus vibrate slowl y, with intervals between successive vibrations corresponding to successive revolutions of the trailer-that is to say,whe n the trailer completes one revolution the carescapement armature moves in one direction, and when the trailer completes the next revolution the armature moves in the opposite di- The transmitter in the organization shown by me is stopped by a stopping-magnet included in the trailer-circuit, which,whcn energized, attracts its armature, and thus breaks contacts controlled by said armature and included in the circuit of an automatic pole-changer, which throws reversals upon or causes reversals in the circuit which includes the magnet for actuating or controlling the escapement of the transmitter. The effect of this action is to stop the transmitter. from the control of the stopping mechanism, I provide for short circuiting the stopping magnet by forming a normally-open shunt around the said magnet, the contacts of which are controlled by the armature of an electromagnet, which I term the startinginagnot, included in ahigh-resistance circuit in derivation to that of the automatic polechanger. Thus when the circuit of the automatic pole'changer is broken by the stoppingmagnet sutlicient current will pass over the circuit in derivation thereto to energize the starting-magnet, the result of which will be to close the shunt around the stopping-magnet, and, the latter being thus short-circuited, loses its energy and permits its armature to reclosc the polechanger circuit.

The nature of my invention and the manner in which the same is or may be carried into effect will be readily understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a view in the main diagrammatic of the general system in which my improve ments are involved, showing the card holder or car in vertical cross-section. Fig. 2 is a diagram representing a modification of the system which may be used wheneverit is found desirable to actuate one or more escapements, each from its own automatic pole-changer, without having the latter in circuit with the escapement-magnet. Fig. 3 is a. diagram illustrative of the application of the starting-magnet to a system in which an alternating current is used to actuate the poleehanger. Fig. 4 is a diagram illustrative of a way of effecting the feed of the card-holder without the use of an extra disk and trailer'arm. Fig. 5 is a view of the parts of the transmitter (omitting In order to automatically release it the circuitconnections) as theyare actually assembled together on the transmitting-table. In this figure I omit from the card'carrier the car which holds the prepared card and the guides therefor. Fig. 6 isa longitudinal vertical central section of the cardcarrier. Fig. 7 is a transverse section of the same in the plane of the escapement, omitting the needles and the press-roll.

The stationary sunflower or segment-disk of the transmitter is shown at c. It has as many segments as there are keys in Fig. 1 or pivoted needlesp. Each needle has its own anvil, p, and each anvil is connected to its appropriate segment, 0, of disk 0. I have shown only one of these segments, anvils, and keys. Their construction, arrangement, and mode of operation are well known and require no further explanation. In addition to the needle-segments c, the disk 0 carries also the unconnected interval or car 7 segment 0 During the passage of the trailer-arm a over this lastenamed segment the feed of the card car or holder takes place. The trailer-arm a is attached to and revolves with a shaft, b,driv.en by any suitable motor, and governed in its movement by a polarized escapement of any known or suitable construction. In the present instance the scape-fork of this escapement is shown at 9 attached to a polarized armature, the controlling or actuating magnet of which is shown at k. This magnet consists of three cores mounted on a common yoke and surrounded each by its own spool. The armature g is pivoted on the core of the middle magnet, The scape-fork g is to engage scape-wheels on the shaft b, as will be under.- stood without further explanation. I have placed it in the present instancesome distance from the trailer-shaft I) simply to avoid the obscurity which would arise from superpcsing and intermingling the circuits. The actual relation in which .the parts just referred to stand to one another in the instrument is shown plainly in Fig. 5.

Any suitable automatic pole-changer can .be employed to cause reversals in the circuit in which the escapement-magnet k is included. That which is shown inthe drawings is a three-spool magnet, d cl,similar to k 70, having its armature e pivoted to the central core. Armature c has centrally affixed to it an u pright arm, f, provided with a contact, f, which plays between the two spring-contacts h h, fixed to some suitable part of the instrument. Above the contact f is the stationary contact t, placed between the same springstrip contacts h h.

