US3775916A - Prefabricated wall panel - Google Patents

Prefabricated wall panel Download PDF

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US3775916A
US3775916A US3775916DA US3775916A US 3775916 A US3775916 A US 3775916A US 3775916D A US3775916D A US 3775916DA US 3775916 A US3775916 A US 3775916A
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panel
layer
prefabricated
cementitious
insulating layer
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S Bair
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DEV CO AMERICA
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DEV CO AMERICA
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/02Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials
    • E04C2/04Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of concrete or other stone-like material; of asbestos cement; of cement and other mineral fibres
    • E04C2/041Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of concrete or other stone-like material; of asbestos cement; of cement and other mineral fibres composed of a number of smaller elements, e.g. bricks, also combined with a slab of hardenable material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/56Load-bearing walls of framework or pillarwork; Walls incorporating load-bearing elongated members
    • E04B2/58Load-bearing walls of framework or pillarwork; Walls incorporating load-bearing elongated members with elongated members of metal
    • E04B2/60Load-bearing walls of framework or pillarwork; Walls incorporating load-bearing elongated members with elongated members of metal characterised by special cross-section of the elongated members
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/02Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials
    • E04C2/26Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups
    • E04C2/284Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups at least one of the materials being insulating
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2002/005Appearance of panels
    • E04C2002/007Panels with the appearance of a brick wall

Abstract

A multi-layer, wall panel is disclosed that is adapted by itself to form a complete structural wall of a building. In one form, the panel has a sandwich construction comprising an outer layer of masonry building units such as bricks, an internal, relatively lightweight, principally load-bearing layer of cementitious material, and an insulating layer adapted to receive fasteners by which an inner decorative layer may be fixed to the panel construction. Preferably, frame members are mounted about the edges of one or more panels to unify the structure.

