US3733835A - Apparatus for advancing tunnel supports - Google Patents

Apparatus for advancing tunnel supports Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3733835A
US3733835A US3733835DA US3733835A US 3733835 A US3733835 A US 3733835A US 3733835D A US3733835D A US 3733835DA US 3733835 A US3733835 A US 3733835A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
shell
shells
machine
bore
relative
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
J Jacobs
Original Assignee
J Jacobs
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by J Jacobs filed Critical J Jacobs
Priority to US13068671A priority Critical
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US3733835A publication Critical patent/US3733835A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/06Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining
    • E21D9/0621Shield advancing devices

Abstract

Apparatus and method for continuously or intermittently advancing tunnel supports against surrounding earth pressure. Cutting edge and trailing shells are interconnected by a longitudinal frame or cage structure. Intermediate the forward and trailing shell are overlapping intermediate shells which are individually connected to the cage structure by hydraulic cylinders so that each intermediate shell can be moved longitudinally relative to the others and relative to the tunnel wall while the other intermediate shells engage the tunnel wall and advance the cage as well as the forward or support and trailing shells. The intermediate shells are sequentially moved forwardly, preferably by releasing the pressure exerted against the wall, as by contracting the shell or by projecting through the shell various-shaped devices which grip or penetrate the wall. The support may incorporate steering guidance means for adjusting the direction of the excavation device about perpendicular transverse aces. Means is also provided on the trailing shell for feeding out the rearward end ribbons, or rods to support the tunnel walls prior to concreting and also a retainer shell which functions as a screed for the concrete and supports the concrete as it is gaining strength.

