US3728892A - Ballistic shape punch and screw head socket - Google Patents

Ballistic shape punch and screw head socket Download PDF

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Publication number
US3728892A
US3728892A US3728892DA US3728892A US 3728892 A US3728892 A US 3728892A US 3728892D A US3728892D A US 3728892DA US 3728892 A US3728892 A US 3728892A
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Prior art keywords
punch
axis
socket
portion
bottom
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Expired - Lifetime
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A Sangster
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Canada Steel Co
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Canada Steel Co
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J13/00Details of machines for forging, pressing, or hammering
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21KMAKING FORGED OR PRESSED METAL PRODUCTS, e.g. HORSE-SHOES, RIVETS, BOLTS OR WHEELS
    • B21K1/00Making machine elements
    • B21K1/44Making machine elements bolts, studs, or the like
    • B21K1/46Making machine elements bolts, studs, or the like with heads
    • B21K1/463Making machine elements bolts, studs, or the like with heads with recessed heads
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T83/00Cutting
    • Y10T83/929Tool or tool with support
    • Y10T83/9314Pointed perforators

Abstract

Punch for forming square socket type head for screw fasteners in which the socket has four equal sides each of which has an upper slightly inwardly inclined flat portion which merges without discontinuity at its lower end with a lower concave bottom portion.

Description

United States Patent Sangster Apr. 24, 1973 [54] BALLISTIC SHAPE PUNCH AND [56] References Cited EW H l) K T SCR EA SOC E UNITED STATES PATENTS [75] Inventor: Allan Sangster, Hamilton, Ontario,

Canada 1,978,37] l0/l934 Purtell ..l0/l0 R 2,977,838 4/1961 Oestereicher ..lO/7 X 73 Assignee; The Steel Company f Canada, 3,177,506 4/1965 De Yellier ..l0/26 X e Halnilton, Ontario Canada l Ansmgh X [22] Filed: Sept. 15, 1971 Primary Examiner-Charles W. Lanham Assistant Examiner-R. M. Rogers [21] Appl. No.. 180,713 Atmmey Smart & Biggaa:

Related us. Application Data 57] ABSTRACT [62] Division of Ser. No. 768,863, Oct. 18, 1968.

Punch for formmg square socket type head for screw fasteners in which the socket has four equal sides each 3 22 of which has an upper slightly inwardly inclined flat portion which merges without discontinuity at its [58] Fleld of Search ..72/476, 327, 333,

lower end with a lower concave bottom portion.

4 Claims, 14 Drawing Figures BALLISTIC SHAPE PUNCH AND SCREW HEAD SOCKET CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION This application is a division of my application Ser. No. 768,863 filed Oct. 18, 1968 wherein are asserted claims to the screw fastener having a socket type head of the kind herein disclosed.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to punches useful for forming screw fastening devices having heads which include a square recess or socket for engagement with a driving means.

Hitherto a number of different types of screw fastening devices having square or recess socket driver engagement means have been made available commerically. Among designs which have been extensively used are those which disclose square recess screws in which the bottom of the recess is formed in the shape of a pyramid or cone, respectively. Such designs, and all other previous designs of this type of driving recess have been characterized by two features which give rise to substantial disadvantages. In the first place, the lower portion of the socket makes a definite, more or less sharp intersection or discontinuity where it joins the upper, substantially flat and vertical sides which are used to engage the driving means. Secondly, the lower portion in itself terminates in a more or less pointed configuration. The punch used to produce such a socket has of course corresponding characteristics i.e., definite line of intersection between the flat vertical sides and the lower portion, and a more or less pointed tip.

These characteristics in prior socket and punch design give rise to a number of serious deficiencies. Considering for instance the pyramidal or conical point forms, it is apparent that as a punch of the shape in question forms an impression in the head of a screw blank, there is a most uneven distribution of force. A pyramidal punch has uni-directional forces on each plane face surface of the bottom portion, with the result that metal flow cannot occur uniformly as the punch moves into the blank. Such force stops abruptly at the junction of the pyramidal portion and the square upper section of the socket. A conical punch advancing into a blank creates a comparable reaction to a pyramidal punch, as explained above. A conical punch and a pyramidal punch have a non-uniform direction of force at the junction of the conical lower portion and the side walls of the socket, andin both cases there is sudden reduction of force at the junction of the face angle and the side angle. These substantial variations in the displacement force imposed upon the screw blank by the punch prevents adequate control of metal displacement as the punch proceeds in its forward direction. The result is that the stress responsible for moving the metal back from the point of the punch continues to displace the metal in a direction comparable to that established by the angle of the cone or pyramid in question so long as the main or forward force is maintained. This over-shoot or extra unwanted movement of the metal tends to cause a displacement of the blank stock of the screw head away from the side walls of the socket punch, thus giving rise to a void or fall-away in the finished product. Such a result, of course, prevents optimum engagement of the socket with the driving tool along its full effective length and at the same time gives rise to substantial variations in stress along the faces of the socket in a way which reduces the driving torque which it is capable of transmitting to the screw.

