US3807188A - Thermal coupling device for cryogenic refrigeration - Google Patents

Thermal coupling device for cryogenic refrigeration Download PDF

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Publication number
US3807188A
US3807188A US35958173A US3807188A US 3807188 A US3807188 A US 3807188A US 35958173 A US35958173 A US 35958173A US 3807188 A US3807188 A US 3807188A
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means
surface
wall
annulus
metal
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G Lagodmos
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Hughes Aircraft Co
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Hughes Aircraft Co
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q3/00Devices holding, supporting, or positioning work or tools, of a kind normally removable from the machine
    • B23Q3/02Devices holding, supporting, or positioning work or tools, of a kind normally removable from the machine for mounting on a work-table, tool-slide, or analogous part
    • B23Q3/06Work-clamping means
    • B23Q3/08Work-clamping means other than mechanically-actuated
    • B23Q3/086Work-clamping means other than mechanically-actuated using a solidifying liquid, e.g. with freezing, setting or hardening means
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C13/00Details of vessels or of the filling or discharging of vessels
    • F17C13/005Details of vessels or of the filling or discharging of vessels for medium-size and small storage vessels not under pressure
    • F17C13/006Details of vessels or of the filling or discharging of vessels for medium-size and small storage vessels not under pressure for Dewar vessels or cryostats
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT COVERED BY ANY OTHER SUBCLASS
    • F25D19/00Arrangement or mounting of refrigeration units with respect to devices or objects to be refrigerated, e.g. infra-red detectors
    • F25D19/006Thermal coupling structure or interface
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01SDEVICES USING STIMULATED EMISSION
    • H01S3/00Lasers, i.e. devices for generation, amplification, modulation, demodulation, or frequency-changing, using stimulated emission, of infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet waves
    • H01S3/02Constructional details
    • H01S3/04Cooling arrangements
    • H01S3/0401Cooling arrangements of optical elements being part of laser resonator, e.g. windows, mirrors, lenses
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01SDEVICES USING STIMULATED EMISSION
    • H01S3/00Lasers, i.e. devices for generation, amplification, modulation, demodulation, or frequency-changing, using stimulated emission, of infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet waves
    • H01S3/02Constructional details
    • H01S3/04Cooling arrangements
    • H01S3/0407Liquid cooling, e.g. by water

Abstract

Coupling between a refrigerant source and a device to be refrigerated is mechanically accomplished at room temperature by a liquid metal-filled bellows between the refrigeration source and the device. When the refrigeration source provides cooling, the liquid metal freezes to provide inter-engaging clamping force and a conductive thermal coupling.

Description

United States Patent Lagodmos Apr. 30, 1974 1 THERMAL COUPLING DEVICE FOR 3,517,730 6/1970 Wyatt 62/5l4 CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION 3,645,l l3 2/1972 Nicholds..

3,678,704 7/1972 Stass 62/5 14 Inventor: George Lagodmos, Palos Verdes, Calif.

Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company, Culver City, Calif.,

Filed: May 11, 1973 Appl. No.: 359,581

US. Cl. 62/514, 165/185 Int. Cl. F25b 19/00 Field of Search 62/514; 165/185 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 8/1968 Zobel 62/514 Primary Egraminer-MeyerPerlin Attorney, Agent, or Firm-A. W. H. MacAllister A. Dicke, Jr.:

[57] ABSTRACT 8 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures or i I ew we THERMAL COUPLING DEVICE FOR CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention is directed to a thermal coupling interconnecting a device to be cooled and a cryogenic refrigerator.

When a cold finger of a refrigerator is mechanically coupled to a device to be cooled and the device is mounted on a glass dewar, misalignment can cause breakage of the glass dewar. The usual prior art includes no provision for accommodating for such misalignment. Thus, the prior art structures were either adequately aligned or the dewar was broken.

An example of prior thermal coupling is disclosed in K. W. Cowans U.S. Pat. No. 3,306,075, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by this reference.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In order to aid in the understanding of this invention, it can be stated in essentially summary form that it is directed to a thermal coupling for coupling a device to be refrigerated with a cryogenic refrigerator. The thermal coupling includes an annular member filled with metal which is liquid at room temperature connected so that mechanical coupling is accomplished within the annulus and, upon refrigeration, the liquid metal freezes and contracts to make a rigid mechanical coupling within the annulus for good thermal conductivity.