Description

Unite States Patent [1 1 Jacobs [54] APPARATUS FOR ADVANCING TUNNEL SUPPORTS [76] Inventor: J. Donovan Jacobs, c/o Jacobs Associates, 500 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Calif. 94111 [22] Filed: Apr. 2, 1971 [21] Appl. No.: 130,686
Related U.S. Application Data [63] Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 798,097, Feb. 10,
[52] U.S. Cl ..61/84, 61/85 [51] Int. Cl ..E0lg 3/04 [58] Field of Search ..6l/84, 85, 42, 45, 61/63 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,169,376 2/1965 Cunningham ..61/84 X 3,382,002 5/1968 Tabor ..61/85 X 1,355,290 10/1920 Updegraff .suss
3,487,649 1/1970 Bergstrom ..6l/85 3,379,024 4/1968 Wohlmeyer... ..6l/85 3,232,062 2/1966 Bland ..61/84 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,173,034 6/1964 Germany ..6l/84 1,205,928 1*2/1965 Germany ..6l/85 Primary ExaminerDennis L. Taylor Attorney-Julian Caplan [57] ABSTRACT Apparatus and method for continuously or intermittently advancing tunnel supports against surrounding earth pressure. Cutting edge and trailing shells are interconnected by a longitudinal frame or cage structure. Intermediate the forward and trailing shell are overlapping intermediate shells which are individually connected to the cage structure by hydraulic cylinders so that each intermediate shell can be moved longitudinally relative to the others and relative to the tunnel wall while the other intermediate shells engage the tunnel wall and advance the cage as well as the forward or support and trailing shells. The intermediate shells are sequentially moved forwardly, preferably by releasing the pressure exerted against the wall, as by contracting the shell or by projecting through the shell various-shaped devices which grip or penetrate the wall. The support may incorporate steering guidance means for adjusting the direction of the excavation device about perpendicular transverse aces. Means is also provided on the trailing shell for feeding out the rearward end ribbons, or rods to support the tunnel walls prior to concreting and also a retainer shell which functions as a screed for the concrete and supports the concrete as it is gaining strength.
14 Claims, 20 Drawing Figures 5 Shoets$heet 1 INVENTOR. DONOVAN JACOBS A T T OR NEY Patented May 22, 1973 R mm @m m 3 m7 V i m mm Patented May 22, 1973 5 Shuts-Sheet 2 FIG.4
, INVENTOR. J. DONOVAN JACOBS BY Q92 @2 4 ATTQRNEY Patented May 22, 1973 3 3,733,835
5 Shoots-Sheet 3 67c 31x 81c 670 INVENTOR. G 5 J. DONOVAN JACOBS BY Q 4 4 ATTORNEY Patented May 22, 1973 3,733,835
5 Shuts-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. J DONOVAN JACOBS ATTORNEY Patented May ZZ, 1973 3,733,835
5 Shuts-Sheet 5 APPARATUS FOR ADVANCING TUNNEL SUPPORTS This application is a continuation-in-part of copending application Ser. No. 798,097 filed Feb. 10, I969.
A tunnel excavation device may be of various types, one common type having a rotary cutting or boring head containing wheels or knives or blades which cut or scarify the rock or earth at the face of the tunnel causing it to fall away from the face and thus creating the tunnel bore. Such device further incorporates means for picking up the material which is loosened and discharging the material onto a conveyor forultimate disposal. In order to operate effectively, the excavation device must be forced against the tunnel face with tremendous pressure and this requires an anchor or support for the device. Previously used supports for this purpose have certain disadvantages. A principal object of the present invention is the provision of improved means for anchoring the tunnel excavation device so that it may be forced against the face of the tunnel with the requisite pressure.
A further principal effect of the present invention is that the tunnel excavation device is capable of advancing continuously, although intermittent advance is also possible. As a result, it is not necessary to discontinue the excavating action while the support is being moved forwardly and thus the present invention reduces the time required for excavation.
Another feature of the present invention is the fact that the support may be guided so that the excavation device will dig a curved path and the direction of the curve and, within reasonable limits, the radius of the curve is subject to considerable variation under the control of the operator.
Another principal feature of the present invention is the fact that the machine may operate in relatively soft ground where other tunnel boring head advancing equipment will not adequately grip the tunnel wall or face. Thus, as hereinafter explained in detail, a plurality of shells are brought into firm engagement with the tunnel wall immediately behind the forward edge of the device and the combined effect of a plurality of such shells engaging the wall adequately anchors the machine and enables the device to be forced forwardly with the necessary pressure. In addition, the movable shells adequately support the tunnel wall until such time as concrete may be applied to the wall and provided sufficient time to set or other structural support installed.
Accordingly, still another principal feature of the invention is the fact that the machine supports the tunnel wall rearwardly of the excavation device against surrounding earth pressure for a sufficient distance so that a concrete lining may be applied to the tunnel bore and allowed partially to set. Thus, the invention provides structure for simultaneously advancing the excavating device and supporting in place the earth and rock behind the head.
Still another feature of the invention is the fact that a plurality of ribbons, wires or rods are fed out adjacent the rear of the machine in close proximity to the tunnel walls temporarily supporting the walls until a more permanent structural support can be applied.
Another feature of the invention is the provision of a space to the rear of the support means providing access to the tunnel wall so that concrete under pressure may be used to face the wall surrounding the ribbons, wires or rods which have heretofore been mentioned.
Still another feature of the invention is the provision of a trailing shell which follows the application of concrete and functions as a screed and also supports the concrete for sufficient time to enable it to begin to set.
One of the features and advantages of the invention is the provision of a concrete support which is moved continuously at the same speed at which the boring head advances in a continuous movement immediately behind the point of application of the concrete.
