US3756241A - Radiopaque abdominal pack - Google Patents

Radiopaque abdominal pack Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3756241A
US3756241A US3756241DA US3756241A US 3756241 A US3756241 A US 3756241A US 3756241D A US3756241D A US 3756241DA US 3756241 A US3756241 A US 3756241A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
pack
packs
abd
radiopaque
edges
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
D Patience
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Kendall Co
Original Assignee
Kendall Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F13/00Bandages or dressings; Absorbent pads
    • A61F13/15Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, swabs or tampons for external or internal application to the body; Supporting or fastening means therefor; Tampon applicators
    • A61F13/44Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, swabs or tampons for external or internal application to the body; Supporting or fastening means therefor; Tampon applicators with radio-opaque material or signalling means for residual material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/12Devices for detecting or locating foreign bodies
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/39Markers, e.g. radio-opaque or breast lesions markers

Abstract

A radiopaque abdominal pack is formed by interweaving occasional warp or filling yarns, or both, in a multilayered open mesh fabric and sealing at least one of the cut edges of the fabric with a soft, flexible polymeric sealant containing a radiopaque substance such as barium sulfate.

Description

Mmeel States Patent 11 1 u 11 3,756,241 Patience 1 Sept. 4, 1973 [54] RADIOPAQUE ABDOMINAL PACK 3,133,538 5/1964 Pratt et al. 128/296 3,190,289 6/1965 Patience 128/296 [75] Inventor. Donald Patience, Barrington, Ill. 3'491802 1/1970 Mortensen et a1 128/296 [73] Assignee: The Kendall Company, Walpole, 3,542,027 11/1970 HlgglllS 128/284 Mass 3,698,393 10/1972 Stone 128/296 [22] Filed: June 191 1972 Primary ExaminerCharles F. Rosenbaum [21] Appl. No.: 264,367 Attorney lohn F. Ryan 52 us. c1. 128/296 [57] ABSTRACT [51] Int. Cl. A61f 13/00 A radiopaque abdominal p i f rmed by interweav- [58] Field of Search 128/156, 284, 286, g Occasional p or filling y or both, in a m i- 123/237 290 296 layered open mesh fabric and sealing at least one of the cut edges of the fabric with a soft, flexible polymeric [56] Ref n Cit d sealant containing a radiopaque substance such as barium sulfate.

2 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures PATENTEIJscr 4 ms FIG. 2

FIG, I

2 Z Z I .7 O

FIG. 3

RADIOPAQUE ABDOMINAL PACK BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention is concerned with surgical laparotomy sponges commonly referred to as ABD packs, or abdominal packs. ABD packs are often used in surgical procedures involving the opening of the abdominal wall by surgical incision whereby body organs and delicate membranes and tissues are exposed. These delicate body members when exposed to the air are subject to radically different environmental conditions from those normally encountered in the moist warmth of the body. It is considered good surgical procedure, therefore, to simulate an environment more nearly approaching the natural environment by using ABD packs moistened with warm saline solution. Such moistened packs are inserted into the cavity to protect and isolate those interior body organs and tissues not directly involved from accidential impact and environmental hazards of the immediate operative area. In the operative area itself ABD packs, either dry or only slightly moistened, are used to sponge and soak up any surplus body fluid present.

ABD packs have evolved over many years of surgical practice. Presently used ABD packs are an attempt to retain both the advantages of thin, soft and flexible single layers and the absorptive cushioning and insulating properties of thicker padlike structures. As a result, the ABD pack has traditionally been formed of multiple layers of thin, soft, low-count gauzelike material which are unified along fairly widely separated lines usually extending longitudinally or transversely but in some instances in both directions. Unification has been accomplished either by lines of machine stitching whether the pack is formed of separated layers or, as is more common, by folding a single width of fabric, or by interweaving yarns in various layers of the multi-ply fabric as set forth in U. S. Patent application Ser. No. 250,238, filed May 4, 1972, of common assignee, a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 093,191 filed Nov. 27, 1970, now abandoned.

