US3783566A - Wall construction blocks and mortarless method of construction - Google Patents

Wall construction blocks and mortarless method of construction Download PDF

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US3783566A
US3783566A US3783566DA US3783566A US 3783566 A US3783566 A US 3783566A US 3783566D A US3783566D A US 3783566DA US 3783566 A US3783566 A US 3783566A
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blocks
wall
block
course
opening
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R Nielson
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R Nielson
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/02Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls built-up from layers of building elements
    • E04B2/14Walls having cavities in, but not between, the elements, i.e. each cavity being enclosed by at least four sides forming part of one single element
    • E04B2/16Walls having cavities in, but not between, the elements, i.e. each cavity being enclosed by at least four sides forming part of one single element using elements having specially-designed means for stabilising the position
    • E04B2/18Walls having cavities in, but not between, the elements, i.e. each cavity being enclosed by at least four sides forming part of one single element using elements having specially-designed means for stabilising the position by interlocking of projections or inserts with indentations, e.g. of tongues, grooves, dovetails
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/02Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls built-up from layers of building elements
    • E04B2002/0202Details of connections
    • E04B2002/0243Separate connectors or inserts, e.g. pegs, pins or keys
    • E04B2002/0245Pegs or pins

Abstract

A mortarless system for constructing a wall from masonry blocks. Each block is coated on its top, bottom, and ends with a material having a relatively low melting point. Each block also has multiple vertical openings, one of which contains a connecting rod held in place by a material, such as wax, having a very low melting point. The blocks are put into place to erect the wall, and then heat is applied to melt the substances which will fuse the blocks together and allow the connecting rods to drop into the blocks in the next lower course to further interlock the individual blocks and form a solid stable wall.

Description

United States Patent Nielson 1 Jan. 8, 1974 WALL CONSTRUCTION BLOCKS AND 3,461,631 8/1969 Brugnola 52/585 MORTARLESS METHOD OF 3,430,403 3/1969 Muse 52/585 X CONSTRUCTION FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS [76] Inventor: Richard F. Nielson, 925 Bertch, 167,726 3/1934 Switzerland 52/585 Waterloo, Iowa 50702 936,604 7/1948 France 52/585 [22] Flled: 1972 Primary Examiner1-lenry C. Sutherland [21] Appl. No.: 279,492 A s sist ant Exqmine n-LeslieA. Brann [52] 0.8. CI 52 /232, 52/1, 52/415, ABSTRACT 52/585 1 A mortarless system for constructing a .wall from ma- 1 [51] Int. Cl. E04c 2/46 som'y block Each block is mated on its tqp, bottom,