It is thus an object of the invention to provide a thermal coupling for coupling a device with a cryogenic re-- frigerator. It is another object to provide a thermal coupling which accommodates for mechanical misalignment at room temperature resulting from assembly or manufacture, and yet provide a rigid, firm thermal coupling while thermal transfer at cryogenic temperatures is incurred. lt is a further object to provide a bellows which has liquid mercury therein and a thermal transfer neck which extends into the bellows so that, when refrigeration occurs, the mercury solidifies and clamps the bellows onto the thermal transfer neck.

Other objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent from a study of the following portion of the specification, the claims and the attached drawings.

FIG. I is a perspective view of a dewar installed upon a refrigerator, the refrigerator being broken away.

FIG. 2 is a vertical section taken generally along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The drawings illustrate a dewar mounted upon a refrigerator 12. Dwwar 10 has an interior wall 14 and an exterior wall 16 which enclose a space 18. Conventionally, space 18 is evacuated and the surfaces of the walls 14 and 16 facing into the space are silvered to minimize heat transfer by radiation and by conduction. The major portion of dewar 10 is made of glass, and thus has the breakability of glass structures. The front of dewar 10 includes a window 20 of suitable material for transmission of radiation of interest. When the radiation of interest is infra-red, a germanium window can be employed to transmit radiation in the IO-micron band.

Interior wall 14 is in the form of a cylindrical tube, and mounted upon the front end of this tube behind window 20 is device 22 to be cooled. Device 22 may be an infra-red radiation detector. On the other hand, some devices, such as parametric amplifiers, need to be cooled for electronic reasons and do not need to face a window. Device 22 could be such a device. Interior wall 14 engages baseplate 24 upon which device 22 is mounted. Extending inwardly, down the interior of the tube defined by interior wall 14 is thermal transfer neck 26. Neck 26 is in good thermal communication with baseplate 24, and, in order to maintain this good thermal communication, it is preferably formed of the same piece of material. A thermally conductive metal such as copper is preferred. Thus, device 22 is in good thermal communication with thermal transfer neck 26. Thermal transfer neck 26 is of circular cross-section and is preferably cylindrical or slightly tapered. When the device is tapered, the smaller end is to the right, as shown in FIG. 2.

Cold finger 28 is the refrigerated portion of a cryogenic refrigerator. Cold finger 28 can be a Joule Thomson type cold finger, such as is shown in E. W. Peterson et al. U.S. Pat. No. 3,269,140 or in J. S. Buller et al. U.S. Pat. No. 3,640,091. On the other hand, the cold finger can be the expansion cylinder of a cryogenic re frigerator, such as is shown in K. W. Cowans U.S. Pat. No. 3,379,026 or A. G. Dehne U.S. Pat. No. 3,530,681. The entire disclosures of each of these patents is incorporated herein by this reference. Thus, cold finger 28 is the source of refrigeration.

Bellows 30 is directly secured to cold finger 28. It is attached so that the open interior of the bellows is directly in engagement with the end of the cold finger. Bellows 30 has a corrugated outer wall and an inner wall 32 which is of such shape as to fit the exterior of thermal transfer neck 26. Thus, inner wall 32 is preferably cylindrical, although it may be optionally frustoconical, as previously described. Inner wall 32 of bellows 30 is of such dimension that it is in slip-fit relationship with the exterior of thermal transfer neck 26, when the entire structure is at room temperature. Thus, there are several thousandths of an inch clearance between the interior of inner wall 32 and the exterior of thermal transfer neck 26 when they are at room temperature. The corrugated outer wall of bellows 30 is such as to provide a substantial amount of mechanical flexure between the inner wall 32 and cold finger 28. Thus, misalignments between the thermal transfer neck 26 and cold finger 28 are taken up by flexure of the corrugated exterior wall of the bellows.