The car A, Figs. 6, and 7, .for the prepared card A, which operates the needles, is supported to slide in guideson a suitable base, A, and is actuated to move by gravity or other suitable means-in this instance by means of a weight and cord, 13. Its movement is controlled by any suitable form of escapement. That :escapement in the present instance consists of the scape-fork C, which in its vibranecessary intermittent movement of progression. In the instrument shown in Figs. 5 and 6 the needles dip always eachinto its individual mercury-cup me, while such of them as are.

from time to time tilted by the embossments on the prepared card A dip when thus tilted into the mercury-trough mt, which is common to all the needles. The scape-fork G is on or forms part of an armature which is pivoted to the center core of-a three-spool polarized magnet, E E. The energizing of this magnet and the consequent vibration of the armature is governed by a trailer-arm, F, fixed to a rotary shaft, G, and revolving around a fixed non-conducting disk, H, provided with two diametri (rally-opposite conducting-segments, I I.

The trailer-arm F, for reasons hereinafter indicated, revolvesat half the speed of trailerarm a, and the relations of these two trailerarms and their respective disks are such that when a, after one revolution, has reached segment 0 F, by a halfrevolution, will have reached segment I, and when a, after the next succeeding revolution, has again reached segment 0, F,by anotherhalf-revolution,will have reached segment I, and so on. The two trailer-- arms can readily be thus speeded in the manner indicated in Fig. 5, where the powerdri ven shaft 1) of trailer a is represented as provided with a pinion, J, of twelve teeth, which gears with a spur-wheel, K, of twentyfour teeth, on the shaft G of trailer F.

Referring now to Fig. l, the circuit-connections of the devices thus far described are as follows: X is the battery of the trailer-circuit, the circuit including the transmittingtrailerarm a, &c., being as follows: From one pole of battery by wire 1 to trailer-arm a, thence to disk 0, and from there by wire 1 to anvil p, needle 1), wire 1, through magnet L, back to the other pole of battery. Magnet L is the stopping-magnet, and controls contacts in the pole-changer circuit, as will be hereinafter described. The polarized magnet of the car-escapement has its two outer spools, E, doubly wound. Each winding is independent of the other, and they are of such character that when a current is passed through one winding it will impart to themagnet an opposite polarity to that which it would impartifpassed through the other winding. The center electromagnet, E, which inductively magnetizes the armature C,'is excited from any suitable source. From wire 1 on one side of the battery X is taken a branch wire, 2, which at a point near the magnet E divides, one branch, 3, passing through one winding and the other branch, 4, passing through the other winding of the magnet. Thence the branches 3 4. continue, being connected the one to one segment, I, and the other to the other segment, I. From the trailer F extends a wire, 5, to the wire 1 on the opposite side of the battery from 2. The control-, ling devices of the car-escapement are thus in-,

cluded in a derived circuitto that in which the transmitt-ing'trailer a is included. Under this arrangement it willbe noted that when trailer u is on the interval or non-conducting segment a the trailer F will be on one or the other of the segments I I. Ifit be on the segment I, then the car-escapcment circuit will be completed through the branch 3 and the magnet E will have the polarity d no to the winding included in that branch, and the armature C will be tilted in a corresponding direction, thus allowing the car to feed one tooththat is, the distance which separates one transverse line of symbols onthe card from the next. This takes place while the trailer a is passing over interval-segmentc i \Vhen the trailer (1 completes its next revolution and again meets its segment 6-, the trailer F (revolving only half as fast as trailer a) will, by meeting segment I, complete the car-escapement circuit through the branch at and the winding connected with that branch, thus imparting opposite polarity to magnet E and tilting the armatnreG in the opposite direction, and consequently effecting the feed of the car, as before. Thus the careseapcment circuit, as the transmittirig-trailer contacts with its interval-segment, is completed through alternatelyopposite windings of the escapcment-magnet, with the result of imparting the proper intermittent feed to the car.