Pieces of yarn separate readily from the cut edges of open mesh low count fabrics, and their presence of course is very undesirable in a sponge or pack intended for use inside a body cavity. Pieces of yarn are not digested or assimilated by body fluids, butinstead the human system treats such yarns as foreign bodies, and attempts to encapsulate them, leading to pain and irritation, or more severe syptoms, in the patient. It has been the universal practice, therefore, to fold in the raw cut edges of a multi-layered abdominal pack, and to stitch the folded-in edges securely, to prevent ravelmg.

An even more severe foreign body reaction occurs when a whole ABD pack is inadvertently left inside a body cavity after an operation is completed. To guard against such an occurrence, packs used in an operation are rigorously counted, and the count is checked as each pack is removed from the body cavity. As an additional precaution, a loop of woven tape, usually colored, is frequently attached to a corner of a pack, to be left hanging out of the incision while the pack is in the' body.

Despite such safety measures, packs were occasionally lost, especially when an unexpected emergency disturbed the normal operative routine. The counting of packs is subject to human error. It has become increasingly common, therefore to provide ABD packs with a flexible, non-irritating insert or tell-tale which is opaque to X-rays. Thus, in case of a disputed or nontallying pack count in the operating room, or in case of unexpected or unexplainable post-operative discomfort on the part of the patient, a portable X-ray unit is brought to the patient and an X-ray exposure reveals the presence or absence of a lost pack. A negative plate is reassurance to the surgeon that he and his operative team have not been guilty of negligence.

Many years ago, hospitals occasionally sewed into the body of an ABD pack a piece of metal foil, or even a metal washer, for X-ray identification. This was tedious, expensive, and interfered with launderability. Commercially available packs have supplanted such expedients with either a tab or insert of flexible polymeric material, or a thread or filament of such material, the polymer in each case being loaded or filled with a substance opaque to X-rays, commonly barium sulfate.

The attachment of such inserts into the body of an ABD pack involves sewing, interweaving, or some sort of fixation process, which again adds to the cost of the pack.

Therefore, while the present radiopaque ABD packs are functionally satisfactory, they have been relatively expensive compared with other sponges. That fact, and their relatively large size (12" X 12", 8" X 36" and 18'' X 8"), has made reclaiming such packs a requisite matter. It is a rather general practice, therefore, to launder, wrap in sterilizing cloths, and resterilize such packs and reuse them. Obviously, reclaiming such packs is accomplished at some expense, a great deal of which is labor cost. What has been needed and what has not been attainable until this invention is a gauzelike radiopaque ABD pack with all the desirable features of presently used packs but of such construction as to reduce the cost of manufacture. Such packs, normally, could be disposed of (possible without economic penalty) where the costs of reclaiming are high.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to provide an X-ray detectable ABD pack comprising a plurality of plies of fabric, the edges of said pack being sealed into ravel-resistant condition by a soft, non-irritating polymeric sealing material, the sealing material applied to a substantial portion of at least one of said cut edges containing a substance which is opaque to X-rays.

It is a further object of the invention to provide such a pack wherein the polymeric component of the sealant is a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate.

Other objects of the invention will be more readily understood from the following description and drawings, in which FIG. 1 is a front elevation of a typical ABD pack of this invention.

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the. pack of FIG. 1, taken along the line 2---2.

FIG. 3 is a front elevation of another embodiment of the invention. t

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Referring to the drawings:

The woven ABD pack 10 illustrated in FIG. 1 is cut away to show the ply structure. A top ply 11, an intermediate ply 21, and a bottom ply 15 are joined together by a selvage edge 19, three ravel-resistant sealed edges 12, 13, and 14 and by tie-ins 16, 17, and 18 running warpwise. The tie-ins are preferably effected by setting the weave pattern so that the tie-in yarns are common to a plurality of the plies of the fabric, or they may be effected by sewing.

A substantial part, and preferably all, of at least one sealed edge, such as 13, is sealed with a soft, flexible polymeric sealant containing barium sulfate or a similar non-toxic substance opaque to X-rays, the sealed edge 13 thus being different in composition from the sealed edges 12 and 14.

Such a radiopaque sealant may be effected by applying to the interwoven layers of fabric, at suitable longitudinal intervals, a strip of molten or softened thermoplastic polymeric film containing barium sulfate, pressing the softened film into and through the layers of fabric, allowing the film to resolidify by cooling, and then slitting or cutting the fabric in the sealed area to form individual packs.