Mercury 34 fills the bellows. The mercury .is liquid at room temperature and permits flexure of the bellows to accommodate misalignment, when the dewar is being installed upon the refrigerator. After installation, with cooldown of the refrigerator, mercury 34 freezes and contracts. The contraction of the mercury as it solidifies contracts inner wall 32 so that inner wall 32 becomes firmly clamped upon the exterior of thermal transfer neck 26 at cryogenic temperatures. Such temperatures are reached below the temperature of evaporating solid carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure.

Once the mercury is frozen and inner wall 32 is clamped on thermal transfer neck 26, there is a solid metal-to-metal path from the end of the cold finger through the frozen mercury and through the clamp joint to the thermal transfer neck whereby the refrigeration is directly and efficiently transferred to device 22.

By this means, misalignment is accommodated for and good thermal coupling is accomplished.

This invention having been described in its preferred embodiment, it is clear that it is susceptible to numerous modifications and embodiments within the ability of those skilled in the art and without the exercise of the inventive faculty. Accordingly, the scope of this invention is defined by the scope of the following claims.

What is claimed is:

1. A thermal coupling for a cryogenic refrigerator having a refrigerated surface means for causing cooling which is enclosed by a dewar having wall means for defining a portion of said dewar, a device to be cooled mounted upon said dewar wall means, the improvement comprising:

a metallic thermal transfer neck;

' a hollow metallic annulus having an inner wall embracing around said thermal transferneck, saidannulus having metal therein which is liquid at room temperature, said annulus being dimensioned so that it is movable onto and off of said neck when said metal within said hollow annulus is liquid and is clamped in metal-to-metal relationship with said neck when said metal in said annulus is solidified by refrigeration;

said neck being mounted on and being in thermal communication with one of said means and said annulus being mounted on and in communication with the other of said means so that, when said surface means is refrigerated, there is metal-to-metal thermal communication between said surface 3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein said annulus is mounted upon said cold finger and said neck is mounted upon said wall means of said dewar.

4. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein said annulus is a bellows having an interior wall which is a surface of revolution and having a corrugated outer wall, said outer wall being mounted upon said cold finger so that liquid metal within-said bellows is in direct contact with said refrigerated surface means of said cold finger.

5. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein said thermal transfer neck has an exterior surface which is a surface of revolution corresponding to the surface of revolution of said interior wall of said bellows.

6. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein said dewar has "an outer wall spaced from said wall means, said wall means being tubular and receiving said cold finger therein, said outer wall of said dewar substantially protecting said device from thermal conduction with respect to the exterior environment. v I

7. The apparatus of claim 6 wherein said annulus is a bellows having an interior wall which is a surface revolution and having a corrugated outer wall, said outer wall being mounted upon said cold finger so that liquid metal within said bellows is in direct contact with said refrigerated surface means of said cold finger.

8. The apparatus of claim 7 wherein said thermal transfer neck has an exterior'surface which is a surface of revolution corresponding to the surface of revolution of said interior wall of said bellows.

Claims (8)

