US3804606A - Apparatus and method for desulfurizing and completely gasifying coal - Google Patents

Apparatus and method for desulfurizing and completely gasifying coal Download PDF

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US3804606A
US3804606A US21695072A US3804606A US 3804606 A US3804606 A US 3804606A US 21695072 A US21695072 A US 21695072A US 3804606 A US3804606 A US 3804606A
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fluidized bed
coal
char
process
desulfurizing
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D Archer
L Brecher
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WESTINGHOUSE AND KRW ENERGY SYSTEMS Inc
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Westinghouse Electric Corp
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/72Other features
    • C10J3/721Multistage gasification, e.g. plural parallel or serial gasification stages
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B17/00Sulfur; Compounds thereof
    • C01B17/42Sulfides or polysulfides of magnesium, calcium, strontium, or barium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/46Gasification of granular or pulverulent flues in suspension
    • C10J3/48Apparatus; Plants
    • C10J3/482Gasifiers with stationary fluidised bed
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/46Gasification of granular or pulverulent flues in suspension
    • C10J3/54Gasification of granular or pulverulent fuels by the Winkler technique, i.e. by fluidisation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/72Other features
    • C10J3/82Gas withdrawal means
    • C10J3/84Gas withdrawal means with means for removing dust or tar from the gas
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0913Carbonaceous raw material
    • C10J2300/093Coal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0953Gasifying agents
    • C10J2300/0956Air or oxygen enriched air
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0953Gasifying agents
    • C10J2300/0959Oxygen
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0953Gasifying agents
    • C10J2300/0973Water
    • C10J2300/0976Water as steam
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0983Additives
    • C10J2300/0996Calcium-containing inorganic materials, e.g. lime
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/16Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant
    • C10J2300/1671Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant with the production of electricity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/16Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant
    • C10J2300/1671Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant with the production of electricity
    • C10J2300/1675Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant with the production of electricity making use of a steam turbine
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/18Details of the gasification process, e.g. loops, autothermal operation
    • C10J2300/1807Recycle loops, e.g. gas, solids, heating medium, water
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/18Details of the gasification process, e.g. loops, autothermal operation
    • C10J2300/1861Heat exchange between at least two process streams
    • C10J2300/1884Heat exchange between at least two process streams with one stream being synthesis gas
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/18Details of the gasification process, e.g. loops, autothermal operation
    • C10J2300/1861Heat exchange between at least two process streams
    • C10J2300/1892Heat exchange between at least two process streams with one stream being water/steam
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/10Combined combustion
    • Y02E20/16Combined cycle power plant [CCPP], or combined cycle gas turbine [CCGT]

Abstract

A system and process in which coal is desulfurized and completely gasified utilizes a plurality of fluidized beds and the desulfurized gaseous effluent from the system is utilized as a fuel for a combined gas and steam turbine power plant, in which a portion of the pressurized air produced by the gas turbine''s compressor is utilized by the coal gasifying apparatus and the hot gases from the process are utilized to dry the coal, producing an economical power generating system which emits a minimum amount of sulfur compounds to the environment.

Description

United States Patent [191 Archer et al.

[451 Apr. 16, 1974 APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR DESULFURIZING AND COMPLETELY GASIFYING COAL [75] Inventors: David H. Archer, Pittsburgh; Lee E.

Brecher, Irwin, both of Pa.

[73] Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corporation,

Pittsburgh, Pa.

[22] Filed: Jan. 11, 1972 [21] Appl. No.: 216,950

[58] Field of Search 18/63, 64, 78, 197 R, 202, 48/203, 206; 60/39.02, 39.12,, 39.18

3,088,816 5/1963 Huntington 48/206 X 3,446,012 5/1969 Foster-Pegg 3,481,834 12/1969 Squires 3,597,327 8/1971 Squires 48/197 R X Primary Examiner-Joseph Scovronek Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Fred J. Baehr, Jr.

[5 7] ABSTRACT A system and process in which coal is desulfurized and completely gasified utilizes a plurality of fluidized beds and the desulfurized gaseous effluent from the system is utilized as a fuel for a combine-d gas and steam turbine power plant, in which a portion of the pressurized air produced by the gas turbines compressor is utilized by the coal gasifying apparatus and the hot gases from the process are utilizedto dry thecoal, produc-' ing an economical power generating system which emits a minimum amount of sulfur compounds to the environment.