of Search and ends with a material having a relatively low melt- 607, ing point. Each block also has multiple vertical openings, one of which contains a connecting rod held in References Cited place by a material, such as wax, having a very low UNITED STATESPATENTS melting point. The blocks are put into place to erect 876,985 1/1908 Malacon 52 415 x the wall and heat is applied 10 melt the 1,809,508 6/1931 Colby 52/585 x Stance-S which will fuse the blocks together and allow 1,862,066 6/1932 Skillin 52/232 X the connecting rods to drop into the blocks in the next 2,170,254 8/1939 Seil 52/232 X lower course to further interlock the individual blocks 641,304 1/1900 Lanzendoerfer 52/415 a d f -m a solid stable wall, 2,454,922 11/1948 Hite 52/232 1,657,441 1/1928 Huovinen 52 415 x 4 Claims, 4 Drawing Flgllles- 3,170,267 2/1965 Rosenfeld 52/585 X I 3 10 :1 l I I i: i: I 34 Li H 34 WALL CONSTRUCTION BLOCKS AND MORTARLESS METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION I BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Masonry blocks are a commonly used construction material for erecting walls above grade and also for foundation walls below grade. Although masonry blocks are available in various sizes and types, the method of constructing a wall using them is basically the same. The conventional way of constructing walls using masonry blocks is'to spread mortar between the ends of the blocks and between each course of blocks, and when the mortar hardens, a solid stable wall results. This method has been used for many, many years, but requires the skill of a mason, and also requires the mixing and handling of mortar each day on the job site. Moreover, once the wall is constructed using mortar, the wall can be dismantled or torn down only by destruction of the wall with little or no salvage resulting. The wall thus becomes a permanent structure.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The invention provides a system for constructing walls using individual blocks, preferably of a masonry material, which blocks require no mortar to hold them together. One aspect of the invention'involves coating the ends, top, and bottom of each block with a bonding material having a relatively low melting point but which will be solid at ordinary temperatures. The blocks can then be laid in the conventional arrangement but without mortar. When the blocks are properly positioned in the wall structure, heat is applied to melt the bonding material and fuse the blocks together into a solid wall. Another aspect of the invention utilizes individual blocks containing vertical openings therein which will be in alignment when the blocks are laid in their customary staggered positions. Each block is then provided with one or more rods positioned in the vertical openings which rods are held in place during construction by a substance having a low melting point. When heat is applied to fuse the blocks together, the substance holding the rods will melt allowing the rods to drop down into the blocks in the course below thus providing an interlocking arrangement. The invention thus provides for-a considerable savings in time and erection of the wall and in labor saving since no mortar need be mixed or applied on the job site. The invention also provides a wall which can subsequently by dismantled and the blocks reused.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TI-IE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is an elevational view of a portion of a wall, partly in section, and showing blocks utilizing the principles of the invention;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a block constructed according to the principles of the invention;

FIG. 3 is an elevational view of a portion of a wall partly in section and showing another embodiment of the invention; and

FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a block utilizing the principles of the invention as illustrated by the second embodiment thereof.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION Referring first to the embodiment shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 of the drawings, a wall is constructed of a plurality of rectangular shaped blocks each of which is indicated generally by the reference numeral 10. Each block 10 has a top surface 12 and a bottom surface 14 joined by two end walls 16 and a front wall vl8 and rear wall 20. Each block 10 is preferably partially hollow so as to reduce the cost and weight of the block and make the blocks easier to handle. Each block 10 is therefore provided with large rectangular'vertical openings 21 which define the interior surfaces of end walls '16, of the front antl rear walls 18 and 20 respectively, and a central rib 24. Each end wall 16 of a block 10 is provided with an opening 22 which opening extends vertically through the block 10- from the top surface 12 to the bottom surface 14. In addition, each block 10 is provided in its center rib 24 with a vertical opening 26 which opening 26 is larger in diameter than the openings 22. As best seen in FIG. 1, opening26 extends from the top surface 12 approximately half way through the block 10 toward the bottom surface 14.

The outer surfaces of end'walls l6 and the top and bottom surfaces 12 and 14 are preferably coated'with a bonding substance which has a relatively low melting temperature but which is in a solid state at ordinary temperatures. A suitable substance would be glass or' openings 22 a rod 28 the length of which is approxi-- mately the distance between the top surface 12 and bottom surface 14 of the block. The rod 28 is held in place in the opening 22 by filling the opening with a a substance with a very low melting temperature. A suitable substance for thispurpose would be a substance such as paraffin or wax.

Using the blocks 10 constructed according to the invention, a wall can now be constructed. As is well known to those in the building industry, a block wall is normally support on a footing 30 which is generally a poured concrete footing. Depending upon the soil type, frost level and weight of the structure to be erected, footings 30 will be pouredat a suitable depth. In any event, a first row or course 32 of blocks 10 is laid on the footings 30 with their end walls 16 touching and their front surfaces 18 in alignment. When the blocks 10 are thus laid, the end walls 16 form a joint 34. When the first course or row 32 has been laid, the second course 36 is laid with the bottom surface 14 of each block 10 in the second course 36 resting on the top surface 12 of each block 10 in the first course 32. As in a conventional wall, the blocks 10 in the second course 36 are staggered from the block 10 in the first course 32 with their joints 34 over the center of the blocks 10 in the first course 32. It is important that theopenings 22 of two adjoining blocks 10 be directly over the opening 26 of a block 10 in the course below. This procedure is repeated for all subsequent courses until a wall of the desired length and height has been erected.