1. A Thermal coupling for a cryogenic refrigerator having a refrigerated surface means for causing cooling which is enclosed by a dewar having wall means for defining a portion of said dewar, a device to be cooled mounted upon said dewar wall means, the improvement comprising: a metallic thermal transfer neck; a hollow metallic annulus having an inner wall embracing around said thermal transfer neck, said annulus having metal therein which is liquid at room temperature, said annulus being dimensioned so that it is movable onto and off of said neck when said metal within said hollow annulus is liquid and is clamped in metal-to-metal relationship with said neck when said metal in said annulus is solidified by refrigeration; said neck being mounted on and being in thermal communication with one of said means and said annulus being mounted on and in communication with the other of said means so that, when said surface means is refrigerated, there is metal-to-metal thermal communication between said surface means and said wall means.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said refrigerated surface means is on a cold finger which forms a part of said refrigerator, said refrigerated surface means being on said cold finger.
3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein said annulus is mounted upon said cold finger and said neck is mounted upon said wall means of said dewar.
4. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein said annulus is a bellows having an interior wall which is a surface of revolution and having a corrugated outer wall, said outer wall being mounted upon said cold finger so that liquid metal within said bellows is in direct contact with said refrigerated surface means of said cold finger.
5. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein said thermal transfer neck has an exterior surface which is a surface of revolution corresponding to the surface of revolution of said interior wall of said bellows.
6. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein said dewar has an outer wall spaced from said wall means, said wall means being tubular and receiving said cold finger therein, said outer wall of said dewar substantially protecting said device from thermal conduction with respect to the exterior environment.
7. The apparatus of claim 6 wherein said annulus is a bellows having an interior wall which is a surface revolution and having a corrugated outer wall, said outer wall being mounted upon said cold finger so that liquid metal within said bellows is in direct contact with said refrigerated surface means of said cold finger.
8. The apparatus of claim 7 wherein said thermal transfer neck has an exterior surface which is a surface of revolution corresponding to the surface of revolution of said interior wall of said bellows.
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Cited By (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3999403A (en) * 1974-12-06 1976-12-28 Texas Instruments Incorporated Thermal interface for cryogen coolers
US4118947A (en) * 1977-05-19 1978-10-10 Selenia-Industrie Elettroniche Associate S.P.A. Low thermal loss cryogenic containers for infrared radiation detecting devices, with integrated feed-through connections
US4190106A (en) * 1976-03-18 1980-02-26 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Optimized cooler dewar
US4194119A (en) * 1977-11-30 1980-03-18 Ford Motor Company Self-adjusting cryogenic thermal interface assembly
US4241592A (en) * 1977-10-03 1980-12-30 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Cryostat for borehole sonde employing semiconductor detector
US4312192A (en) * 1979-06-21 1982-01-26 Schlumberger Technology Corp. Borehole logging tool cryostat
US4324104A (en) * 1980-04-03 1982-04-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Noncontact thermal interface
US4344302A (en) * 1981-06-08 1982-08-17 Hughes Aircraft Company Thermal coupling structure for cryogenic refrigeration
FR2500581A1 (en) * 1981-02-26 1982-08-27 Abg Semca cryocooler perfected thermal bonding
US4412427A (en) * 1980-04-03 1983-11-01 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Noncontact thermal interface
US4450693A (en) * 1983-05-24 1984-05-29 Honeywell Inc. Cryogenic cooler thermal coupler
US4451735A (en) * 1981-02-09 1984-05-29 Selenia, Industrie Elettroniche Associate, S.P.A. Cryogenic radiation detector with high-density conductor array
US4501131A (en) * 1984-01-03 1985-02-26 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Cryogenic cooler for photoconductive cells
US4682566A (en) * 1979-04-06 1987-07-28 Applied Materials, Inc. Evacuated equipment
WO1987007715A1 (en) * 1986-06-03 1987-12-17 Hughes Aircraft Company Silicone dielectric gel cryogenic detector interface
EP0265486A1 (en) * 1986-03-25 1988-05-04 Ortec Inc Modular photon detector cryostat assembly and system.
US4770004A (en) * 1986-06-13 1988-09-13 Hughes Aircraft Company Cryogenic thermal switch
FR2619439A1 (en) * 1987-08-10 1989-02-17 Air Liquide Method and device cryogenic cooling of an object
US4851684A (en) * 1986-03-25 1989-07-25 Ortec Incorporated Modular photon detector cryostat assembly and system
US4909313A (en) * 1988-09-30 1990-03-20 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator, National Aeronautics And Space Administration Pressurized bellows flat contact heat exchanger interface
US4918929A (en) * 1987-07-01 1990-04-24 Ford Aerospace Corporation Multi-detector dewar
US4944155A (en) * 1989-06-14 1990-07-31 Kadel Engineering Corporation Vacuum separator for dewar flask cold exchange systems
EP0578608A1 (en) * 1992-07-02 1994-01-12 Société Anonyme de la Manufacture d'Horlogerie AUDEMARS PIGUET ET CIE Method and device for holding work by freezing
US5379601A (en) * 1993-09-15 1995-01-10 International Business Machines Corporation Temperature actuated switch for cryo-coolers
US5531074A (en) * 1994-03-09 1996-07-02 Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Electronic device freezed by intermittently driven refrigerator
WO2000008536A1 (en) * 1998-08-05 2000-02-17 Privates Institut Für Luft- Und Kältetechnik Gesellschaft Mbh Automatic tripping cryo-heat flow switch
US20070044486A1 (en) * 2005-08-31 2007-03-01 Raytheon Company Method and system for cryogenic cooling
US20070271933A1 (en) * 2004-01-26 2007-11-29 Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko Sho Cryogenic system
US20120234522A1 (en) * 2011-03-14 2012-09-20 Hunt Jr William E Cryogenically Cooled Detector Pin Mount
US20140110579A1 (en) * 2012-10-23 2014-04-24 Advanced Measurement Technology Inc. Handheld Spectrometer
GB2513351A (en) * 2013-04-24 2014-10-29 Siemens Plc Refrigerator Mounting Assembly for Cryogenic Refrigerator