Description

United States Patent [1 1 Ball Dec. 4, 1973 [5 PREFABRICATED WALL PANEL 1,498,182 6 1924 Lindsay 52/612 2,109,719 3/1938 Brusse 52/612 [75] Inventor- Scott westmnste" 3,204,376 9 1965 Elgenstiema 52/612 [73] Assignee: Development Company Of America, FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS westmmster 509,267 7 1939 Great Britain 52/612 22 Filed: Mar. 20, 1972 1,344,110 10 1963 France 52 315 1,484,160 4/1969 Germany 52 612 21 Appl. No.: 235,987
[52] US. Cl. 52/125, 52/315, 52/385, 52/389, 52/458, 52/475, 52/612 [51] Int. Cl E04b 2/04, E04b 2/60 [58] Field of Search 52/390, 389, 458, 52/565, 612, 125, 384, 385, 388, 315, 475, 243, 656, 241
[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,933,237 10/1933 Aberson..... 52/385 2,238,022 4 1941 JOhnS0n..... 52 390 2,351,856 6/1944 Henderson. 52 125,
311,593 2 1885 Mark 52/403 3,327,448 6 1967 1.1116616 52 241 3,696,567 10 1972 Villaneu..... 52/125 3,258,890 7 1966 Dirkse.... 52 475 3,126,986 3 1964 Madl, Jr. 52 241 3,358,411 12/1967 Birum 52/241 3,256,532 6/1966 Lindsey et a1. 52 656 1,867,897 7/1932 Stanbrough..... 52/388 1,444,709 2/1923 Sea 52/573 OTHER PUBLICATIONS Materials of Construction, Mills et al., p. 413-417 TA 403 M65 1965.
I Primary Examiner-Frank L. Abbott Assistant Examiner-Leslie A. Braun Attorney-Wesley B. Taylor et al.
[57] ABSTRACT A multi-layer, wall panel is disclosed that is adapted by itself to form a complete structural wall of albuilding. In one form, the panel has a sandwich construction, comprising an outer layer of masonry building units such as bricks, an internal, relatively lightweight, principally load-bearing layer of cementitious material, and an insulating layer adapted to receive fasteners by which an inner decorative layer may be fixed to the panel construction. Preferably, frame members are mounted about the edges of one or more panels to unify the structure.
15 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures PAIENTEDBEB w 3.775.916
SHEEI 1 OF 2 9 m. i 9 Z r 1 PREFABRICATED WALL PANEL BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Masonry exteriors are quite popular in modern day building construction, both for residential and commercial buildings. The so-called brick veneer typeof construction includes bricks, stones and the like as an exterior, non-load bearing finish for a wall structure. Despite the fact that such masonry exteriors serve no other purposes than to provide an attractive outer ap pearance and to shield the remainder of the wall structure, such veneer type walls are laboriously built bricks by-brick and course-by-course. This type of construction is, accordingly, time-consuming and expensive.
To avoid manually laying brick and stone for veneer type structures, it has been proposed to prefabricate ready-to-erect wall units that can be transported to a building site and there erected and joined together. Such panels have, however, not met with ready acceptance in the building trades because of excessive weight, such that relatively high costs are still met in transportation and handling of the units and in their actual erection. Still other difficulties of prior prefabricated units include water absorption, relatively low effective thermal insulation, and manufacturing costs which still remain quitehigh.
In addition, many prior prefabricated wall units have been designed to be applied in juxtaposition to previously erected old or new walls, merely to complete the outer facade of the walls. This primarily made the appearance of the previously constructed wall more attractive, as by giving an outward appearance of solid standard ornamental brick or other masonry construction when, in fact, the outer masonry facade was secured directly to the balance of the wall structure behind the masonry outer appearance. To applicants knowledge, no panel unit of the veneer type has been devised which is lightweight, easy to install, has the advantages hereinafter described, and which by itself forms a complete wall structure.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION sive masonry work orthe use of other skilled laborers. When completed the prefabricated wall panel may be quickly and accurately erected with wall panels.
In one form, the panel comprises a masonry exterior layer of spaced apart masonry building units, such as bricks, stones, tile, rocks, and the like; an internal, relatively lightweight, principallyloadbearing layer of cementitious material supporting the units of the masonry layer, some of the cementitious material extending between the buildirig units to simulate mortar or the like; and an interiortherrnal insulating layer contacting the cementitious layer. Beams spaced along the insulating layer substantially flush with its exposed face receive fastening means by which a decorative constructive layer may be secured to the insulating layer. Channel or frame members are preferably mounted on the upper and lower edges of the panel during installation and vertically disposed post members may contact a side of the panel. Both the channels and posts are designed to receive the panel for mounting.
other companion BRIEF DESCRIPTIRN OF THE DRAWING In the accompanying drawings:
FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of an exterior of a prefabricated wall panel of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a front elevational view of the interior of the wall panel of FIG. 1, that is, the reverse major face of the panel as shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a section of FIG. 2 on the line 3--3;
FIG. 4 is a section of FIG. 1 on the line 4-4;
FIG. 5 is an isometric view of post and channel frames with which the prefabricated wall panel may be mounted; and
FIGS. 6 and 7 are cross-sections of F IG. 5 on the lines 6 -6 and 7--7, respectively, showing the addition of an open faceplate seated against the post and channel frames.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT FIGS. 1 through 4 illustrate one embodiment of a multi-layer, prefabricated wall panel of the present invention generally represented at P. This embodiment comprises four layers indicated generally as a masonry layer 10, a load-bearing cementitious layer 11, an insulating layer 12, and a decorative layer 13.
Masonry layer 10 is designed to provide a pleasing,
attractive outer facade to the panel. Although layer 10- is illustrated as comprisingbrick 14, it is understood that still other masonry building units are contemplated such as rocks, stones, tile, and the like. Such masonry units are normally spaced apart as shown, for example, in FIG 3.