It is manifest that in lieuofhaving two segments I l, in connection with a single trailer, the same result can be attained by having only one segment in connection with two dia- Inetricallyopposite trailers, as shown in Fig. 5, where F F are the two trailers and I the single segment. In such event the obvious modification of the circuitconnections would be to connect up the two trailers in the same way as the two segments I Iare now connected, and to shift to the single segment the present connection of the single trailer F.

The circuit-connections of the automatic polechanger and the eseapementmagnet of the transmitter are as follows: In the particular arrangement shown in Fig. 1 the pole changer is in the same circuit with the escapernentmagnet. Under these conditions the connections are as follows: Starting from the pole of battery '3", this circuit extends by wire 6 to the contact-tongue)" of the pole-changer, and from the -pole of battery Y extends a wire, 7, to the fixed contact. From one of the spring-contact strips h extends a wire, 8, through the normally-closed contacts controlled by armature L of stopping-magnet L, thence through the two spools k of the escapemcntmagnet, thence to and through the two spools (Z of the pole changer, and thence back to the other spring-contact strip, It. In practice I connect up the center spools, d and 1:, of the two magnets in a derived circuit, 9, of comparatively high resistance with a view to obtaining an ascertained division of the current between these spools (which act with permanent induction upon their armaturcs) and those through which reversals pass. This feature, however, is not here claimed, but is made by me the subject of a separate application for Letters Patent of even date herewith. The contact-strips h it normally press toward the contacts f and i,

and each is alternately separate from the fixed contact-i by the contact--tonguef, which plays between them. The arrangement of contacts and the winding of the pole-changer is such that the direction in which the current flows when the tongue fvibrates to one side will impart such polarity to the magnet (Z as to cause its armature to move the tongue. to the other side. Thus a rapid sequence of reversals will be thrown over the circuit so long as the contacts controlled by armature If remain closed. \Vhenever, however, the trailer-cir cuit is closed, whether by the action of a key and anvil or by the action of the trailer F, magnet L will be excited, and will attract its armature Ii, consequently breaking the polechangcr circuit and bringing the instruments therein to a standstill. Thus, whenever the trailer-circuit is closed this closure will effect the stoppage of the automatic pole changer, and of the devices for operating or controlling the eseapement of the transmitter. \Vith the stoppage ofthc automatic pole-changer occurs, also, that of the pole-changer ordinarily employed to send reversals over the main line or working-circuit, for the purpose ofoperating the printing or other receivinginstruments. This will be understood by reference to Fig. l, where, for convenience sake, I have connected this line-pole changer to the. fork of the tlansmitteu escapcinent. The line-pole changer is lettered P. It, together with the linebattery V, line I, and circuit'connections, are represented by dotted lines, and require no further description.

With respect to the automatic pole-changer, it will be noted that it is one in which the electro magnet, which controls by an induced magnetic armature the contactpoints through which reversals are sent, is in the same circuit with said contact-points. This feature is not here claimed, the same having been made by me the subjcctof a separate application for Letters Patent, Serial No. 183,204, filed November 19, 1885, renewed April 5, 1888, Serial No. 269,659.

I have now indicated the manner in which the transmitter is stopped. Manifcstly, however, in order to render it automatic some means must be provided by which it shall when thus stopped beautomaticallyrestarted. This result, as hereinbefore indicated, I ob tain by the employment of releasing devices brought into action by the operation of the stopping mechanism and autoimitically operating, when thus brought into action, to release the transmitter from the control of the stopping mechanism.