When the entire wall has been erected, or if desired at intervals during the erection of the wall, heat is applied to the blocks 10 forming the wall. This willcause the wax or other substance holding the rods 28 in the openings 22 to melt allowingthe rods 28 by force of gravity to drop down into the opening 26 inthe block 10 in the course below. This will, of course, interlock the blocks so that any lateral movement thereof in a horizontal plane cannot take place. To further form the blocks into a solid wall, the heat applied will melt the bonding substance coated on the end walls 16 and top surface 12 and bottom surface 14 thus fusing the blocks together. If at any time it is desired to dismantle the wall, sufficient heat can be applied to again melt the bonding substance holding the blocks 10 together, and while the bonding substance is still in a liquid state the individual blocks can be separated and removed from the wall, the rods 28 being withdrawn as each block is removed.

In FIGS. 3 and 4 there is shown a second embodiment of the invention. Parts corresponding to those of the first embodiment will be referred to with the same reference numeral followed by the letter a. Thus, in FIG. 4, there is shown a block 10a having an upper surface 12a and a lower surface 14a parallel thereto which surfaces are joined by end walls 16a a front wall 18a and a rear wall 20a. Each block contains a plurality of openings, there preferably being an opening 40 near each corner of the block 10a and a pair of openings 42 in the center of the front wall 18a and the center of the rear wall 20a. Each of the openings 40 and 42 extends through the block from the top surface 12a to the bottom surface 14a, and each opening is preferably tapered with the widest portion of the opening being at the top surface 12a. As shown in FIG. 3, the blocks 10a are assembled into a wall in a manner similar of that described with the first embodiment with the blocks 10a in the variouscourses being staggered. With the blocks 10a thus staggered, the openings 40 in a block 10a will be in alignment with the openings 42 of a block 10a in a course below. As each course is laid, the openings 40 are such as that they can receive anchor bolts 44 thus tying each course of blocks 10a together. This makes for a very rigid construction which can be utilized alone or in connection with the coated ends and top and bottom surfaces as described in the first embodiment. Of course, with the construction of this second embodiment, the foundation or footing 30a would have to be provided with openings 46 so as to permit anchoring of the first course of blocks 10a to the footing 300. With the second embodiment, dismantling of the wall is easily accomplished so that the individual blocks 10a can be salvaged and reused.

I have described my invention in connection with two embodiments thereof and it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that the principles of the invention are applicable to blocks of various masonry materials whether they be concrete, brick or of other material. It is further evident that the principles of the invention can be applied to blocks of a variety of sizes, preferably those presently considered as standard sizes. It is my intention, however, that these and all otherrevisions and modifications as are obvious to those skilled in the art will be included within the scope of the following claims.

I claim:

l. A rectangular shaped block for use in constructing vertical walls and the like, said block comprising a solid member of a material having sufficient strength for use in a wall, said member having parallel top and bottom surfaces with a pair of spaced apart cavities extending between said surfaces and defining parallel end walls joined by front and rear walls and a wall central of said front and rear walls, each of said end walls having a vertical opening extending therethrough, said central wall having an opening extending from the top surface part way to the bottom surface, the opening in said central wall being substantially larger than the openings in said end walls, a rod positioned in the opening in each end wall, and means provided to normally hold said rod in said opening, said means being a substance that will release said rod when heat above a normal ambient temperature range is applied to said block.

2. The block of claim 1 in which said substance is a meltable substance that is solid within an ordinary ambient temperature range.