6 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,683,657 7/1954 Garbo 48/206 X 2,727,813 12/1955 Leffer..., 48/206 X AIR STEAM APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR DESULFURIZING AND COMPLETELY GASIFYING COAL BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a system for desulfurizing and gasifying coal and more particularly to a system for producing a fuel having a very low sulfur content.

Fossil fuel electrical power plants contribute approximately one half of the sulfur dioxide, one-fourth of the nitrogen-oxygen compounds, and one-half of the particulate pollutants to the environment of the United States. Thus, there have been several attempts to reduce the emission of such pollutants from the exhaust stacks of fossil fuel electrical power plants.

One approach has been to clean the exhaust gases utilizing electrostatic precipitators for particulate removal, catalytic converters'to convert the sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide and then scrubbers to remove the sulfur trioxide. An example of such a system is Monsanto Corporation CAT-OX R process. While this process does an excellent job of removing sulfur dioxide and particulate material, it removes only a small portion of the nitrogen-oxygen compounds. Since one of the byproducts of this process is weak sulfuric acid, the equipment utilized in such a process must be made of high alloy materials resulting in high initial and maintenance costs.

Another approach is to clean the gases during combustion by adding lime to the fuel in the combustion portion or fire box of the boiler, however, this process does nothing to reduce the emission of particulate material.

Still another approach, which cleans the gases during the burning of the fuel, includes adding lime to a fluidized bed of burning coal to remove sulfur and reduce the nitrogen-oxygen compounds. These processes can be combined with partial gasification of coal. Char particles are produced in the gasification process, and these areburned in a boiler to produce steam. For additional information on such a process, reference may be made to US. Pat. No. 3,481,834.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In general, a process and apparatus for completely gasifying coal utilizes a plurality of fluidized beds to produce a gaseous fuel having a very low sulfur content; the process and apparatus comprises apparatus for crushing the coal to a predetermined fineness, a fluidized bed for drying the coal, a fluidized bed in which lime is added to the coal and volatiles are separated therefrom to produce a combustible gas and particulate matter, a fluidized bed from which calcium sulfide is removed, and a fluidized bed in which air or oxygen and steam are added to the particulate material to produce a hot gaseous combustible product having a low sulfur content and in which the ash is agglomerated and removed from the system.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The objects and advantages of this invention will become more apparent from reading the following detailed description in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring now to the drawings in detail, FIG. 1 shows a system and apparatus for producing a desulfurized gaseous fuel by completely gasifying coal utilizing a plurality of fluidized beds.

The apparatus comprises two vessels 1 and 3 each having a plurality of cross sections which generally decrease from the top to the bottom of the vessels to provide desired gas and particle velocities in the vessels and producing a plurality of fluidized beds in each vessel. Distributor plates 5 are transversely disposed in the vessels and provide a base for the fluidized beds. Cyclone type separators 7, 9 and 11 are utilized to remove particulate material from the effluent gases from the vessels 1 and 3. Coal is crushed to a predetermined fineness and fed into a hopper 13 with a calcium bearing mineral such as lime, CaO, or dolomite, Ca Mg (C0 .The mixture flows downwardly through a conduit 15 into a lower region of a first fluidized bed 17. Hot gases in the range of 1,000 to 1,600F, which are generally reducing in nature, flow upwardly through the distribution plate 5 and into the mixture producing the first fluidized bed 17 and drying the coal. In thefirst fluidized bed, the temperature of the gases drops into the range of 200 to 600F as they leave the dryer. The dry coal from the upper portion of the first fluidized bed 17 flows downwardly through a conduit 19 into a central portion of a second fluidized bed 21. Hot gases in the range of 1,4002,000F, whichare reducing in nature, flow upwardly through the distributor plate 5 and through the dried mixture forming the second fluidized bed 21 in which the dry coal is devolatilized and desulfurized. Devolatilizing the coal is an endothermic reaction so that the effluent gases from the second fluidized bed 21 leave at a temperature in the range of 1,000 to l,700F. Because of the reducing atmosphere, sulfur is predominantly in the form of hydrogen sulfide, H 8, and the H 8 reacts with the lime, CaO, as shown in the following equation: H 8 CaO H O CaS to act as a desulfurizing agent.

