US3761977A - Process and apparatus for treatment of textile materials - Google Patents

Process and apparatus for treatment of textile materials Download PDF

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US3761977A
US3761977A US3761977DA US3761977A US 3761977 A US3761977 A US 3761977A US 3761977D A US3761977D A US 3761977DA US 3761977 A US3761977 A US 3761977A
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steam
textile
fabric
superheated
material
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S Rappoport
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S Rappoport
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06BTREATING TEXTILE MATERIALS BY LIQUIDS, GASES OR VAPOURS
    • D06B5/00Forcing liquids, gases or vapours through textile materials to effect treatment, e.g. washing, dyeing, bleaching, sizing impregnating
    • D06B5/02Forcing liquids, gases or vapours through textile materials to effect treatment, e.g. washing, dyeing, bleaching, sizing impregnating through moving materials of indefinite length

Abstract

A process and apparatus is disclosed for effecting the treatment of textile and textile-like materials such as drying, steaming, extracting, curing and heat setting. Superheated steam is directed through the textile material at elevated temperatures and pressures.

Description

States Patent [191 Rappeport 1 1 Oct.2,1973

1 PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR TREATMENT OF TEXTILE MATERIALS [76] Inventor: Seymour F. Rappoport, 688 Queen Anne Rd., Teaneck, NJ.

22 Filed: Sept. 17, 1971 [21] Appl. N0.: 181,383

[52] US. Cl 8/l49.3, 8/1491, 69/5 D [51] Int. Cl. D06c 1/00 [58] Field 01' Search 8/DlG. 15, 149.3,

' 8/149.2; 34/37; 69/5 R, 5 A, 5 B, 5 C, 5 D, 5

[56] References Cited UNlTED STATES PATENTS 2,590,849 4/1952 Dungler 34/37 X 3,213,470 10/1965 Yasawa et al 8/149.3

3,546,329 12/1970 Hirono et al 8/149.3 3,680,334 8/1972 Erickson et al 34/37 X Primary Examiner-William 1. Price A!t0rneyArnold H. Krumholz [57] ABSTRACT A process and apparatus is disclosed for effecting the treatment of textile and textile-like materials such as drying, steaming, extracting, curing and heat setting. Superheated steam is directed through the textile material at elevated temperatures and pressures.

5 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures PAIENTEDBBT "21 15 SHEET 20F 2 .M WK

3 Q v :Y v on m. mm 2 TEL 5 mm Seymour Rappaporf INVENTOR M1,? 'kATTORNEY PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR TREATMENT OF TEXTILE MATERIALS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION ratus for continuously treating lengths of textile or textile-like materials or yarns. More particularly, the present invention relates to a process and apparatus for processing textile and other pervious web materials or yarns, such processes including drying, steaming, heat setting, curing, extracting, scouring, yarn texturing and other similar processes. The textile or textile-like materials which may be so treated by the present process and apparatus include woven and knitted fabrics, nonwovens, (yarns) and fibers when properly contained and applied to any fabric content-and construction such as nylons, polyesters, cottons, etc., and mixtures thereof.

Specifically, the present invention contemplates processing these materials by treatment with a treatment medium such as superheated steam and includes the use of steam to propel a treating medium such as a detergent, water, various solvents, liquids and/or vapors, through the fabric or textile materials or yarns at high speed.

2. Description of the Prior Art Many methods have been employed in this art for processing textiles and textile-like materials. These methods can be broken down into two basic classes: those which remove the water mechanically and those which remove it thermodynamicallyf In the former class, there are squeeze rolls through which the material travels at open width and by which the loose water is squeezed from the fabric. This is a continuous process. Another continuous process is that in which a slotted tube and a vacuum pump are used to draw water from the fabric as it travels across the slot at open width. A third method for mechanically extracting water is the use of a centrifugal extractor which consists of a rapidly rotating perforated cage into which the fabric has been placed. This is a batch process.

Once the loose water has been removed from the fabric the thermodynamic type of dryers are generally used. The most efficient means of transferring heat is through the use of heated metal cylinders about which the fabric travels as the cylinders rotate. Other types of dryers in use are those containing chambers through which the fabric passes and hot air is impinged on the fabric, generally on both sides. The hot air, having impinged on the fabric, and now being loaded with water vapor, is passed through a reheater and recycled onto the fabric. Part of this wet air is exhausted, taking along with it the moisture, and fresh make-up air is then used in its place. The configuration of fabric or web in these chambers can be that of loops hanging on moving bars, plaited fabric moving on conveyor nets, single strands of fabric carried by air currents, or fabric being held on tenter pins and being conveyed either horizontally in a single pass, or horizontally or vertically in multiple passes. Another category of dryer is a perforated drum inside a heated chamber around which drum the fabric is laced and carried by the drum with an exhaust fan pulling the air from the center of the drum and the hot dry air of the chamber passing through the fabric and the drum.