A wide variety of soft, flexible thermoplastic polymers are capable of being loaded with a large amount of barium sulfate without losing their film-forming characteristic. Olefinic polymers such as polyisobutylene are one class, but for ease in handling and good adhesive properties it is preferred to use a copolymer of vinyl chloride (50% 86%) and vinyl acetate (50% 14% compounded with U. S. P. barium sulfate in a ratio of 4 5 parts polymer to 6 5 parts sulfate. In order to impart greater thermoplasticity to the polymer, it is preferred to plasticize it with 30 to 100 parts of a plasticizer such as dioctylphthalate or di-isooctylphthalate, depending on the particular ratio of chloride-acetate present in the base polymer.

Although other methods of applying a radiopaque edge sealant may be employed, such as stencil spraying or the application of a solvent solution or plastisol of the polymer, the longitudinal seal is preferably made by the application of a softened film, as described above. In making the transverse seals 12 and 14, the machine and method described in U. S. Pat. No. 3,506,518, assigned to Deering Milliken Research Corporation, is preferably utilized. The edges 12 and 14 may be made of radiopaque sealant if desired, but it is generally found that only a single radiopaque sealed edge, such as 13, provides excellent identification of an ABD pack on an X-ray plate.

FIG. 3 illustrates another embodiment 25 of the invention, the pack having two plies 26 and 27 with selvage edges 34 and 35 and sealed ravel-resistant edges 36 and 37. In this embodiment, the woven tie-ins 29,

30, 31, 32, and 33 extend warpwise, while tie-in 28 extends weftwise. The sealed edge 36 is sealed with a radiopaque sealant, while the edge 37 may optionally be sealed with a non-opaque sealant.

In general it has been found that the application of a film of radiopaque vinyl copolymer of from 2 to 4 mils in thickness gives good radiopacity, and although soft and flexible will survive repeated laundering.

In interweaving the plies of fabric, preferably single warp yarns, or weft yarns, or both, are woven so as to alternate between layers, in a manner well known in the weaving art and as shown in FIG. 2, where warp yarns l6, l7, and 18 unite the three gauze layers 11, 21, and 15 at intervals intermediate between the selvage edge 19 and the radiopaque sealed cut edge 13. The tie-in yarn 28 of FIG. 3 is a weft or filling yarn, the deployment of which will also be readily understood by those skilled in the weaving art.

The tie-ins may be at any of the usual intervals presently used in uniting the layers intermediate the edges of conventional ABD packs in which the fabric layers are stitched together. In general, tie-ins at from about one inch to five inches intervals in either or both directions are entirely satisfactory with about three inches being the most common interval. It is to be understood that the closer the tie-ins are, the less the pack has the characteristic thinness, softness and flexibility of single layer fabric, and the more it has the absorptive, cushioning and insulating properties of quilted padlike structures.

Having thus described my invention, I claim:

1. A radiopaque abdominal pack with ravel-resistant edges which comprises a multiplicity of interdependent edge-joined plies of open-meshed absorbent fabric,

said interdependent plies being united along at least one path intermediate the edges of said pack by at least one yarn which is common to a plurality of plies,

the cut edges of said pack being sealed to ravelresistant condition by a non-toxic, flexible, thermoplastic sealant,

a substantial portion of the sealant on at least one edge of said pack containing a substance which is opaque to X-rays.

2. The pack according to claim 1 in which the polymeric sealant is a plasticized copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate and the substance opaque to X- rays is barium sulfate.

* i il

Claims (1)

  1. 2. The pack according to claim 1 in which the polymeric sealant is a plasticized copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate and the substance opaque to X-rays is barium sulfate.
US3756241A 1972-06-19 1972-06-19 Radiopaque abdominal pack Expired - Lifetime US3756241A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US26436772 true 1972-06-19 1972-06-19

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3756241A true US3756241A (en) 1973-09-04

Family

ID=23005739

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3756241A Expired - Lifetime US3756241A (en) 1972-06-19 1972-06-19 Radiopaque abdominal pack

Country Status (3)

Country Link
US (1) US3756241A (en)
BE (1) BE803121A (en)
CA (1) CA1009572A (en)