The calcium sulfide CaS or reacted desulfurizing agent and calcium oxide CaO are heavier than the coal and tend to migrate to the lower protion of the second fluidized bed 21, which is divided into an upper or low velocity portion and a lower or high velocity portion, which in conjunction provide the necessary fluidization velocity for separating CaS from the devolatilized coal. The CaS is removed from the fluidized bed through a conduit 23 extending downwardly through the distributor plate 5.

The devolatilized'and desulfurized coal is drawn off the upper portion of the second fluidized bed 21 via a conduit 25 which conveys the devolatilized and desulfurized coal downwardly to a lower portion of a third fluidized bed 26 into which hot reducing gases in the range of 1,500 to 2,100F are fed upwardly through the distributing plate 5 producing the third fluidized bed 26 and partially gasifying the devolatilized and desulfurized coal. The hot gases flowing upwardly through the third fluidized bed are generally H O, H N CO and CO and because of the high temperatures the following endothermic reactions take place;

Partially gasified coal from the upper portion of the third fluidized bed is fed to a lower portion of a fourth fluidized bed 27 via a conduit 29. Air and steam are introduced into the vessel 3 and flow upwardly forming the fourth fluidized bed 27. An upper portion or low velocity portion operates in the range of 1,500 to 2,100F and cooperates with a lower or high velocity portion which operates in the range of 1,600 to 2,300F to burn and/or gasify all the carbon in the coal leaving an ash which is agglomerated at the high temperatures and tends to flow downwardly in the fourth fluidized bed and is removed from the vessel 3 and process.

The fine particles which flow with the effluent gases from each vessel are collected by the cyclone separators 7, 9 and 11 and are returned to the combustion or high velocity portion of the fourth fluidized bed 27, providing an ideal fuel for this portion of the process.

The effluent gases from the dryer or first fluidized bed 17 are also recycled through the third and fourth fluidized beds 26 and 27, as these gases contain some sulfur and the moisture contained therein reduces the quantity of steam which is added to the fourth fluidized bed.

The combustion or lower portion of the fourth fluidized bed 27 is reduced in cross section increasing the fluidization velocity in order to separate the coarser agglomerated ash from the finer char or carbonous particulate matter remaining after the coal is gasified. The upper or lower velocity portion of the fourth fluidized bed 27 provides a high temperature gasification zone in which high rates of heat transfer are achieved by utilizing hot gases as well as high internal circulation of solids from the combustion portion to heat the upper portion or gasifying zone of the fourth fluidized bed. Temperature control in the lower or combustion portion of the fourth fluidized bed is achieved by varying the air/- steam ratio being fed to the system and char recycle rates.

The effluent from the second fluidized bed is a low heating value fuel suitable as a fuel in a gas turbine or it may be burned in a boiler to produce steam. The temperature of the effluent fuel is so high that it will burn spontaneously when mixed with a stoichiometric quantity of air.

FIG. 2 shows a system in which coal is gasified to provide a low sulfur content fuel, which is utilized in a combined cycle electrical power plant having a steam and gas turbine 41 and 43, respectively. Coal is desulfurized and totally gasified in a system utilizing five vessels 51, 52, 53, 54 and 55; each vessel contains a distribution plate 57 disposed at the lower end to form a base for a fluidized bed 61, 62, 63, 64 and 65, respectively.

The gas turbine 43 comprises a compressor portion 67, a combustion chamber or combustor 69 and a turbine portion 71. The gas turbine drives a generator 73 directly connected thereto. Exhaust gases from the gas turbine 43 flow upwardly through a waste heat boiler 75 having a superheater portion 77, a boiler portion 79 with a steam drum 81 and an economizer portion 82.

Steam from the waste heat boiler drives the steam turbine 41 which is directly connected to another generator 89. A condenser 85, condensate pump 86, deaerating heater 87 and boiler feed pump 88 are also cooperatively associated with the waste heat boiler 75 and steam turbine 41.

Coal is introduced into the system through a crusher 90 which crushes the coal to a predetermined fineness. The crushed coal is fed into a dryer which is supplied with exhaust gases from the turbine 71 forming the first fluidized bed 61. Dry coal is conveyed from the upper portion of the first fluidized bed 61 to the lower portion of the second fluidized bed 62 via conduit 91. Lime is supplied to the upper portion of the second fluidized bed 62 via conduit 92 and effluent gases in the range of l,000 to l,600F from the third fluidized bed 63 flow through conduit 93 and upwardly through the mixture of dried coal and lime forming the second fluidized bed 62 in which devolatilizing-and desulfurizing of the coal takes place. The off gases from the second fluidized bed supplies the desulfurized fuel for the gas turbine.

