US3738586A - An improved hammer for hammer mills - Google Patents

An improved hammer for hammer mills Download PDF

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Publication number
US3738586A
US3738586A US3738586DA US3738586A US 3738586 A US3738586 A US 3738586A US 3738586D A US3738586D A US 3738586DA US 3738586 A US3738586 A US 3738586A
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hammer
eye
metal
mill
extra
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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H Fabert
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AMALLOY CORP A CORP OF NJ
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Abex Corp
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Assigned to CHEMICAL BANK, A CORP. OF NY reassignment CHEMICAL BANK, A CORP. OF NY SECURITY INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: AMALLOY CORPORATION
Assigned to CHEMICAL BANK reassignment CHEMICAL BANK SECURITY INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: AMALLOY CORP., A N.J. CORP.
Assigned to AMALLOY CORP., A CORP. OF NJ reassignment AMALLOY CORP., A CORP. OF NJ ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: ABEX CORPORATION
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B02CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING; PREPARATORY TREATMENT OF GRAIN FOR MILLING
    • B02CCRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING IN GENERAL; MILLING GRAIN
    • B02C13/00Disintegrating by mills having rotary beater elements ; Hammer mills
    • B02C13/26Details
    • B02C13/28Shape or construction of beater elements

Abstract

A hammer for a hammer mill, cast from austenitic manganese steel, is cast with a pad of extra metal surrounding the eye, the extra metal being work hardened to inhibit stretching of the eye when the hammer is revolved with its supporting rod which fits the eye diameter.