Other objects of the present invention will become apparent upon reading the following specification and referring to the accompanying drawings in which similar characters of reference represent corresponding parts in each of the several views.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a vertical sectional view, partially broken away to reveal internal construction, of one form of machine in accordance with the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a transverse sectional view taken substantially along line 22 of FIG. 1 in enlarged scale and partially broken away to conserve space.
FIG. 3 is a transverse sectional view taken substantially along line 3-3 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary view of the intermediate shell expanding means as viewed substantially along line 4-4 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary view of a hinge means for one of the steering rings as viewed substantially along line 55 of FIG. 3.
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view in enlarged scale taken substantially along line 66 of FIG. 3.
FIG. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary longitudinal sectional view through a portion of the rear of the machine.
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view through a portion of the intermediate shells and surrounding structure.
FIG. 9 is a view similar to FIG. 8 of a modification.
FIG. 10 is a schematic view illustrating the method of the invention.
FIG. 1 l is a fragmentary sectional view of a modified gripping device shown in retracted position; FIG. 11A shows same in projected position.
FIGS. 12 and 12A are views similar to FIGS. 11 and 11A, respectively, of a further modified device.
FIGS. 13 and 13A are views similar to FIGS. 11 and 11A of a still further modified device; FIG. 13B is a plan of a portion of FIGS. 13 and 13A.
FIGS. 14, 14A and 14B are views similar to FIGS. 13, 13A and 13B of another modified device.
The machine which is the subject of the present invention is installed as part of the equipment used to dig a tunnel having a face 21 which is here shown vertical and a tunnel bore 22 which is here assumed to be horizontal and circular in cross-section. The face 21 is continuously cut away usually by an excavating device (not shown) of a type commercially available such as, for example, a boring head disposed with the supporting structure 23 positioned immediately behind the face 21. As has heretofore been mentioned, the excavating device cuts or scarifies the tunnel face and the material displaced is collected and conveyed to the rear for disposal by means well understood in the tunneling art and not herein illustrated or described. Extending rearward from the rear of the support 23 is a cage structure 24 or frame which extends the entire length of the machine. Optionally, adjacent the rear of the cage structure 24 a trailing support shell 26 may be connected to the cage structure. It is a feature of the present invention that the support 23, cage structure 24 and trailing support shell 26 move together and it is a further feature of the invention that the same are capable of advancing continuously at a substantially uniform rate, although in some installations they may move intermittently. As an optional feature of the invention, the cage structure 24 may extend rearwardly of the support shell 26 and be connected to a concrete retainer shell 27 which is of a lesser diameter to provide for the facing of the tunnel wall with concrete 28, all as hereinafter explained.
The cage structure 24 is anchored by a plurality of intermediate shell rings, 29a to 29e shown in FIG. 1 as five in number, each overlapping the adjacent rings and movable relative thereto and each articulately connected to the cage structure 24 by a plurality of hydraulic rams 31a to 31c. In a preferred method of operation of the invention, all of the intermediate shells 29a to e but one is anchored to the tunnel wall 22 and the rams 31 of the anchored shells are energized by hydraulic pressure to continuously force the cage structure 24 and accordingly the support structure 23 forwardly. The one shell 29 which is not anchored to the tunnel wall moves forwardly to the limit of the stroke of its ram 31, whereupon it is caused to be anchored to the tunnel bore 22 by means hereinafter explained in detail, and thereupon the next rearward intermediate shell 29 is disengaged from the tunnel wall and is moved forwardly until it abuts the shell which has preceded it. Each of the intermediate shells 29 is disengaged, advanced and re-engaged sequentially until the last of the intermediate shells 29e has been moved forwardly, whereupon the cycle is repeated with the forwardmost intermediate shell 29a being moved forwardly. Inasmuch as all but one intermediate shell 29 is firmly engaged with the tunnel wall 21, an effective means for anchoring the machine is provided which enables the cage structure 24 to be forced forwardly in the manner which has been described. At the same time, inasmuch as the intermediate shell 29 is individually sequentially being moved forwardly, the entire machine gradually advances, enabling the machine to move continuously rather than intermittently. Intermittent movement is contemplated as an alternate, however. The parts of the machine will be described in order.
The excavating support 23 comprises annular rings which are the cutting ring 36 which is at the front and has a diameter equal to bore 22, smaller diameter horizontal steering ring 37, the vertical steering ring 38 and the cage attachment ring 39. Ring 37 is within ring 36. Rings 38 and 39 are enclosed within shell 41 which is of the same diameter as cutting ring 36. The horizontal steering ring 37 and vertical steering ring 38 are articulated. In the means of articulation here illustrated, at the top and the bottom of the machine is a vertically disposed steering pin 42 and eyes 43, 44 fixed to rings 37, 38 and receiving pin 42 in oversize holes to permit relative flexing of the rings, As shown in FIG. 6, the arrangement of eyes 43, 44 and pin 42 resembles an ordinary door hinge. Disposed within horizontal steering ring 37 on either side of the machine is a plurality of horizontal guidance cylinders 46, the rods 47 of which engage abutments 48 on the vertical steering ring 38. When the cylinders 46 on the right-hand side of the machine are energized to project their rods 47 while those on the left-hand side are energized to retract their rods, the horizontal steering ring 37 tilts about the vertical axis of pins 42 to the left, thereby steering the cutting ring 36 to the left. If the opposite cylinders 46 are energized, then the machine is steered to the right. If both sets of cylinders 46 are at neutral, the machine steers straight ahead.