Lime and CaS are conveyed from the lower portion of the second fluidized bed 62 to the upper portion of the third fluidized bed 63 via conduit 94, particulate material generally devolatilized coal along with some lime are conveyed by conduit 95 from the upper portion of the second fluidized bed 62 to the lower portion of the third fluidized bed 63 and particulate material generally devolatilized coal is conveyed by conduit 97 from the upper portion of the third fluidized bed to the lower portion of the second fluidized bed. Effluent gases from the fourth fluidized bed 64 in the range of l,500 to 1,800F are supplied to the third fluidized bed via conduit 99. Calcium sulfide, CaS, being heavier than the devolatilized and desulfurized coal is removed from the lower portion of the third fluidized bed 63 via conduit 101.

The lower portion of the third fluidized bed has a smaller cross sectional area than the remainder of the bed to provide high fluidization velocities to aid in the separation of calcium sulfide from the bed.

Desulfurized and degasified coal from the upper portion of the third fluidized bed 63 flows via conduit 103 to the lower portion of the fourth fluidized bed 64 and particulate material from the upper portion of the fourth fluidized bed 64 flows through conduit 105 to the lower portion of the third fluidized bed 63. Effluent gases generally H O, H CO N and CO from the fifth fluidized bed 65 and particulate material generally char, carbon and ash, from the upper portion of the fifth fluidized bed 65 flow through conduits 107 and 109, respectively, to the fourth fluidized bed 64. The gases are in the range of l,700 to 2,100F causing partial gasification of the particulate material forming the fourth fluidized bed 64.

Particulate material, generally char from the lower portion of the fourth fluidized bed 64 is supplied to an intermediate portion of the fifth fluidized bed 65 via conduit 111 and char from the upper portion of the fifth fluidized bed 65 is recirculated to the lower portion of the fifth fluidized bed via conduit 113. Steam is supplied from the drum 81 of the waste heat boiler via conduit 115 and air is supplied from the gas turbines compressor 71 via conduit 1 17. The air and steam flow upwardly through the fifth fluidized bed 65 which has a lower, high velocity portion having a smaller cross section area than the upper portion, which has a larger cross section and lower velocity. Combustion of the char takes place in an intermediate zone between the upper and lower portions of the fifth fluidized bed providing temperatures in the range of l,9002,300F allowing the ash which is generally high in silica to agglomerate forming coarse heavy particles which tend to flow downwardly even though a high velocity is maintained in the lower portion of the fifth fluidized bed 65. The ash gives up its heat to the incoming air and steam increasing the efficiency of the system.

High rates of heat transfer to the upper portion of the fifth fluidized bed 65 is achieved by providing a high internal circulation rate for solids from the combustion zone. Excellent temperature control in the combustion zone is achieved by varying the steam/air ratio and the char recirculated via the conduit 1 13. The high gasification temperature employed in the upper portion of the fifth fluidized bed-65 makes it a partial gasifier, the fourth fluidized bed 64 acting as a second stage of gasification has the advantage that the bed is operated without additional air at about 1,600F providing a cooling stage and increasing the throughput. Heating the char gradually in two stages increases the gasification efficiency thereby providing complete gasification of the coal with a minimum reactor volume and a maximum heat content per unit volume of the fuel gases.

In this system, fine particles of carbon, which in other systems are unusable, are removed from the effluent fuel gas by a cyclone separator 119 and supplied to the lower portion of the fifth fluidized bed via conduit 121 providing an excellent fuel for the combustion and agglomerating zone.

The off gases from the drying portion can be recycled through the fifth fluidized bed supplying some of the water and oxygen to the system reducing the quantity of air and steam required by the process.

The multi-stage gasifiers, as hereinbefore described, advantageously allows for various interstage solid flow and counter current gas flow which can be proportioned to produce high mass and energy utilization and provide flexibility of, operation with a wide range of fuels and substantially reduce the sulfur content of the' exhaust gases of a power plant which is economical to operate and has a low initial or capital cost.