Description

United States Patent 11 1 Fabert, Jr.
[111 3,738,586 June 12, 1973 1 IMPROVED HAMMER FOR HAMMER MILLS [75] Inventor: Herman A. Fabert, Jr., Homewood,
[73] Assignee: Abex Corporation, New York, NY.
[22] Filed: July 14, 1971 [21] Appl. No.: 162,358
52 us. Cl. 241/195 51 1m. 01. B02c 13/28 [58] Field of Search 241/194, 195, 196,.
[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,566,758 9/1951 Anderson 241/197 3,278,126 10/1966 Ratkowski 241/195 2,237,510 4/1941 Tankersley 241/195 2,244,577 6/1941 Schreiber 241/195 Primary Examiner-Robert L. Spruill Attorney-Kinzer & Dorn [57] ABSTRACT A hammer for a hammer mill, cast from austenitic manganese steel, is cast with a pad of extra metal surrounding the eye, the extra metal being work hardened to inhibit stretching of the eye when the hammer is revolved with its supporting rod which fits the eye diameter.
2 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures Patented June 12, 1973 FIG. 3
FIG.|
FIG. 5
INVENTOR. HERMAN A. FABERT, JR
AT ORNEYS FIG. 4 BY M, db/9W IMPROVED HAMMER FOR HAMMER MILLS This invention relates to the construction of a hammer for installation in a hammer mill.
The typical hammer mill, used to comminute rocks, scrap metal chunks and the like, includes a large rotary driven ring or disc supporting circumferentially spaced rods each of which fits the eye of a hammer to support the hammer and whirl it with the ring. The working forces are of large order. Resultantly, there is a pronounced tendency for the eye of the hammer to stretch due to the play of centrifugal forces between the hammer eye and its support rod. Thus, the eye is distorted, the hammer wobbles, vibrations ensue, and the mill must be shut down for hammer replacement.
The problem is especially acute with hammers of austenitic manganese steel, because of its inherent ductility.
The problem has been known for more than 40 years. In U.S. Pat. No. 1,760,097 (tiled in 1928) it is stated Oscillation of the hammers upon the rod on which they are pivoted causes wear in the eye and on the rod. The patentee proposed that the problem be solved by altering the center of gravity. He did this by enlarging the hammer head, but did not observe that the additionalweight so added produces more strain on the mill as can be well imagined from the increased weight at the end of the whirling hammer. Under my invention, there is no change in the center of gravity and essentially no increased strain on the mill, and the achievement of this is an object of the present invention.
The very nature of austenitic manganese steel contains the clue to avoiding eye distortion of a hammer. The clue is that if the hammer is cast from austenitic manganese steel, and if it so cast as to present a thickened ring or pad of extra metal surrounding the extremities of the eye, the extra metal may be work hardened. The effect is an eye which is hardened at the extremities. Since the extremity is hardened, the metal resists flow to that extent, which is to say that stretching is inhibited proportionally. It is, therefore, a further object of the present invention to cast a hammer from austenitic manganese steel with an integral ring of extra metal at each end of the eye, the ring being work hardened.
Other and further objects of the present invention will be apparent from the following description and claims and are illustrated in the accompanying drawing, which by way of illustration, show embodiments of the present invention and the principle thereof and what is now considered to be the best mode contemplated for applying that principle. Other embodiments of the invention embodying the same or equivalent principle may be used and structural changes may be made as desired by those skilled in the art without departing from the present invention.
In the drawing:
FIG. 1 is a sectional view, partly diagrammatic, of a typical hammer mill;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of one form of hammer constructed in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 3 is partial sectional view of the hammer shown in FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a plan view of another form of hammer constructed in accordance with the present invention; and
FIG. 5 is a sectional view of the hammer shown in FIG. 4.
FIG. 1 shows a typical hammer mill wherein rocks, scrap metal chunks and other burden oflarge size is to be crushed to a smaller size. In doing this, resort is had to a hammer support ring 12 fixed to a drive shaft 13 for rotary movement.
The support ring or disc 12 carries four hammer support rods 15 each supporting, pivotally, a hammer 17.
These hammers 17 are whirled or revolved within the mill. The impacting face 18 of each hammer follows a circular path opposite a grate ring 20 characterized by spaced bars or ribs 21, the spacing therebetween defining slots 22 through which the comminuted material is discharged for collection in the discharge bin 25.
As noted above, the hammers are pivotally mounted on the support rods or shafts l5 so that there may be free swinging movement of the hammers in the course of operation. This is always so. The working forces involved are of very high order, especially the play of centrifugal forces between the support rod 15 and the eye or opening in the hammer shaft enabling the hammer to be mounted thereon. The forces are so large that stretching or distortion of the eye is a frequent, and in fact normal, reason for shutting down the mill to replace the hammers. It can be readily visualized that when the eye is distorted, the hammer will wobble producing unacceptable vibrations within and strain on the mill.
Hammers of the kind involved may be of variant shape. One such form, as shown at 30 in FIG. 2; geometry is unimportant, but for purposes of definition the hammer 30, under the present invention, is cast entirely of austcnitic manganese steel and includes a hammer head 31 and a shank 32. The shank is formed with a relatively large eye 33 for the purpose mentioned above.
Ordinarily hammers of the kind involved, cast from austenitic manganese steel, will have a Brinell hardness of -220 BHN and a nominal yield strength of about 50,000 psi, too low to preclude stretching which progresses to a degree leading to failure at the eye.
Under the present invention, the hammer is cast entirely of austenitic manganese steel with thickened rings or pads 35 continuous about the end openings of the eye 33. The rings 35 project axially from the eye, characterizing the thickened section, which in plan has the shape of torus.
After the casting has been taken from the heat treating furnace the thickened pads or rings 35 are work hardened, as by hammering, to a Bl-IN value of 440-480, with corresponding increase in yield strength. During work hardening, some metal from .the pads may flow into the interior of the eye, but any unacceptable dimension can be restored by a grinding operation typically performed on manganese steel.
Preferably the inner diameter of the extra metal rings is chamfered at 36 to provide an outwardly sloped radial face which facilitates application of the hammer blows, since the important aspect is that the areas around the ends of the eye be hardened and not necessarily the interior of the eye. Resultantly the effect is that the end openings of the eye 33 have approximately double the hardness of the rest of the casting. There is in effect scarcely any allowance for metal flow or duetile distortion, so that the integrity of the eye diameter remains virtually constant. On the other hand, I retain all of the advantages of unhardencd austenitic manganese steel, at the impacting face and sides of the hammer, known to provide distinctive wear life over metals having higher strength.
Another form of hammer, a so-called ring hammer suitable for use, is identified by reference character 40 in FIG. 4. This is for the purpose of projecting the realization that hammer mill hammers are of variant geometry. The hammer 40 is one piece, cast entirelyof austenitic manganese steel, and lugs 41 represent a plurality of hammer elements. Again, the eye 42, at the extremities, is cast with rings 44 of extra metal of the form described above, work hardened for the purpose already explained.
I claim:
1. In a hammer for a hammer mill wherein the hammer includes a shank formed with an eye enabling the hammer to be mounted on a supporting rod for revolving movement within the mill, the improvement wherein the hammer is cast from austenitic manganese steel metal with a ring 'of extra integral metal surrounding and projecting axially of the eye on each side of the hammer, the extra metal being work hardened to a Bl-lN hardness value which is approximately twice the hardness value of the remainder of the hammer to thereby inhibit stretching due to centrifugal forces exerted on the eye when the hammer is revolved.
2. A hammer according to claim 1 in which the extra ring of metal is chamfered at the eye diameter to provide an outwardly sloped radial face to facilitate work hardening.