Cementitious layer 11 is the principal load-bearing, strength-providing layer of the panel. Any cement used in the construction trades may be used to formlayer 11. However, in keeping with the objective of a relatively low weight panel, it ispreferred to form layer 1 1 from air-entrained concrete. This not only reduces the weight of the panel, but improves its'therrnal insulation. As an example, layer 11 may weigh from about 50 pounds per cubic foot toabout pounds per cubic foot, although cementitious layers having weights outside this range may be used. Some of the cementitious material of layerll extends between units l4and simw lates mortar 15 or the like as shown'in FIGS. 3 and 4. To this end the cement of layer 11 may be cast in a standard frame and bricks 14 or other units set in the cement as desired before the cement hardens. The wall panel thereby acquires an attractive appearance of laid brick masonry and requires no pointing of the masonry layer 10 after installation. A wire mesh screen 16 embedded in the cementitious layer 11 reinforces it.
Insulating layer 12 imparts thermal insulating properties to the panel, and for this purpose may comprise any suitable insulating material in layer or batt form. For example, insulating layer 12 maycomprise Celotex material, sponge l'llbbfilf'Ol' foamed resins, but preferably comprises mineral fibers and especially bonded glass fiber batts having a backing 17 of aluminum foil.
Insulating layer 12 includes means to receive fasteners or the like by which the attractive interior decorative layer 13 is secured to the panel. Beams are spaced along insulating layer 12 and are of a material like wood which frictionally receives fasteners such as nails or screws. The embodiment illustrated includes vertically disposed beams 18 (FIG. 3) andhorizontally disposed beams 20 (FIG. 4) along the upper and lower sides of the panel. The beams may have a thickness substantially equal to the thickness of insulating layer 12; or, if less than the thickness of layer 12, the beams are set flush with the exterior face of insulating layer 12.
The decorative layer 13 may comprise any attractive finishing layer or sheet, such as wood paneling, glassfiber reinforced plastic sheets colored as desired, plasterboard, plywood, strips of fabric, and the like. Nails 21 or other fasteners secure decorative layer 13 to insulating layer 12 through beams 18 and 20 and penetrate into cementitious layer 11 so as to secure layers 11, 12 and 13 together. Since layer 11 also holds bricks 14 set thereinto, all layers are held in juxtaposition as shown in the figures. Neoprene gaskets 19 extend along the marginal sides of and between cementitious layer'll and each of the masonry layer and insulating layer 12. The panel is similarly sealed at its upper and lower edges as well. This prevents either leakage of water or air through joints between the layers and permits contraction and expansion of the layers relatively to each other. Accordingly, the prefabricated wall panel as illustrated by FIGS. 1 through 4 has structural unity and integrity by itself.
To facilitate moving and placing a panel in position, a lift rod 22, having a turned free end 23 to increase its grip on a panel, extends sufficiently through a vertical dimension of a panel to stiffen it and insure a nonslipping union with the cement of layer 11. Part of rod 22 extends upwardly away from the panel in a direction substantially parallel-to a major face of the panel and terminates in a hook or ring 24 which lifting means such as a crane engages to lift or move the panel. After a panel is situated as desired, the exposed portion of rod 22 may be cut away flush with a top edge of a panel. Alternatively, the bottom edge of a panel may have a pocket 25, as shown by dotted lines in FIG. 1, in vertical alignment with and of a size to receive a ring 24 of a companion panel. Accordingly, when at least two panels are to be vertically stacked in a given installation, the rod 22 and ring 24 not only facilitate handling of the panel but after installation the ring provides akeying, reinforcing efiect by mating with a pocket 25 in a companion panel.
FIGS. 5 through 7 illustrate framework which optionally may be used with one or more panels of the present invention. For convenience of reference, the framework is described for mounting two panels side-by-side, although more or less panels can be used, either horizontally or vertically arranged in tiers.
The illustrated embodiment includes upper and lower channel members of an aluminum alloy for enclosing, respectively, the upper and lower edges of panels. The lower channel 27 is substantially U-shaped in crosssection, and the upper channel 28 is substantially L-shaped in cross-section. Channel 27 may be attached to a footer or the like of a building. A panel P IS fitted into channels 27 and 28, as by sliding it longitudinally into the channels, after which an inverted U-shaped closing plate 29 (FIG. 7) is fitted against the panel, such that the bight portion of U-shaped face plate 29 abuts the bight portion of L-shaped channel 28, and the legs of the U-shaped face plate 29 abut a leg of the U- shaped channel 27. Face plate 29 is then secured to the indicated parts as by spot welding. Insofar as L-shaped channel 28 is concerned, face plate 29 forms, in effect,
an additional leg on that channel to conform it to a U- shaped configuration like that of channel 27. While yet in a prefabricating shop, a silicone finish may be sprayed over the masonry outer layer to seal its surfaces.
Vertical separators may be placed between panels. FIGS. 5 through 7 illustrate posts 31 and 31a for joining panels, particularly when they occupy different vertical planes, and a T-shaped post 32 for joining panels occupying the same vertical plane. Post 31 is square in cross-section and secured at its upper and lower extremities, as by welding, to upper channel 28 and lower channel 27, respectively. From both of two intersecting faces, post 31 has a horizontally extending, integral flange 32 (FIG. 6) substantially parallel to a major face of a panel P to be mounted with respect to the post. The faces of post 31 opposed to those having flanges 32 are free of any corresponding obstruction to permit mounting of the panel with respect to the post member and channel members.
After a panel has been installed in position, seatedfor example against a post 31 and flange 32, the open face plate 29 is placed against the panel and,in addition to being secured to channels 27 and 28 as previously described, is also secured as by welding to a side of post 31. In this manner, face plate 29 serves in effect as another retaining flange on post 31 parallel to the integral flange 32. A corner cap 33 is fitted to the top of each post 31 as shown in FIG. 5.