We claim:

1. A process for completely gasifying coal utilizing a plurality of fluidized beds having interconnecting conduit means for the exchange of particulate material and gases in a generally counterflow relationship to produce a gaseous fuel having a very low sulfur content and ash, said process comprising the steps of:

crushing the coal to a predetermined fineness;

drying the coal;

devolatilizing the coal in one fluidized bed by removing volatilizable material from the coal to produce a char; adding a desulfurizing agent to one of the fluidized beds to combine with sulfur released from the coal to desulfurize the gaseous products; removing spent desulfurizing agent from one of the fluidized beds; transferring char from one of the fluidized beds to another fluidized bed; adding oxygen and steam to the char in one of the flu idized beds to produce a hot combustible gaseous product and ash thereby gasifying the char; agglomerating the ash; removing the agglomerated ash from said last mentioned fluidized bed; and utilizing said hot combustible gaseous product to supply heat for devolatilization and desulfurization. 2. A process as set forth in claim 1 and including the steps of partially gasifying the char in one fluidized bed and completely gasifying the char in another fluidized bed, the last-mentioned fluidized bed being the one in which oxygen and steam are added and ash is removed.

3. The process as set forth in claim 1, wherein the step of adding oxygen comprises adding air.

removing reacted desulfurizing agent from the process;

partially gasifying the char in a third fluidized bed;

transferring the partially gasified char from the third fluidized bed to a fourth fluidized bed; adding oxygen and steam to the partially gasified char to completely gasify the char in the fourth fluidized bed thereby forming a hot combustible gas and ash therein;

agglomerating the ash and removing the ash from the fourth fluidized bed; and

utilizing the hot combustible gas to supply heat for partially gasifying the char and for desulfurizing and devolatilizing the coal.

5. A process as set forth in claim 4, wherein the step of adding oxygen comprises adding air.

6. A process as set forth in claim 4, wherein the step of desulfurizing and devolatilizing is carried on in successively disposed fluidized beds, the second successive desulfurizing and devolatilizing bed comprising a fifth fluidized bed intermediate the first-mentioned second fluidized bed and the third fluidized bed, desulfurizing agent being transferred with the char, and the desulfurizing agent is removed from the fifth fluidized bed.

Claims (5)

  1. 2. A process as set forth in claim 1 and including the steps of partially gasifying the char in one fluidized bed and completely gasifying the char in another fluidized bed, the last-mentioned fluidized bed being the one in which oxygen and steam are added and ash is removed.
  2. 3. The process as set forth in claim 1, wherein the step of adding oxygen comprises adding air.
  3. 4. A process for completely gasifying coal utilizing a plurality of fluidized beds having interconnecting conduit means for the exchange of particulate matter and gases in a generally counterflow relationship to produce a gaseous fuel having a low sulfur content, said process comprising the steps of: crushing the coal to a predetermined fineness; drying the coal in a first fluidized bed; adding a desulfurizing agent to the process; desulfurizing and devolatilizing the coal to react the desulfurizing agent with the sulfur bearing volatiles and to produce a char, in a second fluidized bed; removing reacted desulfurizing agent from the process; partially gasifying the char in a third fluidized bed; transferring the partially gasified char from the third fluidized bed to a fourth fluidized bed; adding oxygen and steam to the partially gasified char to completely gasify the char in the fourth fluidized bed thereby forming a hot combustible gas and ash therein; agglomerating the ash and removing the ash from the fourth fluidized bed; and utilizing the hot combustible gas to supply heat for partially gasifying the char and for desulfurIzing and devolatilizing the coal.
  4. 5. A process as set forth in claim 4, wherein the step of adding oxygen comprises adding air.
  5. 6. A process as set forth in claim 4, wherein the step of desulfurizing and devolatilizing is carried on in successively disposed fluidized beds, the second successive desulfurizing and devolatilizing bed comprising a fifth fluidized bed intermediate the first-mentioned second fluidized bed and the third fluidized bed, desulfurizing agent being transferred with the char, and the desulfurizing agent is removed from the fifth fluidized bed.
US3804606A 1972-01-11 1972-01-11 Apparatus and method for desulfurizing and completely gasifying coal Expired - Lifetime US3804606A (en)