3. The block of claim 1 in which said block has a meltable bonding substance on said top and bottom surfaces and on the outer surface of each of said end walls.

4. The method of erecting a vertical wall using individual blocks each of which has a meltable bonding substance on its top, bottom and end surfaces and each of which has a first vertical opening near each end and a second vertical opening centrally of said first vertical opening, each of said first openings having a rod received therein and held in said openings by a meltable substance that is solid at ordinary temperatures, said method comprising the steps of: laying said blocks in end to end relationship with their front and rear surfaces aligned to form a first course of said wall; laying a second course of said blocks on top of said first course with the blocks in said second course in end to end relationship with the joints between the ends staggered from the joints in said first course so that the first opening in the blocks of said second course are in alignment with the second opening in each of the blocks of said first course; laying additional courses of said blocks on top of said first and second courses with the joints staggered between adjacent courses in the same manner as between said first and second courses; and applying sufficient heat to said blocks to melt the substances on the top, bottom and end surfaces of each block to bond the blocks together and also to melt the substances holding the rods in each block to release said rods and allow them to drop into the second opening of each respective block in the course below.

r a a a s

Claims (4)

1. A rectangular shaped block for use in constructing vertical walls and the like, said block comprising a solid member of a material having sufficient strength for use in a wall, said member having parallel top and bottom surfaces with a pair of spaced apart cavities extending between said surfaces and defining parallel end walls joined by front and rear walls and a wall central of said front and rear walls, each of said end walls having a vertical opening extending therethrough, said central wall having an opening extending from the top surface part way to the bottom surface, the opening in said central wall being substantially larger than the openings in said end walls, a rod positioned in the opening in each end wall, and means provided to normally hold said rod in said opening, said means being a substance that will release said rod when heat above a normal ambient temPerature range is applied to said block.
2. The block of claim 1 in which said substance is a meltable substance that is solid within an ordinary ambient temperature range.
3. The block of claim 1 in which said block has a meltable bonding substance on said top and bottom surfaces and on the outer surface of each of said end walls.
4. The method of erecting a vertical wall using individual blocks each of which has a meltable bonding substance on its top, bottom and end surfaces and each of which has a first vertical opening near each end and a second vertical opening centrally of said first vertical opening, each of said first openings having a rod received therein and held in said openings by a meltable substance that is solid at ordinary temperatures, said method comprising the steps of: laying said blocks in end to end relationship with their front and rear surfaces aligned to form a first course of said wall; laying a second course of said blocks on top of said first course with the blocks in said second course in end to end relationship with the joints between the ends staggered from the joints in said first course so that the first opening in the blocks of said second course are in alignment with the second opening in each of the blocks of said first course; laying additional courses of said blocks on top of said first and second courses with the joints staggered between adjacent courses in the same manner as between said first and second courses; and applying sufficient heat to said blocks to melt the substances on the top, bottom and end surfaces of each block to bond the blocks together and also to melt the substances holding the rods in each block to release said rods and allow them to drop into the second opening of each respective block in the course below.
US3783566A 1972-08-10 1972-08-10 Wall construction blocks and mortarless method of construction Expired - Lifetime US3783566A (en)