The velocity of the media in all these units is very low as it passes through the fabric, as may be observed in US. Pat. No. 3,323,153 to Fleissner, issued June 6, 1967, wherein such a pressure chamber suction process is taught, utilizing steam at moderate temperatures.

Another process used in treating textiles is called thermo-setting, and is particularly useful for nylons and polyesters. This involves raising the temperature of the fabric to its setting temperature for a very short period of time, and is usually carried out in any one of the aforementioned units. Each of these techniques have their deficiencies. For example, the centrifugal extractor is noncontinuous and leaves the fabric folded and in disarray, and thus much added labor is required to straighten the fabric. Also, many times irreparable damage is done to the fabric in such processes. The vacuum slot creates a vacuum only equal to the resistance which the fabric offers, which may be in the neighborhood of 3 4 psi, and the air passing through the fabric can be cool, wet and dirty and if some lint forms in the slot it leaves a longitudinal mark throughout the fabric. In the case of squeeze rolls, there are many fabrics which are damagedby this type of squeezing action.

In the type of dryers where drying is performed thermodynamically there are many additional disadvantages. In the drum dryer, for example, the fabric resting against the perforated cylinder tends to dry faster at the perforations than it does when it rests on the solid portions of the drum, and thus uneven drying occurs. In addition to this, the velocity of the drying medium through the fabricis very low, and drying occurs from the outside of the fabric towards its center. Distortion of the fabric also takes place as shrinkage occurs in the drying process, and it is difficult to handle the fabric on a cylinder. In the case of loop dryers, the fabric on each loop is quite heavy and marks often form at the points where the fabric rests on the sticks. Also, non-uniform drying occurs in a loop dryer. In the case of a net dryer, drying is also nonuniform because of the way the fabric is folded onto the net. In the case ofthe can dryers, fabric such as polyester double knits usually cannot be dried on these because ofthe tensions which occur, and because of the pressing action. Also, the contact heat tends to flatten the fabric in such a process. Pin frame dryers are most widely used for drying. However, the drying chambers are very expensive, and generally so long that when damage occurs, many yards of fabric are damaged. These machines also take up considerable space and require several operators. The efficiencies of these dryers is quite low.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is therefore an object of the present invention to avoid the disadvantages of the prior art in the treatment of these materials, such as textile and textile-like materials.

Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved process and apparatus for the treatment of textile and textile-like materials which is very simple and inexpensive and provides relative ease of maintenance.

Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an improved process and apparatus whereby textiles and textile-like materials may be continuously treated without resultant adverse effects upon said materials.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide an improved process and apparatus whereby a treating media may be applied to a textile or textile-like material.

A still further object of the present invention is to be able to employ such a media containing a high degree of thermal and/or kinetic energy.

Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an improved process and apparatus useful for the drying, extracting, setting, curing, and scouring, etc., of textile and textile-like materials.

Other objects and the further scope and applicability of the present invention will become apparent from the detailed description given hereinafter, and it should be understood, however, that the detailed description and specific examples, while indicating preferred embodiments of this invention, are given by way of illustration only, since various changes and modifications within the spirit of this invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from this detailed description.

According to the present invention, it has been found that the above-mentioned disadvantages may be eliminated and a much-improved process and apparatus for the treatment of materials, for example textile and textile-like materials, can be provided by continuously contacting said material with a treatment medium comprising superheated steam imparted directly through the material to be treated at relatively high speed. The superheated steam, at elevated temperatures and pressures, is contacted with the surface of said textile or textile-like material by employing a means for transporting said steam to, at or near the surface of said material, and a means for superheating said steam prior to contact with said material.

This relatively simple and inexpensive apparatus and process can be employed in a variety of treatment procedures with remarkable results. Generally, a heating media such as steam is transported through a transporting means and is superheated prior to contact with the material to be treated. The stream of superheated steam is imparted through the moving material or textile fabric at a relatively high rate. Thus, the fabric or material is subjected to high degrees and amounts of kinetic and thermal energy for a relatively short period of time, resulting in the continuous treatment thereof, with a surprising lack of any adverse effects upon the material. In addition, other treating media may be added to the stream of steam prior to contact with the material to be so treated. These may include water, detergent, or other chemicals to be dispersed through the fabric, to accomplish such results as the scouring, bleaching, dying, etc. thereof.