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BE793881A BE793881A (en) 1972-01-11 An apparatus for the desulfurization and the complete gasification of coal
US3804606A US3804606A (en) 1972-01-11 1972-01-11 Apparatus and method for desulfurizing and completely gasifying coal
CA 157226 CA958216A (en) 1972-01-11 1972-11-23 Apparatus and method for desulfurizing and completely gasifying coal
GB5700672A GB1357990A (en) 1972-01-11 1972-12-11 Process for desulphurizing and completely gasifying coal
ES409568A ES409568A1 (en) 1972-01-11 1972-12-13 A method for gasifying coal.
DE19722262971 DE2262971A1 (en) 1972-01-11 1972-12-22 fluidized bed chambers A process for the gasification of coal in a plurality
JP559073A JPS4881902A (en) 1972-01-11 1973-01-11
FR7300863A FR2167946A1 (en) 1972-01-11 1973-01-11

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ES (1) ES409568A1 (en)
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US3977844A (en) * 1973-05-09 1976-08-31 Slyke William J Van Process for producing a sulfur free combustible gas
US3978657A (en) * 1974-02-06 1976-09-07 Combustion Turbine Power, Inc. Turbine system
US3990229A (en) * 1974-06-22 1976-11-09 Krupp-Koppers Gmbh Method and arrangement for the generation of energy, particularly electrical energy
US4032305A (en) * 1974-10-07 1977-06-28 Squires Arthur M Treating carbonaceous matter with hot steam
US4077367A (en) * 1976-06-11 1978-03-07 Sulzer Brothers Limited Method and apparatus for operating an internal combustion engine with solid fuel
US4099374A (en) * 1976-04-15 1978-07-11 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Gasifier-combined cycle plant
US4137706A (en) * 1976-05-14 1979-02-06 Noel Penny Turbines Limited Engine in which fuel is reacted in a plurality of stages
US4212160A (en) * 1977-12-22 1980-07-15 Combustion Engineering, Inc. Combined cycle power plant using low Btu gas
US4238923A (en) * 1979-06-22 1980-12-16 Combustion Engineering, Inc. Method of low temperature heat utilization for atmospheric pressure coal gasification
US4277416A (en) * 1977-02-17 1981-07-07 Aminoil, Usa, Inc. Process for producing methanol
US4282010A (en) * 1979-07-17 1981-08-04 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification
US4342192A (en) * 1978-11-17 1982-08-03 Steag A.G. Plant for producing power from solid fossil fuels, more particularly bituminous coal
US4375362A (en) * 1978-07-28 1983-03-01 Exxon Research And Engineering Co. Gasification of ash-containing solid fuels
US4391611A (en) * 1981-03-05 1983-07-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Gasification system
US4490157A (en) * 1983-01-10 1984-12-25 Combustion Engineering, Inc. Indirectly heated fluidized bed gasifier
US4496370A (en) * 1983-04-04 1985-01-29 Phillips Petroleum Company Zinc oxide-char gasification process
US4667467A (en) * 1985-06-04 1987-05-26 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Method for energy conversion
GB2191782A (en) * 1986-06-17 1987-12-23 Midrex Int Bv Method and apparatus for producing upgraded synthetic fuel gas from coal
US4745038A (en) * 1983-11-10 1988-05-17 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Integrated gasification iron-air electrical system
US4833877A (en) * 1986-09-02 1989-05-30 Bergwerksverband Gmbh Process for the reduction of pollutant emissions from power stations with combined gas/steam turbine processes with preceding coal gasification
US4976101A (en) * 1985-09-02 1990-12-11 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Combined gas and steam turbine power generating station
US5327717A (en) * 1991-02-05 1994-07-12 Deutsch-Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau Gmbh Process for drying coal for melt-down or coal gasifiers
US5517815A (en) * 1993-03-15 1996-05-21 Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Coal gasification power generator
US5765365A (en) * 1993-03-15 1998-06-16 Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Coal gasification power generator
US5771677A (en) * 1995-09-01 1998-06-30 John W. Rohrer Combined cycle power plant with integrated CFB devolatilizer and CFB boiler
US5895508A (en) * 1996-08-09 1999-04-20 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle
US20070256422A1 (en) * 2006-05-08 2007-11-08 Econo-Power International Corporation Production enhancements on integrated gasification combined cycle power plants
US20070266633A1 (en) * 2006-05-05 2007-11-22 Andreas Tsangaris Gas Reformulating System Using Plasma Torch Heat
US20070289216A1 (en) * 2006-06-05 2007-12-20 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Gasifier comprising vertically successive processing regions
US20080147241A1 (en) * 2006-05-05 2008-06-19 Placso Energy Group Inc. Control System for the Conversion of Carbonaceous Feedstock into Gas
US20080148739A1 (en) * 2006-12-22 2008-06-26 Paul Marius A Fluidized bed heavy fuel combustor
US20080209807A1 (en) * 2006-05-05 2008-09-04 Andreas Tsangaris Low Temperature Gasification Facility with a Horizontally Oriented Gasifier
US20080277265A1 (en) * 2007-05-11 2008-11-13 Plasco Energy Group, Inc. Gas reformulation system comprising means to optimize the effectiveness of gas conversion
US20100154304A1 (en) * 2007-07-17 2010-06-24 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Gasifier comprising one or more fluid conduits
WO2010076499A2 (en) 2008-12-16 2010-07-08 Jean-Xavier Morin Method and device for producing and purifying a synthesis gas
US20100313442A1 (en) * 2009-06-12 2010-12-16 Steven Craig Russell Method of using syngas cooling to heat drying gas for a dry feed system
US20110036014A1 (en) * 2007-02-27 2011-02-17 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Gasification system with processed feedstock/char conversion and gas reformulation
US20120285176A1 (en) * 2007-06-07 2012-11-15 Econo-Power International Corporation Integration of coal fired steam plants with integrated gasification combined cycle power plants
US8435315B2 (en) 2006-05-05 2013-05-07 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Horizontally-oriented gasifier with lateral transfer system
US9321640B2 (en) 2010-10-29 2016-04-26 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Gasification system with processed feedstock/char conversion and gas reformulation