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3965907A (en) * 1975-01-08 1976-06-29 The Kendall Company Surgical sponge
US4205680A (en) * 1978-01-13 1980-06-03 Work Wear Corporation, Inc. Radiopaque laparatomy sponge
US4244369A (en) * 1979-02-26 1981-01-13 The Kendall Company Surgical sponge with visually detectable element
US4626251A (en) * 1985-02-22 1986-12-02 Albert Shen Surgical sponge
EP0244992A2 (en) * 1986-04-26 1987-11-11 Caligen Foam Limited Medical swabs
US4718897A (en) * 1985-09-18 1988-01-12 Chicopee Nonwoven surgical sponge with x-ray detectable element
US4983173A (en) * 1983-03-07 1991-01-08 The Kendall Company Surgical sponge
WO1993011544A1 (en) * 1991-12-05 1993-06-10 Polygenex International, Inc. Radiation resistant film
US5575781A (en) * 1995-10-05 1996-11-19 Deroyal Industries, Inc. Absorbent article useful in medical applications
US5725517A (en) * 1995-10-05 1998-03-10 Deroyal Industries, Inc. Absorbent woven article including radiopaque element woven therein and anchored at the ends thereof
US20030196837A1 (en) * 2002-04-17 2003-10-23 Ballard M. Daniel System and method of tracking surgical sponges
US20040103903A1 (en) * 2002-10-18 2004-06-03 Falahee Mark H. Surgical surface localizing grid
US20050075564A1 (en) * 2002-04-17 2005-04-07 Ballard Marlin Daniel Method and system configured for counting surgical articles
US20070020228A1 (en) * 2005-07-22 2007-01-25 Williams Terry N Method of using a biosealant device
US20120302863A1 (en) * 2010-02-02 2012-11-29 Aeos Biomedial Inc. Medical Procedure Localizing Aid
US20150032070A1 (en) * 2013-07-27 2015-01-29 Lawrence A. Colby Systems and methods for enhancing the visibility of medical items
US8980982B2 (en) 2011-03-25 2015-03-17 Illinois Tool Works, Inc. Electromagnetic spectrally detectable plastic packaging components

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2619089A (en) * 1950-07-22 1952-11-25 Thomas Textile Co Inc Cut textile piece adapted for use as diapers, wiping cloths, and the like
US3133538A (en) * 1961-10-11 1964-05-19 Pratt Mfg Corp Surgical sponges
US3190289A (en) * 1963-02-05 1965-06-22 Kendall & Co Surgical sponge
US3491802A (en) * 1967-01-10 1970-01-27 Johnson & Johnson Open mesh woven fibrous absorbent media
US3542027A (en) * 1968-02-01 1970-11-24 Kendall & Co Diaper with multilayered tie-ins
US3698393A (en) * 1971-06-15 1972-10-17 Chaston Medical & Surgical Pro Surgical pad

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2619089A (en) * 1950-07-22 1952-11-25 Thomas Textile Co Inc Cut textile piece adapted for use as diapers, wiping cloths, and the like
US3133538A (en) * 1961-10-11 1964-05-19 Pratt Mfg Corp Surgical sponges
US3190289A (en) * 1963-02-05 1965-06-22 Kendall & Co Surgical sponge
US3491802A (en) * 1967-01-10 1970-01-27 Johnson & Johnson Open mesh woven fibrous absorbent media
US3542027A (en) * 1968-02-01 1970-11-24 Kendall & Co Diaper with multilayered tie-ins
US3698393A (en) * 1971-06-15 1972-10-17 Chaston Medical & Surgical Pro Surgical pad