Between the vertical steering ring 38 and the cage anchor ring 39 on either side of the machine are transverse horizontal steering pins 51 which are received in eyes 52, 53 similar to eyes 43, 44 and affixed to the rearward face of the vertical steering ring 38 and the forward face of the cage support ring 39, respectively. Mounted in vertical support ring 38 is a plurality of vertical guidance cylinders 56, some at the top and some at the bottom, the rods 57 of which engage abutments 58 on ring 39. When the cylinders 56 at the top of the machine are energized to project their rods 57 while the cylinders 56 at the bottom of the machine are energized to retract their rods 57, the machine tilts about a transverse horizontal axis through the axes of pins 51 to steer the cutting head downwardly. When the energization of the cylinders 56 is reversed, the machine steers upwardly, and when the cylinders 56 at top and bottom are equally energized, the machine advances horizontally.
It will be seen that selective energization of the various guidance cylinders 46, 56 enables the machine to be steered to left or right or up or down, or that a compound curve may be generated. The guidance cylinders 46, 56 enable the machine to be steered in accordance with a predetermined path and also to compensate for any tendency of the machine to drift out of the desired path.
Connected to cage support ring 39 is the cage struc ture 24. Extending longitudinally of the machine is a plurality of horizontal struts 61 equi-arcuately spaced around the perimeter of the cage structure. A plurality of transverse vertical cage rings 62a to 62c are connected to struts 61. The cage rings 62 are equi-distantly spaced longitudinally of the machine. The trailing support shell 26 is connected to the perimeter of the cage structure by brackets 63. Where a concrete retainer shell 27 is used, the struts 61 extend further rearwardly and there is at least one additional cage ring 62f and said shell 27 is connected to the struts 61 by brackets 64. It will be seen that ring 39, struts 61, intermediate cage rings 62 and shell 26 (and, where used, shell 27) are interconnected in a unitary structure.
In the form of the invention shown in FIGS. 2 and 4, each intermediate shell 29 is split along at least one longitudinal element 66 and is further formed with a plurality of inwardly projecting strengthening ribs 67. Shell 29 may be made to expand and contract and in expanded condition the shell firmly engages tunnel wall 22 and movement longitudinally relative thereto is impeded by the frictional engagement of the surface of the shell with the tunnel wall. When the shell is contracted, the shell may be moved longitudinally relative to the tunnel wall. As has previously been mentioned, at any given instant, all of the intermediate shells 29 but one is expanded and in firm engagement with the tunnel wall, whereas one shell is contracted and moves relative to the wall to an advanced location. One means of expanding and contracting the shells is illustrated in detail in FIG. 4. One or more cylinders 68 is located bridging the split 66 in the shell perimeter, cylinder 68 being pivotally connected by pin 69 to bracket 71 fixed to shell 29 on one side of split 66 and rod 72 of cylinder 68 is connected by pin 73 to bracket 74 on the other side of split 66. When cylinder 68 is energized to extend rod 72, shell 29 is expanded and when cylinder 68 is energized in the opposite direction to contract the rod 72, shell 29 is contracted.
In the form of invention shown in FIG. 11, shells 29k do not expand and contract in the manner illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 4. Apertures 111 are formed at spaced intervals around the shells and within the shell immediately opposite such apertures are hydraulic cylinders 112 supported by brackets 113. The rods 114 of cylinders 112 may be extended through apertures 111 to penetrate or firmly engage tunnel wall 22k thereby anchoring the shell to the wall. As in the previous modification, one shell of the series of shells is disengaged from the wall and this is accomplished by retracting rods 114 of that particular shell while all of the rods of the other shells are projected.
In FIG. 12 the ends 117 of rods 114 l are formed as conical points to penetrate the wall 22 1.
In FIG. 13 square or rectangular pads 118 are attached to the outer ends of rods 114m and apertures 111m are shaped to accommodate same. The pads 118 when projected bear against the tunnel wall.
In FIG. 14 pads l18n are circular and formed with a plurality of points 119. This form is particularly effective in rock or hard ground.
In other respects the structures of FIGS. 11-14 resemble the preceding modification and the same reference numerals followed by subscripts k, l, m and n, respectively are used to designate corresponding elements.
As best shown in FIGS. 1 and 8, shells 29 are formed so that they overlap. Thus the exterior of leading edge 76a of the forwardmost intermediate shell 29a is relieved at its perimeter by somewhat more than the thickness of the trailing edge of excavating support shell 41. At the trailing edge of the intermediate shell 29a the inner surface 77a is similarly internally relieved. Each of the intermediate shells 29b to 29e is constructed similarly to the leading intermediate shell 290. To accommodate overlapping trailing support shell 26 and the last of the intermediate shells 29e the outer periphery 78 of the leading edge of the trailing support shell 26 is relieved. The individual shells 29 move forwardly at any given time a distance which is slightly less than the length of relief 76; hence at any instant the shells overlap.