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DE2400772C3 (en) * 1974-01-08 1978-03-02 Klaus Dr.-Ing. 4600 Dortmund Knizia
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DE3434619A1 (en) * 1984-01-30 1985-08-08 Schwermasch Liebknecht Veb K Method and apparatus for multi-stage finishing of organic bulk materials
GB8423949D0 (en) * 1984-09-21 1984-10-31 English Electric Co Ltd Fluidised-bed gasifier
DE69100679T2 (en) * 1990-07-23 1994-04-28 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Gasified combustion method and gasified power generation method.

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US3446012A (en) * 1966-11-15 1969-05-27 Struthers Energy Systems Inc Gasifier and gas turbine system
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Cited By (48)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3977844A (en) * 1973-05-09 1976-08-31 Slyke William J Van Process for producing a sulfur free combustible gas
US3978657A (en) * 1974-02-06 1976-09-07 Combustion Turbine Power, Inc. Turbine system
US3990229A (en) * 1974-06-22 1976-11-09 Krupp-Koppers Gmbh Method and arrangement for the generation of energy, particularly electrical energy
US4032305A (en) * 1974-10-07 1977-06-28 Squires Arthur M Treating carbonaceous matter with hot steam
US4099374A (en) * 1976-04-15 1978-07-11 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Gasifier-combined cycle plant
US4137706A (en) * 1976-05-14 1979-02-06 Noel Penny Turbines Limited Engine in which fuel is reacted in a plurality of stages
US4077367A (en) * 1976-06-11 1978-03-07 Sulzer Brothers Limited Method and apparatus for operating an internal combustion engine with solid fuel
US4277416A (en) * 1977-02-17 1981-07-07 Aminoil, Usa, Inc. Process for producing methanol
US4212160A (en) * 1977-12-22 1980-07-15 Combustion Engineering, Inc. Combined cycle power plant using low Btu gas
US4375362A (en) * 1978-07-28 1983-03-01 Exxon Research And Engineering Co. Gasification of ash-containing solid fuels
US4342192A (en) * 1978-11-17 1982-08-03 Steag A.G. Plant for producing power from solid fossil fuels, more particularly bituminous coal
US4238923A (en) * 1979-06-22 1980-12-16 Combustion Engineering, Inc. Method of low temperature heat utilization for atmospheric pressure coal gasification
US4282010A (en) * 1979-07-17 1981-08-04 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification
US4391611A (en) * 1981-03-05 1983-07-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Gasification system
US4490157A (en) * 1983-01-10 1984-12-25 Combustion Engineering, Inc. Indirectly heated fluidized bed gasifier
US4496370A (en) * 1983-04-04 1985-01-29 Phillips Petroleum Company Zinc oxide-char gasification process
US4745038A (en) * 1983-11-10 1988-05-17 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Integrated gasification iron-air electrical system
US4667467A (en) * 1985-06-04 1987-05-26 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Method for energy conversion
US4976101A (en) * 1985-09-02 1990-12-11 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Combined gas and steam turbine power generating station
GB2191782A (en) * 1986-06-17 1987-12-23 Midrex Int Bv Method and apparatus for producing upgraded synthetic fuel gas from coal
US4833877A (en) * 1986-09-02 1989-05-30 Bergwerksverband Gmbh Process for the reduction of pollutant emissions from power stations with combined gas/steam turbine processes with preceding coal gasification
US5327717A (en) * 1991-02-05 1994-07-12 Deutsch-Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau Gmbh Process for drying coal for melt-down or coal gasifiers
US5517815A (en) * 1993-03-15 1996-05-21 Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Coal gasification power generator
US5765365A (en) * 1993-03-15 1998-06-16 Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Coal gasification power generator