Cited By (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3965907A (en) * 1975-01-08 1976-06-29 The Kendall Company Surgical sponge
US4205680A (en) * 1978-01-13 1980-06-03 Work Wear Corporation, Inc. Radiopaque laparatomy sponge
US4244369A (en) * 1979-02-26 1981-01-13 The Kendall Company Surgical sponge with visually detectable element
US4983173A (en) * 1983-03-07 1991-01-08 The Kendall Company Surgical sponge
US4626251A (en) * 1985-02-22 1986-12-02 Albert Shen Surgical sponge
US4718897A (en) * 1985-09-18 1988-01-12 Chicopee Nonwoven surgical sponge with x-ray detectable element
EP0244992A2 (en) * 1986-04-26 1987-11-11 Caligen Foam Limited Medical swabs
EP0244992A3 (en) * 1986-04-26 1988-02-24 Caligen Foam Limited Medical swabs
WO1993011544A1 (en) * 1991-12-05 1993-06-10 Polygenex International, Inc. Radiation resistant film
US5245195A (en) * 1991-12-05 1993-09-14 Polygenex International, Inc. Radiation resistant film
US5575781A (en) * 1995-10-05 1996-11-19 Deroyal Industries, Inc. Absorbent article useful in medical applications
US5725517A (en) * 1995-10-05 1998-03-10 Deroyal Industries, Inc. Absorbent woven article including radiopaque element woven therein and anchored at the ends thereof
US20050075564A1 (en) * 2002-04-17 2005-04-07 Ballard Marlin Daniel Method and system configured for counting surgical articles
US7001366B2 (en) 2002-04-17 2006-02-21 Ballard M Daniel Radiologically trackable surgical sponges
US6777623B2 (en) * 2002-04-17 2004-08-17 M. Daniel Ballard System and method of tracking surgical sponges
US20050016776A1 (en) * 2002-04-17 2005-01-27 Ballard M. Daniel Radiologically trackable surgical sponges
US20030196837A1 (en) * 2002-04-17 2003-10-23 Ballard M. Daniel System and method of tracking surgical sponges
US20040103903A1 (en) * 2002-10-18 2004-06-03 Falahee Mark H. Surgical surface localizing grid
US20070020228A1 (en) * 2005-07-22 2007-01-25 Williams Terry N Method of using a biosealant device
US20120302863A1 (en) * 2010-02-02 2012-11-29 Aeos Biomedial Inc. Medical Procedure Localizing Aid
US8980982B2 (en) 2011-03-25 2015-03-17 Illinois Tool Works, Inc. Electromagnetic spectrally detectable plastic packaging components
US9557311B2 (en) 2011-03-25 2017-01-31 Illinois Tool Works, Inc. Electromagnetic spectrally detectable plastic packaging components
US20150032070A1 (en) * 2013-07-27 2015-01-29 Lawrence A. Colby Systems and methods for enhancing the visibility of medical items
US9901366B2 (en) * 2013-07-27 2018-02-27 Lawrence A. Colby Systems and methods for enhancing the visibility of medical items

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
CA1009572A1 (en) grant
BE803121A1 (en) grant
CA1009572A (en) 1977-05-03 grant
BE803121A (en) 1973-12-03 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3563243A (en) Absorbent pad
US3630201A (en) Fastening arrangement for disposable diapers
US3333280A (en) Interliner
US3232291A (en) Surgical adhesive tape and bandage
US3416524A (en) Surgical dressing
US3409008A (en) Disposable elastic bandage
US3236370A (en) Sterile surgical drape
US4024862A (en) Drape for expanded surgical procedure
US4419993A (en) Anti-fogging surgical mask
US4905694A (en) Intracorporeal temporary wound closure
US3121021A (en) Breathable surgical adhesive tapes
US6071450A (en) Method for making water degradable polymer microlayer film
US4623340A (en) Absorbent product with color contrasted cover pattern
US4811428A (en) Washable and disposable bib and fabric for manufacturing same
US3366440A (en) Process for manufacturing a collagen fabric-film laminate
US4359783A (en) Wearing apparel and methods for the manufacturing of wearing apparel
US3779246A (en) Disposable diaper
US5171238A (en) Absorbent pad with fibrous facing sheet
US3967624A (en) Disposable diaper with tab fasteners having a perforated cover strip
US5746013A (en) Shoe having an air-cooled breathable shoe liner
US4346700A (en) Pressure-sensitive adhesive sheet material
US3930497A (en) Surgical drape and system incorporating it
US6074965A (en) Support material for medical purposes
US4935087A (en) Method of making an absorbent dressing
US3930502A (en) Disposable diaper with a tape closure system having a double-folded tab

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: MANUFACTURERS HANOVER TRUST COMPANY, AS AGENT

Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:KENDALL COMPANY, THE;REEL/FRAME:005251/0007

Effective date: 19881027