Post 310 is like post 31 in structure and function except for the orientation of its integral flanges 32a. While flanges 32, extend from remote comers of post 31, flanges 32a extend from the same comer (FIG. 6) of post 31a but still in a direction substantially parallel to a major face of a panel. In this manner flanges that are integral with posts such as posts 31 and 310 are always on the same side of the panel installation and do not interfere with seating of an open face plate which can be conveniently seated and welded in place, also always from the same side of the panel installation.
A T -shaped post 32 aids in supporting the panels in a similar fashion. The foot of post 32 is fixed to and between sections of bottom channel 27 and has opposed flanges 34 substantially parallel to a major face of a panel extending from a stem 35 of the post. Flanges 34 may terminate short of the leg of the upper L-shaped channel 28 to avoid overlapping. The stem 35 of the T post is free of any corresponding obstruction at its open end to permit mounting of a panel with respect to post 32. After a panel has seated against flange 34 and stem 35, the open face plate 29 is placed against the end of the stem 35 of T post 32 and, in addition to being secured to channels 27 and 28 as previously described, is also secured as by welding to the free end of stem 35. As shown in FIG. 6, two adjacent and abutting open face plates 29 may be thus secured to the free end of stem 35.
Although sizes are not critical to the present panel, one panel of the invention was square and measured 10 feet on a side and four inches in thickness. The masonry layer was one inch thick, the'cementitious layer 11 was two inches thick, the insulating layer 12 was 0.75inch thick, and the decorative layer 13 was 0.25inch thick. The nailing beams 18 and 20 were also 0.75 inch thick, and the wire mesh 16 had square openings measuring six inches on a side. This panel weighed less than- 20 pounds per standard foot.
The present prefabricated wall panel is a lightweight structure that can be used for homes, commercial and industrial buildings. The panel comprises the. entire wall of a building without needing any further backing member such as a partially constructed wall.
Although the foregoing describes a presently preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is understood that the invention may be practiced in still other forms within the scope of the following claims.
I claim:
l. A multi-layer, prefabricated wall panel adapted by itself to form a complete structural wall member without contact or support with other wall structures, said wall member comprising in combination a plurality of juxtaposed, contacting layers of substantially equal dimensions at their contacting faces, said layers includmg:
a. a masonry exterior layer of spaced-apart masonry building units,
b. a layer of cementitious material defining the principal load-bearing portion of said multi-layer, prefabricated wall panel supporting the units of said masonry layer, some of said cementitious material extending between said building units and simulating mortar or the like,
c. a thermal insulating layer contacting said cementitious layer,
d. beam means extending along a face of said insulating layer remote from said cementitious layer and sufficiently contained within said insulating layer as to be substantially flush with said remote face of the insulating layer,
e. a decorative layer contacting said insulating layer,
and
f. fastening means extending from said decorative layer through said beam means and into said layer of cementitious material, whereby said last mentioned layer retains all of said layers in assembly to provide structural integrity and define said multilayer, prefabricated wall panel.
2. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 in which said decorative layer is wood paneling.
3. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 in which 6. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 in which said beam means comprises wooden members spaced on said remote face of said insulating layer.
7. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 in which said layer of cementitious material contains mesh means for reinforcing said layer.
8. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 including means for lifting'the wall panel.
'9. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 including means for lifting the wall panel comprising rod means extending from within the panel away therefrom in a direction substantially parallel to a major face of the panel.
10. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 including sealing means between at least two contiguous layers extending along the sides of said layers.
11. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 including gasket means between said layer of cementitious material and each of said masonry layer and said insulating layer, said gasket means extending around the complete periphery of said layers to render said prefabricated wall substantially air and water tight and to permit expansion of said layers relatively to each other.
12.The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 including frame members mounted on at least one of the upper and lower edges of the panel.
13. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 including upper and lower channel members for enclosing the upper and'lower edges of the panel, one of said upper and lower channel members being substantially U- shaped in cross-section and the other being substantially L-shaped in cross-section, and a substantially flat face plate member abutting a bight portion of the L- shaped channel member and a leg of the U-shaped channel member.
14. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 13 including a vertically disposed post member contacting a side of said panel, one face of said post member substantially parallel to said panel member having a vertically extending flange member for receiving said panel thereagainst, the opposed face of said panel member being free of corresponding obstruction to permit mounting of the panel with respect to said post member and channel members, and to receive said face plate member.
15. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 13 in which said substantially flat face plate has an inverted U- shape.