Claims (2)

1. In a hammer for a hammer mill wherein the hammer includes a shank formed with an eye enabling the hammer to be mounted on a supporting rod for revolving movement within the mill, the improvement wherein the hammer is cast from austenitic manganese steel metal with a ring of extra integral metal surrounding and projecting axially of the eye on each side of the hammer, the extra metal being work hardened to a BHN hardness value which is approximately twice the hardness value of the remainder of the hammer to thereby inhibit stretching due to centrifugal forces exerted on the eye when the hammer is revolved.
2. A hammer according to claim 1 in which the extra ring of metal is chamfered at the eye diameter to provide an outwardly sloped radial face to facilitate work hardening.
US3738586D 1971-07-14 1971-07-14 An improved hammer for hammer mills Expired - Lifetime US3738586A (en)

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US (1) US3738586A (en)
JP (1) JPS534258B1 (en)
CA (1) CA960627A (en)
DE (1) DE2231450C3 (en)
FR (1) FR2146067A5 (en)
GB (1) GB1401362A (en)

Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3844494A (en) * 1973-02-01 1974-10-29 Ferromet Inc Hammer mill rotor assembly
US4141512A (en) * 1978-01-09 1979-02-27 Adirondack Steel Specialties, A Division Of Adirondack Steel Casting Co., Inc. Construction of a hammer for hammer mill
US4504019A (en) * 1982-03-03 1985-03-12 Newell Manufacturing Company Hammer mill having capped disc rotor
US4558826A (en) * 1982-07-12 1985-12-17 Evans Products Company Hammer for automobile shredding mills
US4619029A (en) * 1982-03-03 1986-10-28 Newell Industries, Inc. Method of retrofitting a hammer mill rotor
US4650129A (en) * 1982-03-03 1987-03-17 Newell Industries, Inc. Capped disc for hammer mill rotor
US5842653A (en) * 1997-01-24 1998-12-01 Global Processing Systems, Inc. Slow speed hammermill for size reduction of wood chips
US20060032958A1 (en) * 2004-08-11 2006-02-16 Young Roger T Forged hammermill hammer
US20080011890A1 (en) * 2005-06-11 2008-01-17 Young Roger T Hammermill hammer
US20090224090A1 (en) * 2004-08-11 2009-09-10 Young Roger T Hammer
US20090321546A1 (en) * 2008-06-26 2009-12-31 Plumb Chad J Hammer Mill Hammer
US20100213301A1 (en) * 2009-02-26 2010-08-26 Esco Corporation Shredder Hammers Including Improved Engagement Between the Hammer Pin and the Hammer
US20110042498A1 (en) * 2004-08-11 2011-02-24 Young Roger T Hammer
US8141804B1 (en) 2009-05-22 2012-03-27 Genesis Iii, Inc. Curved hammer
WO2013134526A1 (en) 2012-03-08 2013-09-12 Esco Corporation Shredder hammers
US8800903B1 (en) 2011-08-03 2014-08-12 Roger T. Young Multi-connector hammer and protective arm
USD839934S1 (en) 2017-12-06 2019-02-05 Roger Young Swing hammer
USD840447S1 (en) 2017-12-06 2019-02-12 Roger Young Swing hammer
US10201814B1 (en) 2004-08-11 2019-02-12 Genesis Iii, Inc. Hammer
US10207274B1 (en) 2017-08-21 2019-02-19 Roger Young Non-forged hammermill hammer
USD861048S1 (en) 2017-12-06 2019-09-24 Roger Young Swing hammer
US10478824B2 (en) 2017-08-21 2019-11-19 Bliss Industries, Llc System and method for installing hammers
US10486160B2 (en) 2017-08-21 2019-11-26 Bliss Industries, Llc Method of replacing hammers and spacers
US10610870B2 (en) 2017-08-21 2020-04-07 Bliss Industries, Llc Hot and cold forming hammer and method of assembly
USD905136S1 (en) 2018-03-05 2020-12-15 Bliss Industries, Llc Hammermill hammer
US11045813B2 (en) * 2013-10-28 2021-06-29 Postle Industries, Inc. Hammermill system, hammer and method