In general, the fluid media comprises a stream of steam, and is superheated prior to contact with the materials of the present invention by any heating means, such as a gas heater, electric resistance heating, thermal oil, etc. The superheated steam contacted with these textile materials will generally be at a pressure of from about 5 to H5 psi, preferably l5 to 75 psi, and most preferably 50 to 60 psi, and at a. temperature of from 200 to 700F., preferably 220 to 500F., and most preferably 400 to 450F. It is also preferred that the stream of superheated steam be directed through the moving material utilizing a nozzle. In this manner, the stream of superheated steam may be directed perpendicularly onto the material or at an angle either with or against the flow of material, and in addition the distance from the nozzle to the surface of the material may be regulated and altered with ease, generally being within about 5 inches. This, in turn, will affect the temperature and velocity of the stream of superheated steam which comes into contact with the surface or penetrates the material being treated.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, the process and apparatus of this invention will be employed in the wet processing of textiles and textilelike materials. Thus, textile materials containing significant amounts of water, i.e. prior to any drying operations, are contacted with the superheated steam of the present invention, preferably at temperatures of from 400 to 500F. and at steam pressures of from 50 to 60 psi, and the water in this material will be extracted both by the action of the fast moving stream of superheated steam, by its concomitant kinetic energy, and additionally by the high amounts of thermal energy thus imparted to the material. This may also be utilized in this manner in order to reduce further drying operations subsequent thereto. It is additionally contemplated that in such a drying procedure a plurality of such steamcarrying nozzles may be employed. Preferably, a plurality of such steam-carrying nozzles will be brought into contact with the moving material, such that the initial contact with superheated steam will be at a substantially high temperature, while the temperature of each succeeding contact with superheated steam will decrease such that the contact with the final stream of superheated steam will be at a temperature substantially less than that of said initial stream of superheated steam. It is additionally contemplated that when a series of such superheated steam nozzles are employed, that the amount of steam employed in each succeeding nozzle can be changed. Therefore, in a typical drying operation as contemplated by the present invention, a series of superheated steam nozzles will be employed along the moving material to be so treated, and the temperatures and amounts of steam employed in each nozzle will be regulated such that in the initial nozzle coming in contact with said moving fabric or material, large amounts of steam, e.g. up to l,500 psi of steam per hour, and preferably from 1,000 to 1,500 psi of steam per hour, are utilized, the quantity of steam will be completely dependent upon the nature of the web being processed. This steam will generally be at temperatures of from 400 to 500F., and will be contacted with the saturated material in order to extract large amounts of water therefrom, obtaining a high degree of utilization of its kinetic energy. Thereafter, the succeeding nozzles of superheated steam contacted with the moving material can contain varying amounts of steam at different temperatures. Therefore, the large thermal energy of the superheated steam will be employed to mechanically extract the loose water and also accomplish the heating of the water held in the fabric or material, and finally its rapid evaporation. It will be preferred, therefore, that the final nozzle of superheated steam contacted with the material will contain superheated steam at substantially different temperatures and moisture content or quality as compared to the initial contacting.

In another embodiment of the present invention this process and apparatus will be employed for the treatment of polyester or nylon fabrics to accomplish the heat setting of such materials. This will occur in various configurations, but generally with some means such as a tenter frame for holding the web to the desired width during setting. In such a manner yarns such as polyester yarns may be textured by the present apparatus and process.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a side view of the apparatus of the present invention, including the inlet line;

FIG. 2 is a top view of the apparatus;