The releasing devices now employed by me are simple and entirely effective. In a circuit, 1(),in derivation to that in which the automatic pole-changer is included, I place an electromagnet, M, which I term the starting-magnet. The armature M of this magnet controls normally-separated contact-points in a lowresistance shunt-circuit, 11, from the trailercircuit battery X. The resistance of the circnit 10 is high, there being a resistance, R, interposed in it of, say, one hundred ohms,while the starting-magnet M itself has a resistance of seventy-five ohms. The object of this is that there shall not be sufficient current on circuit 10 to energize the starting-magnet M so long as the contacts controlled by the Stopping-magnet armature L are closed and the circuit through the magnet of the automatic polechanger is consequently completed; but whenever the circuit thcrethrough is broken by the action of the stopping-magnet L, then sufficient current will tlow over the branchor derived circuit 10 to energize the startingmagnet M. This latter magnet M, under these conditions, will attract its armature M, the shunt ll'will thereby be closed, the stoppingmagnet,being short circuited,will be deprived of its energy and will release its armature,the circuit through the automatic polechanger will be restored, and the transmitter will at once start again in movement. As soon as the automatic pole-changer circuit is again completed,the startingmagnet of course is cut .out-by the high resistance in itsbranch circuit,and consequently the shunt 11 is restored to its normally-open condition.

In diagram, Fig. 1, the automatic polechanger is included in the same circuit with the escapement-magnet of the transmitter.

It may be desirable, however, at times (for instance, if it is wished to use a dynamo-current for the transmitting escapementmagnet) not-to have the automatic pole-changer and the escapement-magnet in the same circuit. Such a modification is represented in Fig. 2, from which I have omitted the representation of any circuits other than the pole changer circuit and the escapement-circnit.- In this case the pole-changer is in its own independent circuit, which is broken by the stoppingmagnet and then automatically restored, as hereinbefore provided. The pole changer controls two sets of contacts, in m a a, in the dynamo-circuit of the escapement-magnet 7c 7r. The movable contacts at n of these sets can be attached to any suitable vibrating arm,which is actuated from or by the pole-changer. For convenience sake I have in the present case represented them as carried by the armature of the poleehanger.

For convenience sake I have also shown two dynamos, Z, one positive, the other negative. One pole of the positive dynamo is connected to fixed contact in, and one pole of the negative dynamo is connected to the other fixed contact, n. From the common connection of the two movable contacts at n extends a wire, 12, to and through the magnets 7c, and thence back to the dynamos Z, where it branches, one branch, 13, going to the other pole of the positive dynamo, and the other branch, 14, going to the other pole of the negative dynamo.

In lieu of two dynamos, manifestly one only might be used.

In Fig. 3 I have illustrated the application of the starting-magnet to a system'in which the escapement of the transmitter is actuated by an alternating current. Such an alternating current can be produced, for instance, by an alternating-current dynamo, O, which is in a circuit, 15, with the escapement-magnet 7c of the transmitter, the circuitcontinuing from the magnet 7a to the trailer-arm a, the sunflower-disk c, the keys and anvils p 19, back to the other pole of the dynamo. In this circuit the keys are supposed normally to be in contact with their anvils. In a branch, 16, of this circuitareincluded normally open or separated contact-points controlled by the armatu re M of the starting electro-magnet M, which is included in a circuit, 17, that passes through the contacts of a pole-changer, S, which vibrates with the escapement-magnet armature g. For convenience sake I have shown this pole-changer attached to the escapement-armature. So long as the escapement-armature is in vibration rapid reversals are sent over the circuit 17, and consequently the startingmagnet is unexcited. 15 is broken by the lifting of that one of the keys whose segment on the sunflower-disk 0 is met by the trailer the escapement-armature stops, thus bringing to rest the pole-changer, and consequently sending a prolonged impulse of one polarity through the starting-magnet M. The effect of this is to energize the starting-magnet, which attractsits armature, thereby closing the shunt or branch 16 and restoring the circuit through the escapementmagnet, with the result of again putting the escapement armature in vibration. As soon as this takes place, the magnet M loses its energ and the contacts in the shunt again open.