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3406285C2 (en) * 1984-02-22 1988-05-11 Albert Hoffmann Kg, 5180 Eschweiler, De
DE3421431C2 (en) * 1984-06-08 1995-05-18 Hoffmann Albert Kg Shredding device
DE3438706C2 (en) * 1984-10-23 1995-05-11 Hoffmann Albert Kg Device for shredding sheet metal and similar material
DE102014006354B4 (en) * 2014-04-30 2016-12-22 Akai Gmbh & Co. Kg Crusher with fixed anvil and rotating hammer (eg hammer mills or shredders)

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2237510A (en) * 1939-08-02 1941-04-08 Heat Treating Inc Hammer-mill hammer
US2244577A (en) * 1939-10-20 1941-06-03 Allen B Schreiber Mill hammer
US2566758A (en) * 1949-06-13 1951-09-04 Kensington Steel Company Tip and shank for hammer mills
US3278126A (en) * 1963-09-17 1966-10-11 Abex Corp Hammers

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2237510A (en) * 1939-08-02 1941-04-08 Heat Treating Inc Hammer-mill hammer
US2244577A (en) * 1939-10-20 1941-06-03 Allen B Schreiber Mill hammer
US2566758A (en) * 1949-06-13 1951-09-04 Kensington Steel Company Tip and shank for hammer mills
US3278126A (en) * 1963-09-17 1966-10-11 Abex Corp Hammers