Movement of the intermediate shells 29 is accomplished by energization of a plurality of peripherally spaced propulsion cylinders 31a to 31e. The rearward end of each propulsion cylinder 31 is pinned by pin 81 to the adjacent cage ring 62. The rod 82 of each such cylinder is pivoted by means of pin 83 to bracket 84 fixed adjacent the forward end of each intermediate shell 29. Thus each cylinder 31 is fixed to cage structure 24 and the position of each intermediate shell 29 relative to cage structure 24 depends upon the position of its rod 82 relative to cylinder 31. Preferably, all of the cylinders associated with a given intermediate ring 29 are energized equally and at the same time. Assuming that it is desired to advance the forwardmost of the intermediate shells 29a relative to the cage structure 24, it is assumed that there is a gap in the overlap of said shell 29a relative to shell 41 of structure 23 as is seen in FIG. 1 by exposure of relief 76a and shell 29a has been disengaged from the tunnel wall, the forwardmost cylinders 31a are energized to project their rods 82 and thus shell 29a is moved forwardly until the overlap is overcome. Thereupon shell 29a is caused to engage the tunnel wall 22. Meanwhile the next rearward shell 29b has been disengaged from the wall and each cylinder 31b is energized to advance said shell 2% to overcome the gap which has been created in the overlap between shells 29a and 29b. This sequential disengagement from the wall by shell 29, forward advance and re-engagement of the wall is continuously repeated from front shell 29a to rear shell 29e and then renewed at front shell 29a. However, the energization of the propulsion cylinders 31 to advance the individual intermediate shell relative to the others is only part of the continuous cycle of energization of said cylinders. Thus each cylinder 31 which is not immediately being used to advance an intermediate shell 29 is continuously being energized to retract its rod 82 relative to the cylinder 31. Since rods 82 are connected to the intermediate shells 29 which are in turn in firm engagement with the tunnel wall 22 and since the cylinders 31 are connected to cage structure 24, the contraction of rods 82 continuously forwardly advances cage structure 24. Forward advance of cage structure 24 pushes forwardly the support 23 for the excavating device and thus applies a continuous pressure on the device.
The fit between the individual intermediate shells 29 is such that they may twist relative to the longitudinal axis of the machine and relative to each other sufficiently to follow the steering path of the steering mechanism of the boring head support structure 23.
An annular gap is maintained between the underside of relieved portion 77 at the trailing edge of each shell and the outer surface of each leading edge 76. Thus when a preceding shell 29 is in contracted condition its trailing edge does not impose pressure on the leading edge of the succeeding shell which prevents the contracted shell from moving relative to the expanded trailing shell.
Directing attention to FIG. 9, an alternate means for advancing the machine is disclosed. The intermediate rings 29x to 291 are articulately connected to adjacent rings rather than to the cage structure. Thus the rearward end of cylinder 31x is fixed by means of pin 81a to one of the reinforcing ribs 67a of intermediate rings 29y. Rod 82a is pivoted by means of pin 83a to one of the ribs 67a of the next forwardmost intermediate ring 29x. In other respects, the structure of FIG. 9, is essentially the same as that previously described and the same reference numerals followed by subscript a are used to designate corresponding parts. However, in this structure, the advance of the boring head support 23 is intermittent rather than continuous. During such time as the forwardmost intermediate ring 29 is being advanced, advance of the boring head support ring is discontinued. When such forwardmost intermediate ring is in forward position and engages the tunnel wall, the forward progress of the boring head support 23 is resumed.
FIG. 7 shows a preferred means for feeding a plurality of rearwardly extending heavy wires 86, ribbons or small rods from the tail of the trailing support shell 26. Thus a plurality of reels 87 of said wire, ribbons or rods is mounted by means of shaft 88 which are connected by brackets 89 to struts 61. Suitable brakes (not shown) prevent over-travel of the unwinding of reels 87 and maintain the wires 86 or rods taut at all times. Longitudinal slots 91 are formed in the trailing edge of shell 26 for the egress of wires 86 and said wires are held in place near the periphery of the tunnel wall 22 by pulleys 92 mounted in brackets 93 at the slots 91. Hence the wires 86 extend rearwardly and are spaced closely enough together so that they prevent large rocks and debris falling into the tunnel behind the support ring 26. The term supporting material is used herein to include not only reinforcing wire 86 and rods but also ribbon, straps and flat sheets to perform a similar purpose. The space between ring 26 and screed 27 is used to apply concrete 28 to the tunnel wall and the wires support the wall 22 until the concrete 28 begins to set.
Screed 27 is of a diameter equal to the inside diameter of concrete 28 and its periphery serves to smooth the concrete as it moves forwardly. Furthermore, screed 27 supports the concrete for a period of time sufficient to enable it to gain strength.
It will be understood that other permanent or semipermanent structural supports for the tunnel bore may be applied in addition to, or instead of, concrete. For example, section metal shells may be inserted behind shell 29c or shell 26.
METHOD OF OPERATION Directing attention to FIG. 10, it will be observed that only four intermediate rings 29g to 29j are shown in order to emphasize that the number is discretionary and also to simplify explanation of the method of operation. Steering devices and other auxiliary features are eliminated for simplification. Cage 24 is represented by a single strut 101 having a cutting support member 3612 at the front and a trailing shell 26 and four intermediate cylinder abutments 1023 to 102j. The cylinders 31g to 31] bear against abutments 102g to 102j, while their rods 82g to j bear against brackets 84g to j on shells 29g to j respectively.
Vertical line 103 is a reference or datum line and does not represent the tunnel face except at the end of the completion of the cycle of operation illustrated. The cycle is shown in equal time intervals proceeding from top to bottom of the figure, the initial position being shown in sub-FIG. A and the last as sub-FIG. G; which is the same as sub-FIG. A except that strut 101 has advanced from tunnel face 21A to reference line 103. The increment of movement of member 36b per time interval is indicated by numeral 104, and a feature of the invention is the capability of advance continuously in equal increments per unit of time.
In FIG. A the vertical arrows on members 29g-j indicate that these rings bear against bore 22b. Gap 106 exists between 29g and 36b; gap 107 between 29j and 261; (corresponding to shell 26 of FIG. 1). At this instant of time, none of the rings 29 is advancing. Note rod 82g is retracted, rod 82h projected one-fourth its travel, rod 821' one-half, and rod 82 three-fourths. Immediately after the instant of FIG. A, shell 29g is disengaged from wall 22b as has been previously explained.