With reference to the devices for feeding the car, I remark that they have been devised with reference to the needs of a system in which the sunflower-disk contains only one complete set of code-segments; but when the sunflowerdisk contains two complete sets of code-seg ments, each occupying one-half of the periphery of the disk, then I may dispense with the extra segment-disk H and trailer I, and may use for this purpose the transmitter-trailer a and sunflower-disk c. This modification is illustrated in Fig. 4.

The sunflower-disk c is supposed to have two complete sets of codesegments, a -one on each half of its periphery. All of the needles have a common electrical connection with one pole of battery X. Their contacts are electrically coupled in pairs, and each pair is connected to its own segment of the sunflowerdisk 0. The circuit thence continues through the trailer back to battery. On the sunflowerdisk are two diametrically-opposite conduct ing-segments, c", placed in the intervals between the two sets of code-segments. In de So soon, however, as circuit" rived circuit to the needles or keys and their anvils and segments (just as in Fig. 1) is included the doubly and oppositely wound escapement magnet E, the two branches 3 4 therefrom extending to and connecting electricall y with the respective segments Thus at each half-revolution of the trailer a the'circuit will be completed through wire 2. and one and the other of the branches 3 4 alternately, with the effect of imparting the requisite feed movement to the armature C.

Ihave described what Ibelieve to be the most desirable ways on the whole of carrying out my improvements; but manifestly the details of the several organizations which constitute the automatic transmitting system hereinbe fore described can be considerably varied without departure from the principle of my invention. I therefore wish it to be understood that I do not restrict myself to these details; but

'What I believe to be new and of my own invention herein is as follows:

1. The combination, with the trailer-circuit and trailer included therein, of the scape-fork circuit, escapement operating or controlling devices therein, an automatic pole-changer for throwing reversals upon the scape-fork circuit, and a stopping-magnet in the trailer-circuit controlling contacts in the scape-fork circuit, whereby the closing of the trailer-circuit shall operate the stopping mechanism to effect the stoppage of said automatic pole-changer and escapement operating or controlling devices, substantially as and for the purposes hereinbefore set forth.

2. The combination, with an automatic telegraph transmitter, means for actuating the same, and a stopping-magnet in the trailercircuit of the transmitter controlling contacts in the scape-fork circuit of the transmitter, of a startingmagnet in the scapefork circuit controlling contacls in the trailer-circuit, said starting-magnet being brought into action by the stoppage of the transmitter, and when thus called into action automatically operating to release the transmitter from the control of the stopping mechanism, substantially as hereinbefore set forth.

3. The combination of the trailer-circuit and trailer included therein, thescape-forh circuit and escapement operating or controlling de vices included therein, an automatic polechanger for throwing reversals upon the scapefork circuit, a stopping-magnet in the trailercircnit controlling contacts in the circuit in which the automatic pole-changer is included, and a starting-magnet controlling contacts in the stopping-magnet circuit brought into action by the operation of thestopping mechanism, and operating when thus brought into action to release the automatic pole-changer from the control of the stopping mechanism, substantially as hereinbcfore set forth.

4. The trailer-circuit, including the anvils and keys, together with the doubly and oppositely wound car-escapement magnet having its two windings respectively connected with the two branches of a circuit in derivation to that which includes the keys, said branches being connected to separate segment-s, through one and the other of which alternately the derived circuit is completed at the times and in the manner substantially as and for the purposes hereinbefore set forth.

5. The trailer-circuit, including the transmittingheys or needles and anvils, and the transmittingtrailer and sunflowendisk provided with an interval or car segment, together with the doubly-wound car-cscapement magnet, and the two -segment car-disk and trailer included in abranch of said circuit-,the car-trailer revolving at half the speed of the transmittingtrailer and operating to close the branch circuit alternately through opposite segments of the car-disk, substantially as and for the purposes hereinbeforc set forth.

In testimony whereofI have hereunto set my hand this ithday of April, A. D. 1888.


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