FIG. 3 is an end view of the apparatus; and

FIG. 4 is a diagram of a preferred textile treating procedure employing a number of these devices.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to FIG. 1, the apparatus of the present invention is shown, including an inlet line 9 which carried the steam into the apparatus. Steam 18 is carried into an inlet line 17 prior to entry into housing 1 in which it will become superheated. In the inlet line 17, the pressure at which the steam enters the housing 1 is controlled by utilizing a pressure regulator 16. The steam then passes further into the inlet line through lines and 12, wherein the steam flow is further controlled by solenoid valves 13 and/or manual control valves 10. The steam 18 then passes through inlet lines 9 and 8, and finally the steam 19 passes through inlet lines 7 into the housing 1. The housing holds the steam for a period of time during which it becomes superheated, and will therefore be of a sufficient size to contain enough steam, relative to the total steam flowing into the housing 1, so that the steam will be inside the housing 1 for a sufficient time to reach the desired temperature and pressure. Superheating of the steam held inside the housing 1 is accomplished by a heating means. These will include a series of heating elements 57 placed inside the housing for direct contact with the steam, with excellent heat transfer, and/or a heating jacket 5, maintained on the outer surface of the housing 1. The conditions inside the housing may be held constant by utilizing a temperature sensor 6. The superheated steam then passes outwardly from the housing through a nozzle 2, which contains a slot 3, and may thus be directed onto the surface and through the textile 0r textile-like material 4 which is moving across the surface of the nozzle 2 within a small but variable distance thereof, generally within about 1 or 2 inches therefrom. FIGS. 2 and 3 further show the configuration of the housing 1, steam inlet means 7 and nozzle 2, from top and end views, respectively.

Referring to FIG. 4, a preferred incorporation of the present apparatus into a typical textile-treating scheme is demonstrated. A fabric to be treated 20, is generally in a highly moist condition subsequent to wetting in a tank 21 containing a liquid 22, such as water. Upon passage from the surface of such a bath 23, the fabric 24 is then directed by a series of rollers 25, 26 and 27 into the treating zones. In a first zone extraction of substantial amounts of water from the wet fabric is carried out preferably with a single apparatus of the present invention. Thus, steam 29 passes into a housing 31 through steam line 30, wherein it is superheated utilizing a heating means 28, and the superheated steam at from 200 to 800 F. and from 5 to 150 psig passes through the nozzle 32 containing exit point 33, and is directed through the moving material. Extracted water 34 thus is removed from the fabric, which is passed on by rollers 35 into the drying zone. The fabric is then dried utilizing a series of these apparatus, wherein the fabric is contacted with the rapidly moving superheated steam at decreasing severities, i.e. temperatures and pressures. At each such apparatus, steam 42 passes into the housing 37 through inlet line 41, wherein it is superheated by heating means 38 and finally passes at high velocities onto the fabric through nozzles 39 containing a slot 40. The dried fabric then is directed by rollers 43 into a Setting zone. In this zone the material is main tained at the desired width utilizing a tenter frame 44, mounted on pivot wheels 46, and equipped with means for grasping the moving fabric 45. The setting is thus accomplished by again contacting the thus-maintained fabric with superheated steam by utilizing the present apparatus. Steam 52 is thus passed into each housing 50 through inlet lines 51, and is superheated using heating means 49. The superheated steam then passes directly onto the fabric through nozzles 48 containing a slot 47. The thus-treated material 54 is then collected on a wind-up means 56, which rotates on an axle 53, and is maintained on a base 55.

Having thus described my invention and the advantages thereof, what I claim is:

l. A process for continuously treating textile and textile-like materials which comprises superheating steam by maintaining said steam in an enclosed chamber at elevated temperatures of from 200 to 700F and elevated pressures of from 5 to psig, and directing a flow of said superheated steam directly onto the surface of and through said textile or textile-like material by releasing said superheated steam from said chamber while passing said textile or textile-like material through said flow of superheated steam, such that the contacting of said textile or textile-like material with said superheated steam is maintained for a relatively short period of time and said textile or textile-like material is not adversely affected thereby.

2. The process of claim 1 wherein said elevated temperature is from 220 to 500F., and said elevated pressure is from 15 to 25 p.s.i.

3. The process of claim 1 wherein said elevated temperature is from 400 to 450F., and said elevated pressure is from 50 to 60 p.s.i.

4. The process of claim 1 wherein said flow of superheated steam additionally contains a treating media selected from the group consisting of steam, water, detergent, bleach, dye, and mixtures thereof.

5. The process of claim 1 wherein from 1,000 to b 1.500 pounds of superheated steam per hour are contacted with said textile material.