FIG. 108 shows no vertical arrows on shell 29g indicating it is disengaged from the wall. The horizontal 10 j and shell 29g has advanced the length of gap 106 toward reference line 103 by action of cylinder 31g. Immediately after the instant illustrated in FIG. 10B, shell 29g is caused to grip the wall and shell 29h to be disengaged.
FIG. 10 illustrates, therefore, the sequential gripping and release of shells 29 relative to bore 22. It also illustrates gradual extension of the rods 82 connected to shells 29 which are gripping to thereby gradually advance strut 101 and cutting ring 36b. Finally, it illustrates relatively rapid sequential advance of shells 29 which are disengaged to eliminate the gap between said shells and the shell in advance thereof. The fact that the rods 82 are projected different distances at each time interval is likewise illustrated.
During most of the cycle of movement each shell is in gripping engagement and the combined effect of the shells which engage the wall is to anchor strut 101 against the thrust of the cylinders 31 advancing ring 36b. One shell 29, however, at almost every instant is disengaged and is moving forward relative to the others to close the gap ahead of it. When such gap is closed, that shell is caused to engage the wall, and the next shell is disengaged and advanced.
Referring to FIGS. 1 9, if it is necessary to change the direction of the excavating device in order to bring it back into a straight line or to cause it to travel on a curve, the guidance cylinders 46 and 56 are used in a manner which has heretofore been explained, causing pivotal movement of ring 37 relative to ring 38 about the axes of pins 42 and of ring 38 relative to ring 39 about the axes of pine 51. Because of the fact that there is not a tight engagement of ring 41 relative to intermediate rings 290, the two rings may twist slightly relative to each other so that they follow the necessary curvature, and the same relationship exists between the adjacent rings 29.
Where used, the wires 86 ribbons or rods are being continuously fed out through slots 91 at the trailing edge of the trailing support shell 26, lying in close proximity to the tunnel wall 22 and protecting the interior of the tunnel from falling rocks and large lumps of dirt. Concrete 28 is applied as soon as the trailing support 26 has passed a given point. Modern pneumatic concrete sets up rather rapidly so that advance of the tunnel boring machine and the setting up of the concrete is substantially simultaneous. Screed 27 is drawn over the interior of concrete 28 to smooth the same and it also provides additional support while the concrete is gaining strength.
What is claimed is:
1. A machine for supporting earth around the periphery of a bore comprising a plurality of shells arranged end-to-end, each said shell movable relative to adjacent shells in a longitudinal direction through a stroke of predetermined amplitude, means independently operable to advance each said shell relative to the next shell through said stroke, whereby said machine advances relative to said bore, and gripping means for individually sequentially .causing each said shell to grip said bore to resist sliding movement of said shell relative to said bore in said longitudinal direction and then to release the-grip of said shell on said bore to permit sliding movement of said shell relative to said bore in said longitudinal direction, each said shell being apertured in a plurality of locations and in which said gripping means comprises a plurality of hydraulic cylinders and mounting means mounting at lease one said cylinder internally of said shell aligned with one of the apertures therein, said cylinders having rods adapted to project through said apertures into gripping engagement with said bore to engage said bore and restrain sliding movement of said shell relative to said bore in said longitudinal direction.
2. A machine according to claim 1, which further comprises feet on the outer ends of said rods.
3. A machine according to claim 2 in which each said foot is a substantially rectangular pad.
4'. A machine according to claim 3 in which each said foot is provided with a plurality of points.
5 A machine according to claim 2 in which each said foot is pointed.
6. A machine according to claim 1, which further comprises a forward support ahead of the forwardmost said shell, an articulated connection means between said forward support and said forwardmost of said shells, said connection means having hinges pivoting about an axis transverse to the direction of advance of said shells and guidance means for pivoting said support about said axis to guide the direction of advance of said support relative to said shells.
7. A machine according to claim 6, in which said connection means comprises second hinges pivoting about a second axis transverse to said direction of advance and to the axis of said first-mentioned hinges and second guidance means for pivoting said support about said second axis.
8. A machine according to claim 1, which further comprises a screed connected for movement with said shells in trailing relation to the rearmost of said shells to provide a gap for concreting of said bore.
9. A machine according to claim 1, which further comprises supporting material feed means and means adjacent the rear of said machine for mounting said feed means to apply supporting material to said bore rearward of said machine as said machine advances.
10. A machine for supporting earth around the periphery of a bore comprising a plurality of shells arranged end-to-end, means interposed between consecutive shells independently operable to advance each said shell relative to the next shell, and a frame attached for movement with said shells inside said shells, said means comprising a plurality of sets of activators, the number of said sets corresponding to the number of said shells, said activators attached at one end to said frame and at the other end to said shells.
11. A machine according to claim 10, in which said activators are hydraulic rams.
12. A machine according to claim 10, which further comprises a retainer shell trailing said first-mentioned shells and fixed for movement with said frame, said first-mentioned shells movable relative to said frame, said retainer shell substantially non-movable relative to said frame.
13. A machine according to claim 12, whichfurther comprises a screed fixed to the rear of said frame with a gap between said retainer shell and said screed for concreting said bore.
14. A machine according to claim l3, which further comprises supporting material feed means mounted on said frame to discharge supporting material behind said retainer shell to the surface of said bore as said'machine advances.