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Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3936987A (en) * 1975-01-13 1976-02-10 Edward L Calvin Interlocking brick or building block and walls constructed therefrom
US4083155A (en) * 1977-03-14 1978-04-11 Lampert Albert J Thermally insulated enclosure
US4337605A (en) * 1980-07-18 1982-07-06 Tudek Arthur L Concrete building blocks with looped securing rods for mortarless wall construction
US5017049A (en) * 1990-03-15 1991-05-21 Block Systems Inc. Composite masonry block
US5062610A (en) * 1989-09-28 1991-11-05 Block Systems Inc. Composite masonry block mold for use in block molding machines
US5294216A (en) * 1989-09-28 1994-03-15 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5490363A (en) * 1992-10-06 1996-02-13 Anchor Wall Sytems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5657597A (en) * 1995-04-11 1997-08-19 Environmental Building Technology, Ltd. Building construction method
US5704183A (en) * 1992-10-06 1998-01-06 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5709062A (en) * 1992-10-06 1998-01-20 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5879603A (en) * 1996-11-08 1999-03-09 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Process for producing masonry block with roughened surface
US6029943A (en) * 1996-11-08 2000-02-29 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Splitting technique
US6178704B1 (en) 1996-11-08 2001-01-30 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Splitting technique
US6189282B1 (en) 1998-06-24 2001-02-20 Building Works, Inc. Mortarless concrete block
USD445512S1 (en) 1997-10-27 2001-07-24 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
USD458693S1 (en) 1996-11-08 2002-06-11 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US6488448B1 (en) 1999-10-15 2002-12-03 Kiltie Corp. Block module
US20060005500A1 (en) * 2004-07-07 2006-01-12 Vahak Hovnanian Mortar less brick wall construction
US20070110524A1 (en) * 2005-11-15 2007-05-17 Macdonald Robert A Pin having a tapered cap
US20070122239A1 (en) * 1998-10-13 2007-05-31 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US7244079B1 (en) 1999-10-15 2007-07-17 Kiltie Corporation Retaining wall system
US20070258776A1 (en) * 2006-04-24 2007-11-08 Strand Todd P Retaining wall systems
WO2015106357A1 (en) * 2014-01-20 2015-07-23 University Of Manitoba Surface reinforced concrete masonry units

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US641304A (en) * 1899-08-26 1900-01-16 Jeremiah C Spillane Protective lining for vessels.
US876985A (en) * 1906-08-14 1908-01-21 Robert Malancon Lock-joint for wall-slabs, bricks, tiles, or the like.
US1657441A (en) * 1926-12-28 1928-01-24 Huovinen Gottfried Building construction and block
US1809508A (en) * 1929-11-22 1931-06-09 Willis H Colby Child's building block
US1862066A (en) * 1929-07-05 1932-06-07 Skillin James Harley Wall and process of forming same
US2170254A (en) * 1937-07-01 1939-08-22 E J Lavino & Co Refractory
FR936604A (en) * 1946-11-25 1948-07-26 Cie Normande De Fabrications E agglomerated
US2454922A (en) * 1943-07-31 1948-11-30 Timken Roller Bearing Co Basic refractory structure
US3170267A (en) * 1961-10-06 1965-02-23 Morton M Rosenfeld Wall structure with interlocked blocks
US3430403A (en) * 1966-04-19 1969-03-04 George B Muse Wall construction method and apparatus
US3461631A (en) * 1967-01-16 1969-08-19 Anthony Brugnola Complementary modules and structures therefrom