US5946900A (en) * 1995-09-01 1999-09-07 John W. Rohrer Combined cycle power plant with integrated CFB devolatilizer and CFB boiler
US5771677A (en) * 1995-09-01 1998-06-30 John W. Rohrer Combined cycle power plant with integrated CFB devolatilizer and CFB boiler
US5895508A (en) * 1996-08-09 1999-04-20 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle
US9109172B2 (en) 2006-05-05 2015-08-18 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Low temperature gasification facility with a horizontally oriented gasifier
US8372169B2 (en) 2006-05-05 2013-02-12 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Low temperature gasification facility with a horizontally oriented gasifier
US20070266633A1 (en) * 2006-05-05 2007-11-22 Andreas Tsangaris Gas Reformulating System Using Plasma Torch Heat
US8306665B2 (en) 2006-05-05 2012-11-06 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Control system for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstock into gas
US20080147241A1 (en) * 2006-05-05 2008-06-19 Placso Energy Group Inc. Control System for the Conversion of Carbonaceous Feedstock into Gas
US20080209807A1 (en) * 2006-05-05 2008-09-04 Andreas Tsangaris Low Temperature Gasification Facility with a Horizontally Oriented Gasifier
US8475551B2 (en) 2006-05-05 2013-07-02 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Gas reformulating system using plasma torch heat
US8435315B2 (en) 2006-05-05 2013-05-07 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Horizontally-oriented gasifier with lateral transfer system
US7451591B2 (en) * 2006-05-08 2008-11-18 Econo-Power International Corporation Production enhancements on integrated gasification combined cycle power plants
US20070256422A1 (en) * 2006-05-08 2007-11-08 Econo-Power International Corporation Production enhancements on integrated gasification combined cycle power plants
US20110078952A1 (en) * 2006-06-05 2011-04-07 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Gasifier comprising vertically successive processing regions
US20070289216A1 (en) * 2006-06-05 2007-12-20 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Gasifier comprising vertically successive processing regions
US20080148739A1 (en) * 2006-12-22 2008-06-26 Paul Marius A Fluidized bed heavy fuel combustor
US20110036014A1 (en) * 2007-02-27 2011-02-17 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Gasification system with processed feedstock/char conversion and gas reformulation
US8690975B2 (en) 2007-02-27 2014-04-08 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Gasification system with processed feedstock/char conversion and gas reformulation
US20080277265A1 (en) * 2007-05-11 2008-11-13 Plasco Energy Group, Inc. Gas reformulation system comprising means to optimize the effectiveness of gas conversion
US20120285176A1 (en) * 2007-06-07 2012-11-15 Econo-Power International Corporation Integration of coal fired steam plants with integrated gasification combined cycle power plants
US20100154304A1 (en) * 2007-07-17 2010-06-24 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Gasifier comprising one or more fluid conduits
WO2010076499A2 (en) 2008-12-16 2010-07-08 Jean-Xavier Morin Method and device for producing and purifying a synthesis gas
US20100313442A1 (en) * 2009-06-12 2010-12-16 Steven Craig Russell Method of using syngas cooling to heat drying gas for a dry feed system
US9321640B2 (en) 2010-10-29 2016-04-26 Plasco Energy Group Inc. Gasification system with processed feedstock/char conversion and gas reformulation

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GB1357990A (en) 1974-06-26 application
JPS4881902A (en) 1973-11-01 application
BE793881A1 (en) grant
ES409568A1 (en) 1975-11-16 application
CA958216A (en) 1974-11-26 grant
BE793881A (en) 1973-07-11 grant
FR2167946A1 (en) 1973-08-24 application
DE2262971A1 (en) 1973-07-19 application

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