Claims (14)

1. A machine for supporting earth around the periphery of a bore comprising a plurality of shells arranged end-to-end, each said shell movable relative to adjacent shells in a longitudinal direction through a stroke of predetermined amplitude, means independently operable to advance each said shell relative to the next shell through said stroke, whereby said machine advances relative to said bore, and gripping means for individually sequentially causing each said shell to grip said bore to resist sliding movement of said shell relative to said bore in said longitudinal direction and then to release the grip of said shell on said bore to permit sliding movement of said shell relative to said bore in said longitudinal direction, each said shell being apertured in a plurality of locations and in which said gripping means comprises a plurality of hydraulic cylinders and mounting means mounting at lease one said cylinder internally of said shell aligned with one of the apertures therein, said cylinders having rods adapted to project through said apertures into gripping engagement with said bore to engage said bore and restrain sliding movement of said shell relative to said bore in said longitudinal direction.
2. A machine according to claim 1, which further comprises feet on the outer ends of said rods.
3. A machine according to claim 2 in which each said foot is a substantially rectangular pad.
4. A machine according to claim 3 in which each said foot is provided with a plurality of points.
5. A machine according to claim 2 in which each said foot is pointed.
6. A machine according to claim 1, which further comprises a forward support ahead of the forwardmost said shell, an articulated connection means between said forward support and said forwardmost of said shells, said connection means having hinges pivoting about an axis transverse to the direction of advance of said shells and guidance means for pivoting said support about said axis to guide the direction of advance of said support relative to said shells.
7. A machine according to claim 6, in which said connection means comprises second hinges pivoting about a second axis tRansverse to said direction of advance and to the axis of said first-mentioned hinges and second guidance means for pivoting said support about said second axis.
8. A machine according to claim 1, which further comprises a screed connected for movement with said shells in trailing relation to the rearmost of said shells to provide a gap for concreting of said bore.
9. A machine according to claim 1, which further comprises supporting material feed means and means adjacent the rear of said machine for mounting said feed means to apply supporting material to said bore rearward of said machine as said machine advances.
10. A machine for supporting earth around the periphery of a bore comprising a plurality of shells arranged end-to-end, means interposed between consecutive shells independently operable to advance each said shell relative to the next shell, and a frame attached for movement with said shells inside said shells, said means comprising a plurality of sets of activators, the number of said sets corresponding to the number of said shells, said activators attached at one end to said frame and at the other end to said shells.
11. A machine according to claim 10, in which said activators are hydraulic rams.
12. A machine according to claim 10, which further comprises a retainer shell trailing said first-mentioned shells and fixed for movement with said frame, said first-mentioned shells movable relative to said frame, said retainer shell substantially non-movable relative to said frame.
13. A machine according to claim 12, which further comprises a screed fixed to the rear of said frame with a gap between said retainer shell and said screed for concreting said bore.
14. A machine according to claim 13, which further comprises supporting material feed means mounted on said frame to discharge supporting material behind said retainer shell to the surface of said bore as said machine advances.
US3733835D 1971-04-02 1971-04-02 Apparatus for advancing tunnel supports Expired - Lifetime US3733835A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US13068671A true 1971-04-02 1971-04-02