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US3398549A (en) * 1967-02-03 1968-08-27 Atomic Energy Commission Usa Apparatus for regulating at low temperatures
US3517730A (en) * 1967-03-15 1970-06-30 Us Navy Controllable heat pipe
US3645113A (en) * 1969-02-17 1972-02-29 Hymatic Eng Co Ltd Cooling appartus of the joule thomson type
US3678704A (en) * 1969-10-16 1972-07-25 Philips Corp Device for transporting thermal energy at temperatures lying below the {80 -temperature of helium

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3398549A (en) * 1967-02-03 1968-08-27 Atomic Energy Commission Usa Apparatus for regulating at low temperatures
US3517730A (en) * 1967-03-15 1970-06-30 Us Navy Controllable heat pipe
US3645113A (en) * 1969-02-17 1972-02-29 Hymatic Eng Co Ltd Cooling appartus of the joule thomson type
US3678704A (en) * 1969-10-16 1972-07-25 Philips Corp Device for transporting thermal energy at temperatures lying below the {80 -temperature of helium

Cited By (46)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3999403A (en) * 1974-12-06 1976-12-28 Texas Instruments Incorporated Thermal interface for cryogen coolers
US4190106A (en) * 1976-03-18 1980-02-26 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Optimized cooler dewar
US4118947A (en) * 1977-05-19 1978-10-10 Selenia-Industrie Elettroniche Associate S.P.A. Low thermal loss cryogenic containers for infrared radiation detecting devices, with integrated feed-through connections
US4241592A (en) * 1977-10-03 1980-12-30 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Cryostat for borehole sonde employing semiconductor detector
US4194119A (en) * 1977-11-30 1980-03-18 Ford Motor Company Self-adjusting cryogenic thermal interface assembly
US4682566A (en) * 1979-04-06 1987-07-28 Applied Materials, Inc. Evacuated equipment
US4313317A (en) * 1979-06-21 1982-02-02 Schlumberger Technology Corp. Borehole logging tool cryostat
US4315417A (en) * 1979-06-21 1982-02-16 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Borehole logging tool cryostat
US4312192A (en) * 1979-06-21 1982-01-26 Schlumberger Technology Corp. Borehole logging tool cryostat
US4324104A (en) * 1980-04-03 1982-04-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Noncontact thermal interface
US4412427A (en) * 1980-04-03 1983-11-01 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Noncontact thermal interface
US4451735A (en) * 1981-02-09 1984-05-29 Selenia, Industrie Elettroniche Associate, S.P.A. Cryogenic radiation detector with high-density conductor array
FR2500581A1 (en) * 1981-02-26 1982-08-27 Abg Semca cryocooler perfected thermal bonding
EP0059272A1 (en) * 1981-02-26 1982-09-08 Abg Semca S.A. Cryogenic refrigerator with improved thermal-coupling device
US4344302A (en) * 1981-06-08 1982-08-17 Hughes Aircraft Company Thermal coupling structure for cryogenic refrigeration
US4450693A (en) * 1983-05-24 1984-05-29 Honeywell Inc. Cryogenic cooler thermal coupler
EP0127109A2 (en) * 1983-05-24 1984-12-05 Honeywell Inc. Infrared energy receiver
EP0127109A3 (en) * 1983-05-24 1985-10-23 Honeywell Inc. Infrared energy receiver
US4501131A (en) * 1984-01-03 1985-02-26 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Cryogenic cooler for photoconductive cells
EP0265486A4 (en) * 1986-03-25 1991-05-22 Ortec, Incorporated Modular photon detector cryostat assembly and system