Cited By (49)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3844494A (en) * 1973-02-01 1974-10-29 Ferromet Inc Hammer mill rotor assembly
US4141512A (en) * 1978-01-09 1979-02-27 Adirondack Steel Specialties, A Division Of Adirondack Steel Casting Co., Inc. Construction of a hammer for hammer mill
US4504019A (en) * 1982-03-03 1985-03-12 Newell Manufacturing Company Hammer mill having capped disc rotor
US4619029A (en) * 1982-03-03 1986-10-28 Newell Industries, Inc. Method of retrofitting a hammer mill rotor
US4650129A (en) * 1982-03-03 1987-03-17 Newell Industries, Inc. Capped disc for hammer mill rotor
US4558826A (en) * 1982-07-12 1985-12-17 Evans Products Company Hammer for automobile shredding mills
US5842653A (en) * 1997-01-24 1998-12-01 Global Processing Systems, Inc. Slow speed hammermill for size reduction of wood chips
US5904306A (en) * 1997-01-24 1999-05-18 Global Processing Systems, Inc. Slow speed hammermill for size reduction of wood chips
US7819352B2 (en) * 2004-08-11 2010-10-26 Genesis Iii, Inc. Hammer
US7140569B2 (en) 2004-08-11 2006-11-28 Young Roger T Forged hammermill hammer
US10201814B1 (en) 2004-08-11 2019-02-12 Genesis Iii, Inc. Hammer
US9737894B1 (en) 2004-08-11 2017-08-22 Genesis Iii, Inc. Hammer
US9566584B2 (en) 2004-08-11 2017-02-14 Genesis Iii, Inc. Hammer
US20090224090A1 (en) * 2004-08-11 2009-09-10 Young Roger T Hammer
US8708263B2 (en) 2004-08-11 2014-04-29 Roger T. Young Hammer
US20060032958A1 (en) * 2004-08-11 2006-02-16 Young Roger T Forged hammermill hammer
US8033490B1 (en) 2004-08-11 2011-10-11 Genesis Iii, Inc. Hammer
US20110042498A1 (en) * 2004-08-11 2011-02-24 Young Roger T Hammer
US8960581B1 (en) * 2004-08-11 2015-02-24 Genesis Iii, Inc. Hammer
US20100025511A1 (en) * 2005-06-11 2010-02-04 Young Roger T Hammermill Hammer
US20080011890A1 (en) * 2005-06-11 2008-01-17 Young Roger T Hammermill hammer
US20070023554A1 (en) * 2005-06-11 2007-02-01 Young Robert T Hammermill hammer
US7559497B2 (en) * 2005-06-11 2009-07-14 Genesis Iii, Inc. Hammermill hammer
US7621477B2 (en) * 2005-06-11 2009-11-24 Genesis Iii, Inc. Hammermill hammer
CN101391235B (en) * 2007-08-31 2013-03-27 创世纪Ⅲ公司 Hammermill hammer
US20090321546A1 (en) * 2008-06-26 2009-12-31 Plumb Chad J Hammer Mill Hammer
US8342435B2 (en) 2008-06-26 2013-01-01 Jacobs Corporation Hammer mill hammer
US8104177B2 (en) * 2008-06-26 2012-01-31 Jacobs Corporation Hammer mill hammer
AU2010217935B2 (en) * 2009-02-26 2013-06-27 Esco Corporation Shredder hammers including improved engagement between the hammer pin and the hammer
US8308094B2 (en) 2009-02-26 2012-11-13 Esco Corp. Shredder hammers including improved engagement between the hammer pin and the hammer
US20100213301A1 (en) * 2009-02-26 2010-08-26 Esco Corporation Shredder Hammers Including Improved Engagement Between the Hammer Pin and the Hammer
US8998120B1 (en) 2009-05-22 2015-04-07 Genesis Iii, Inc. Curved hammer
US10857540B1 (en) 2009-05-22 2020-12-08 Genesis Iii, Inc. Curved hammer
US8141804B1 (en) 2009-05-22 2012-03-27 Genesis Iii, Inc. Curved hammer
US9358546B1 (en) 2011-08-03 2016-06-07 Genesis Iii, Inc. Multi-connector hammer and protective arm
US8800903B1 (en) 2011-08-03 2014-08-12 Roger T. Young Multi-connector hammer and protective arm
US10486159B2 (en) 2011-08-03 2019-11-26 Genesis Iii, Inc. Multi-connector hammer
WO2013134526A1 (en) 2012-03-08 2013-09-12 Esco Corporation Shredder hammers
US11045813B2 (en) * 2013-10-28 2021-06-29 Postle Industries, Inc. Hammermill system, hammer and method
US10610870B2 (en) 2017-08-21 2020-04-07 Bliss Industries, Llc Hot and cold forming hammer and method of assembly
US10207274B1 (en) 2017-08-21 2019-02-19 Roger Young Non-forged hammermill hammer
US10478824B2 (en) 2017-08-21 2019-11-19 Bliss Industries, Llc System and method for installing hammers
US10486160B2 (en) 2017-08-21 2019-11-26 Bliss Industries, Llc Method of replacing hammers and spacers
US10507468B2 (en) 2017-08-21 2019-12-17 Bliss Industries, Llc Non-forged hammermill hammer
USD840447S1 (en) 2017-12-06 2019-02-12 Roger Young Swing hammer
USD857066S1 (en) 2017-12-06 2019-08-20 Roger Young Swing hammer
USD839934S1 (en) 2017-12-06 2019-02-05 Roger Young Swing hammer
USD861048S1 (en) 2017-12-06 2019-09-24 Roger Young Swing hammer
USD905136S1 (en) 2018-03-05 2020-12-15 Bliss Industries, Llc Hammermill hammer

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB1401362A (en) 1975-07-16
DE2231450A1 (en) 1973-02-01
CA960627A1 (en)
FR2146067A5 (en) 1973-02-23
DE2231450B2 (en) 1974-07-11
CA960627A (en) 1975-01-07
DE2231450C3 (en) 1975-03-06
JPS534258B1 (en) 1978-02-15

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Effective date: 19880310