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3733835A true US3733835A (en) 1973-05-22

Family

ID=22445865

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3733835D Expired - Lifetime US3733835A (en) 1971-04-02 1971-04-02 Apparatus for advancing tunnel supports

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3733835A (en)

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3919851A (en) * 1974-06-17 1975-11-18 M & P Pipe Jacking Corp Apparatus for the excavation and lining of subterranean tunnels
US4091630A (en) * 1977-05-03 1978-05-30 Kubota, Ltd. Intermediate sleeve for installing pipeline by propelling pipes underground
US4095436A (en) * 1976-03-23 1978-06-20 Gewerkschaft Eisenhutte Westfalia Method of, and apparatus for, controlling the advance of a tunnel drive shield
US4118938A (en) * 1975-11-07 1978-10-10 Gewerkschaft Eisenhutte Westfalia Apparatus for and method of driving tunnels
US4322180A (en) * 1979-03-13 1982-03-30 Koichi Uemura Method and apparatus for advancing cylindrical bodies underground
US4352594A (en) * 1980-08-25 1982-10-05 Koichi Uemura Method and apparatus for constructing underground structure
US4371290A (en) * 1979-05-17 1983-02-01 Ivanov Valentin A Shuttering for establishing concrete lining of tunnels
US5236284A (en) * 1989-09-27 1993-08-17 Ilomaeki Valto Drilling apparatus and method for its control

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3919851A (en) * 1974-06-17 1975-11-18 M & P Pipe Jacking Corp Apparatus for the excavation and lining of subterranean tunnels
US4118938A (en) * 1975-11-07 1978-10-10 Gewerkschaft Eisenhutte Westfalia Apparatus for and method of driving tunnels
US4095436A (en) * 1976-03-23 1978-06-20 Gewerkschaft Eisenhutte Westfalia Method of, and apparatus for, controlling the advance of a tunnel drive shield
US4091630A (en) * 1977-05-03 1978-05-30 Kubota, Ltd. Intermediate sleeve for installing pipeline by propelling pipes underground
US4322180A (en) * 1979-03-13 1982-03-30 Koichi Uemura Method and apparatus for advancing cylindrical bodies underground
US4371290A (en) * 1979-05-17 1983-02-01 Ivanov Valentin A Shuttering for establishing concrete lining of tunnels
US4352594A (en) * 1980-08-25 1982-10-05 Koichi Uemura Method and apparatus for constructing underground structure
US5236284A (en) * 1989-09-27 1993-08-17 Ilomaeki Valto Drilling apparatus and method for its control

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US8573705B2 (en) Mining apparatus with precision navigation system
EP0249231B1 (en) Improved trenching apparatus for forming inground retaining walls
US5333937A (en) Excavation machine having combined impact hammers and static ripper pick
US4887935A (en) Method of controlling the movement of a longwall excavation front, especially the face or breast of a coal seam
US3387893A (en) Gallery driving machine with radially movable roller drills
US3784257A (en) Steering system for a tunnel boring machine
US4045088A (en) Oscillating disk thin seam mining machine with steering
US4997317A (en) System and method for supporting a mining gallery
US5340199A (en) Method and machine for excavating drifts, tunnels, stopes, caverns or the like
US5104260A (en) Method and apparatus for tunnelling
US2908140A (en) Trench shoring apparatus
US3812680A (en) Shiftable support for use in tunnels, mines and the like
US3647263A (en) Tunnelling machines and the like
US3967463A (en) Continuous tunnel boring machine and method
US5236284A (en) Drilling apparatus and method for its control
RU2441155C1 (en) Mining tunnelling combine
US5205613A (en) Tunnel boring machine with continuous forward propulsion
US3861748A (en) Earth boring machine and method
US4420188A (en) Double shield tunnel boring machine
EP0334262A1 (en) Method and apparatus for enlarging tunnels
US6817678B2 (en) Auger mining system
US3800549A (en) Tunnelling apparatus
AU6478300A (en) Three dimensional multi-phase tunneling method and equipments thereof
US5192115A (en) Tramming mobile mining machine
US4118938A (en) Apparatus for and method of driving tunnels