Patent Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US641304A (en) * 1899-08-26 1900-01-16 Jeremiah C Spillane Protective lining for vessels.
US876985A (en) * 1906-08-14 1908-01-21 Robert Malancon Lock-joint for wall-slabs, bricks, tiles, or the like.
US1657441A (en) * 1926-12-28 1928-01-24 Huovinen Gottfried Building construction and block
US1862066A (en) * 1929-07-05 1932-06-07 Skillin James Harley Wall and process of forming same
US1809508A (en) * 1929-11-22 1931-06-09 Willis H Colby Child's building block
US2170254A (en) * 1937-07-01 1939-08-22 E J Lavino & Co Refractory
US2454922A (en) * 1943-07-31 1948-11-30 Timken Roller Bearing Co Basic refractory structure
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US3170267A (en) * 1961-10-06 1965-02-23 Morton M Rosenfeld Wall structure with interlocked blocks
US3430403A (en) * 1966-04-19 1969-03-04 George B Muse Wall construction method and apparatus
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Cited By (45)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3936987A (en) * 1975-01-13 1976-02-10 Edward L Calvin Interlocking brick or building block and walls constructed therefrom
US4083155A (en) * 1977-03-14 1978-04-11 Lampert Albert J Thermally insulated enclosure
US4337605A (en) * 1980-07-18 1982-07-06 Tudek Arthur L Concrete building blocks with looped securing rods for mortarless wall construction
US5827015A (en) * 1989-09-28 1998-10-27 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US7360970B2 (en) 1989-09-28 2008-04-22 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5062610A (en) * 1989-09-28 1991-11-05 Block Systems Inc. Composite masonry block mold for use in block molding machines
US7048472B2 (en) 1989-09-28 2006-05-23 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5589124A (en) * 1989-09-28 1996-12-31 Block Systems, Inc. Method of forming composite masonry blocks
US6616382B2 (en) 1989-09-28 2003-09-09 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US6312197B1 (en) 1989-09-28 2001-11-06 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US6183168B1 (en) 1989-09-28 2001-02-06 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US6142713A (en) * 1989-09-28 2000-11-07 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5294216A (en) * 1989-09-28 1994-03-15 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5017049A (en) * 1990-03-15 1991-05-21 Block Systems Inc. Composite masonry block
US5795105A (en) * 1992-10-06 1998-08-18 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US7384215B2 (en) 1992-10-06 2008-06-10 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US20040028484A1 (en) * 1992-10-06 2004-02-12 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US6113318A (en) * 1992-10-06 2000-09-05 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5711129A (en) * 1992-10-06 1998-01-27 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Masonry block
US5709062A (en) * 1992-10-06 1998-01-20 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5704183A (en) * 1992-10-06 1998-01-06 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5490363A (en) * 1992-10-06 1996-02-13 Anchor Wall Sytems, Inc. Composite masonry block
US5657597A (en) * 1995-04-11 1997-08-19 Environmental Building Technology, Ltd. Building construction method
USD458693S1 (en) 1996-11-08 2002-06-11 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US6178704B1 (en) 1996-11-08 2001-01-30 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Splitting technique
US6029943A (en) * 1996-11-08 2000-02-29 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Splitting technique
US5879603A (en) * 1996-11-08 1999-03-09 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Process for producing masonry block with roughened surface
USD445512S1 (en) 1997-10-27 2001-07-24 Anchor Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US6189282B1 (en) 1998-06-24 2001-02-20 Building Works, Inc. Mortarless concrete block
US7654776B2 (en) 1998-10-13 2010-02-02 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US20080190057A1 (en) * 1998-10-13 2008-08-14 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US20110107707A1 (en) * 1998-10-13 2011-05-12 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US20070122239A1 (en) * 1998-10-13 2007-05-31 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US7448830B2 (en) 1998-10-13 2008-11-11 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US7871223B2 (en) 1998-10-13 2011-01-18 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US20100095632A1 (en) * 1998-10-13 2010-04-22 Keystone Retaining Wall Systems, Inc. Retaining wall block
US7244079B1 (en) 1999-10-15 2007-07-17 Kiltie Corporation Retaining wall system
US7229235B2 (en) 1999-10-15 2007-06-12 Kiltie Corporation Retaining wall system
US20060002769A1 (en) * 1999-10-15 2006-01-05 Kiltie Corporation Retaining wall system
US6960048B2 (en) 1999-10-15 2005-11-01 Kiltie Corporation Modular segmented retaining wall
US6488448B1 (en) 1999-10-15 2002-12-03 Kiltie Corp. Block module
US20060005500A1 (en) * 2004-07-07 2006-01-12 Vahak Hovnanian Mortar less brick wall construction
US20070110524A1 (en) * 2005-11-15 2007-05-17 Macdonald Robert A Pin having a tapered cap
US20070258776A1 (en) * 2006-04-24 2007-11-08 Strand Todd P Retaining wall systems
WO2015106357A1 (en) * 2014-01-20 2015-07-23 University Of Manitoba Surface reinforced concrete masonry units

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