Claims (5)

1. A process for continuously treating textile and textile-like materials which comprises superheating steam by maintaining said steam in an enclosed chamber at elevated temperatures of from 200* to 700*F and elevated pressures of from 5 to 115 psig, and directing a flow of said superheated steam directly onto the surface of and through said textile or textile-like material by releasing said superheated steam from said chamber while passing said textile or textile-like material through said flow of superheated stEam, such that the contacting of said textile or textile-like material with said superheated steam is maintained for a relatively short period of time and said textile or textile-like material is not adversely affected thereby.
2. The process of claim 1 wherein said elevated temperature is from 220* to 500*F., and said elevated pressure is from 15 to 25 p.s.i.
3. The process of claim 1 wherein said elevated temperature is from 400* to 450*F., and said elevated pressure is from 50 to 60 p.s.i.
4. The process of claim 1 wherein said flow of superheated steam additionally contains a treating media selected from the group consisting of steam, water, detergent, bleach, dye, and mixtures thereof.
5. The process of claim 1 wherein from 1,000 to b 1,500 pounds of superheated steam per hour are contacted with said textile material.
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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4421794A (en) * 1980-05-30 1983-12-20 James River Corporation Solvent removal via continuously superheated heat transfer medium
US4527343A (en) * 1982-08-16 1985-07-09 Jorg Danneberg Process for the finishing and/or drying of wash
US4828567A (en) * 1987-10-05 1989-05-09 Robbins Ronald B Dye setting steam chamber apparatus and method
US4903363A (en) * 1987-10-05 1990-02-27 Robbins Ronald B Multiple dye setting steam chamber apparatus and method
US4974431A (en) * 1989-11-28 1990-12-04 Interface, Inc. Device for treating materials with steam
US5653771A (en) * 1995-03-09 1997-08-05 Fleissner Gmbh & Co., Maschinenfabrik Method for cleaning webs and washing device therefor
US20070212282A1 (en) * 2005-12-28 2007-09-13 Akira Matsui Sterilization apparatus using sterilizing superheated steam under normal pressure and hypoxia environment
US8607392B1 (en) * 2005-10-05 2013-12-17 Columbia Insurance Company Textile steamer assembly and method
US20160102421A1 (en) * 2013-05-21 2016-04-14 M.A.E. S.P.A. Apparatus for stretching acrylic fibers in a pressurized steam environment and automatic fiber drawing-in device for said apparatus

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2590849A (en) * 1947-12-31 1952-04-01 Dungler Julien Method for drying fibrous sheet material
US3213470A (en) * 1960-12-06 1965-10-26 Asahi Chemical Ind Method for the continuous treatment of textile bundles with pressure steam
US3546329A (en) * 1966-12-16 1970-12-08 Teijin Ltd Process for heat-treating polyamide filaments
US3680334A (en) * 1971-01-20 1972-08-01 Phillips Petroleum Co Apparatus having chamber of oval cross-section for heat treating largedenier tow

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2590849A (en) * 1947-12-31 1952-04-01 Dungler Julien Method for drying fibrous sheet material
US3213470A (en) * 1960-12-06 1965-10-26 Asahi Chemical Ind Method for the continuous treatment of textile bundles with pressure steam
US3546329A (en) * 1966-12-16 1970-12-08 Teijin Ltd Process for heat-treating polyamide filaments
US3680334A (en) * 1971-01-20 1972-08-01 Phillips Petroleum Co Apparatus having chamber of oval cross-section for heat treating largedenier tow

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4421794A (en) * 1980-05-30 1983-12-20 James River Corporation Solvent removal via continuously superheated heat transfer medium
US4527343A (en) * 1982-08-16 1985-07-09 Jorg Danneberg Process for the finishing and/or drying of wash
US4828567A (en) * 1987-10-05 1989-05-09 Robbins Ronald B Dye setting steam chamber apparatus and method
US4903363A (en) * 1987-10-05 1990-02-27 Robbins Ronald B Multiple dye setting steam chamber apparatus and method
US4974431A (en) * 1989-11-28 1990-12-04 Interface, Inc. Device for treating materials with steam
US5653771A (en) * 1995-03-09 1997-08-05 Fleissner Gmbh & Co., Maschinenfabrik Method for cleaning webs and washing device therefor
US8607392B1 (en) * 2005-10-05 2013-12-17 Columbia Insurance Company Textile steamer assembly and method
US20070212282A1 (en) * 2005-12-28 2007-09-13 Akira Matsui Sterilization apparatus using sterilizing superheated steam under normal pressure and hypoxia environment
US20160102421A1 (en) * 2013-05-21 2016-04-14 M.A.E. S.P.A. Apparatus for stretching acrylic fibers in a pressurized steam environment and automatic fiber drawing-in device for said apparatus
US9869041B2 (en) * 2013-05-21 2018-01-16 M.A.E. S.P.A. Apparatus for stretching acrylic fibers in a pressurized steam environment and automatic fiber drawing-in device for said apparatus

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