Claims (15)

1. A multi-lAyer, prefabricated wall panel adapted by itself to form a complete structural wall member without contact or support with other wall structures, said wall member comprising in combination a plurality of juxtaposed, contacting layers of substantially equal dimensions at their contacting faces, said layers including: a. a masonry exterior layer of spaced-apart masonry building units, b. a layer of cementitious material defining the principal loadbearing portion of said multi-layer, prefabricated wall panel supporting the units of said masonry layer, some of said cementitious material extending between said building units and simulating mortar or the like, c. a thermal insulating layer contacting said cementitious layer, d. beam means extending along a face of said insulating layer remote from said cementitious layer and sufficiently contained within said insulating layer as to be substantially flush with said remote face of the insulating layer, e. a decorative layer contacting said insulating layer, and f. fastening means extending from said decorative layer through said beam means and into said layer of cementitious material, whereby said last mentioned layer retains all of said layers in assembly to provide structural integrity and define said multilayer, prefabricated wall panel.
2. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 in which said decorative layer is wood paneling.
3. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 in which said masonry building units are bricks, stones, rocks, or tile.
4. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 in which said layer of cementitious layer is a layer of air-entrained concrete.
5. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 in which said insulating layer comprises a batt of mineral fibers.
6. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 in which said beam means comprises wooden members spaced on said remote face of said insulating layer.
7. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 in which said layer of cementitious material contains mesh means for reinforcing said layer.
8. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 including means for lifting the wall panel.
9. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 including means for lifting the wall panel comprising rod means extending from within the panel away therefrom in a direction substantially parallel to a major face of the panel.
10. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 including sealing means between at least two contiguous layers extending along the sides of said layers.
11. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 including gasket means between said layer of cementitious material and each of said masonry layer and said insulating layer, said gasket means extending around the complete periphery of said layers to render said prefabricated wall substantially air and water tight and to permit expansion of said layers relatively to each other.
12. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 including frame members mounted on at least one of the upper and lower edges of the panel.
13. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 1 including upper and lower channel members for enclosing the upper and lower edges of the panel, one of said upper and lower channel members being substantially U-shaped in cross-section and the other being substantially L-shaped in cross-section, and a substantially flat face plate member abutting a bight portion of the L-shaped channel member and a leg of the U-shaped channel member.
14. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 13 including a vertically disposed post member contacting a side of said panel, one face of said post member substantially parallel to said panel member having a vertically extending flange member for receiving said panel thereagainst, the opposed face of said panel member being free of corresponding obstruction to permit mounting of the panel with respect to said post member and channel members, and to receive said face plate member.
15. The prefabricated wall panel of claim 13 in which said substanTially flat face plate has an inverted U-shape.
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US11015340B2 (en) 2018-08-24 2021-05-25 Blue Tomato Llc Sealed envelope agricultural building constructions

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US10450736B2 (en) 2018-02-02 2019-10-22 Blue Tomato Llc Modular light weight construction system based on pre-slotted panels and standard dimensional splines
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