EP0265486A1 (en) * 1986-03-25 1988-05-04 Ortec Inc Modular photon detector cryostat assembly and system.
US4851684A (en) * 1986-03-25 1989-07-25 Ortec Incorporated Modular photon detector cryostat assembly and system
WO1987007715A1 (en) * 1986-06-03 1987-12-17 Hughes Aircraft Company Silicone dielectric gel cryogenic detector interface
US4770004A (en) * 1986-06-13 1988-09-13 Hughes Aircraft Company Cryogenic thermal switch
US4918929A (en) * 1987-07-01 1990-04-24 Ford Aerospace Corporation Multi-detector dewar
FR2619439A1 (en) * 1987-08-10 1989-02-17 Air Liquide Method and device cryogenic cooling of an object
EP0305257A1 (en) * 1987-08-10 1989-03-01 L'air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude Process and apparatus for the cryogenic cooling of an object
US4909313A (en) * 1988-09-30 1990-03-20 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator, National Aeronautics And Space Administration Pressurized bellows flat contact heat exchanger interface
WO1990015952A1 (en) * 1989-06-14 1990-12-27 Kadel Engineering Corporation Vacuum separator for dewar flask cold exchange systems
US4944155A (en) * 1989-06-14 1990-07-31 Kadel Engineering Corporation Vacuum separator for dewar flask cold exchange systems
US5357762A (en) * 1992-07-02 1994-10-25 Societe Anonyme De La Manufacture D'horlogerie Audemars, Piquet & Cie Method for fixing pieces by freezing, and device for implementing the method
EP0578608A1 (en) * 1992-07-02 1994-01-12 Société Anonyme de la Manufacture d'Horlogerie AUDEMARS PIGUET ET CIE Method and device for holding work by freezing
US5379601A (en) * 1993-09-15 1995-01-10 International Business Machines Corporation Temperature actuated switch for cryo-coolers
US5531074A (en) * 1994-03-09 1996-07-02 Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Electronic device freezed by intermittently driven refrigerator
WO2000008536A1 (en) * 1998-08-05 2000-02-17 Privates Institut Für Luft- Und Kältetechnik Gesellschaft Mbh Automatic tripping cryo-heat flow switch
US6305174B1 (en) 1998-08-05 2001-10-23 Institut Fuer Luft- Und Kaeltetechnik Gemeinnuetzige Gesellschaft Mbh Self-triggering cryogenic heat flow switch
US20070271933A1 (en) * 2004-01-26 2007-11-29 Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko Sho Cryogenic system
US7310954B2 (en) * 2004-01-26 2007-12-25 Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko Sho Cryogenic system
US7415830B2 (en) 2005-08-31 2008-08-26 Raytheon Company Method and system for cryogenic cooling
US20070044486A1 (en) * 2005-08-31 2007-03-01 Raytheon Company Method and system for cryogenic cooling
WO2007027822A3 (en) * 2005-08-31 2009-10-08 Raytheon Company Method and system for cryogenic cooling
US20120234522A1 (en) * 2011-03-14 2012-09-20 Hunt Jr William E Cryogenically Cooled Detector Pin Mount
US8740168B2 (en) * 2011-03-14 2014-06-03 Lawrence Livermore National Security, Llc. Cryogenically cooled detector pin mount
US20140110579A1 (en) * 2012-10-23 2014-04-24 Advanced Measurement Technology Inc. Handheld Spectrometer
GB2513351B (en) * 2013-04-24 2015-08-05 Siemens Plc Refrigerator Mounting Assembly for Cryogenic Refrigerator
GB2513351A (en) * 2013-04-24 2014-10-29 Siemens Plc Refrigerator Mounting Assembly for Cryogenic Refrigerator

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