Apart from the deficiencies mentioned above which relate to the socket head screw itself, the prior punch designs used in manufacturing the aforementioned type of screws suffer from rapid wear because of the more or less pointed lower end and the sharp intersection between the lower portion of the die and the flat sides. Moreover, the fact that there is substantial fall-away in prior socket head screw designs has contributed to reduced driving-tool life since that part of the tool which enters the socket does not engage it in a uniform manner from top to bottom.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION l have found that the disadvantages associated with prior socket-type screw fasteners can be overcome by providing a screw fastening device which has a socket centrally disposed about the longitudinal axis of the screw, the socket having a plurality of equal sides, each of which has an upper flat portion which extends downwardly and slightly inwardly, and which merges into a lower, concave portion that extends downwardly and inwardly to the bottom of the socket and the punch used for forming such a socket is of course complementary to this configuration. The curve defined by the intersection of said lower portion of a side of the socket or the punch used for forming the same with any plane which includes said axis has, at its point of merger with the upper flat portion, a tangent which is substantially coincident therewith and, at the point of intersection with said axis, a tangent which is substantially perpendicular thereto. Preferably the cross section of the socket and of the punch, in a progression from top to bottom of parallel planes perpendicular to the axis, is that of a regular polygon or square in the region of their upper portions whereas it is that of a generally similar polygon or square having rounded corners in the lower portions. Such a socket or punch may conveniently be referred to as being of ballistic shape. As will be ap parent from the description just given, the bottorn of the socket and the punch is of a rounded, blunt form and the lower portion merges smoothly, at all points around its periphery, into flat sides. By such an arrangement much more adequate control is effected over displacement of the stock of the screw blank head as the punch advances into it, thus resulting in substantial reduction, if not eliminatiomof fall-away and a much more even distribution of stress in the region of the socket formation. Consequently, improved quality of the finished screw head results and a greater utilization of material is effected. Also as a result of the smooth metal flow, uniform work hardening and adherence to tool form on the impression, the metal being displaced in order to fonn the screw head is less likely to rupture. Moreover the ballistic shape of the punch contributes substantially to tool life and the optimum characteristics of the socket thus formed permit much better engagement between the drive means and screw head whereby driver life is extended as well.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The invention will be described in connection with the attached figures of drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a screw driving socket made in accordance with the invention, together with a full vertical cross-section (labelled 1A) taken along the line AA, and vertical half cross-sections (labelled 1B, 1C and 1D) taken along lines BB, C-C and DD respectively;

FIGS. 2 to 9 are horizontal half cross-sections respectively taken along the planes defined by the contour lines of corresponding number in FIG. 1, and the section lines of corresponding number in FIGS. 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D; and

FIG. 10 is an isometric view of a punch made in accordance with the invention showing contour lines 2 to 9 which define planes in which the half cross-sections of the punch are those of FIGS. 2 to 9 respectively.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to FIG. 1, the upper part is a top plan view of a square socket generally represented at and formed, in accordance with the invention, in the head 21 of a screw blank. In this Figure, the usual chamfer for facilitating entry of the driving device into the socket is shown at 22 although such chamfer forms no part of the present invention which relates only to the form of the recess or socket below its edge 23 and the punch used for forming the same.

As is apparent from FIG. I, the recess 20 is symmetrically disposed about the longitudinal axis 24 of the screw. The profile of each of the four equal sides of the socket (and accordingly the four corresponding sides of the punch used for forming the same) is best shown in the sections labelled IA, 1B, 1C and 1D which are taken along the lines AA, BB, CC and DD which are respectively disposed at 90, 75, 60 and 45 from the vertical line 25. Referring now to the full section 1A, it will be observed that the socket comprises four equal sides each of which has an upper flat portion 26 which extends downwardly and slightly inwardly at an angle 27 (preferably between 3 and Ii /2) and which at its lower end 28 merges smoothly into a lower, concave portion 29 that extends both downwardly and inwardly to the bottom 30 of the socket in such a way that the curve defined by the intersection of said lower concave portion of a side of the socket with any of the planes (e.g., those on line A-A, BB, CC and D D) intersecting a side of the socket and passing through the axis 24 has, at its point of merger with said upper flat portion, a tangent which is substantially coincident therewith and, at the point of intersection with said axis, a tangent which is substantially perpendicular thereto. More particularly, it will be noted that the bottom 30 of socket is substantially rounded and the upper flat portion 26 and the lower curved portion29 merge smoothly at 28 into one another without any apparent line of intersection or discontinuity.

As will be apparent from an examination of FIG. I, cross-sections of the socket taken on planes perpendicular'to the axis 24 between the lower edge 23 of the chamfer and the line 28 will be square in shape and of a gradually diminishing cross-sectional area corresponding to the angle 27 at which the sides of the socket converge slightly inwardly. Below the line 28, in the region of the lower concave portion 29, the cross-section of the socket in planes indicated by the lines 2 to 9 respectively, are represented by the half cross-sectional views of FIGS. 2 to 9. As is apparent from the latter, the first cross-section given by FIG. 2, which is immediately below the line 28, is that of a square with very slightly rounded or suppressed corners. As succeeding crosssections are taken along the lines 3 to 9 respectively, in a progression from the top to the bottom of the lower concave portion 29, it will be observed that the sections are also of generally square configuration, but with increasingly rounded corners and decreasing cross-sectional area until the lowest cross-section shown (i.e., that of F 3G. 9) approximates that of a circle.

Referring now to FIG. 10, a punch 35 is there specifically illustrated which is adapted to form the socket 20 shown in FIG. 1. Corresponding to the latter, the punch 35 has four equal sides each of which has an upper flat portion 36 which extends downwardly and slightly inwardly at an angle 27 (again preferably between 3 and 3 /2") and which at its lower end 28 merges smoothly into a lower convex portion 37 that extends both downwardly and inwardly to the bottom or tip 38 of the punch in such a way that the curve defined by the intersection of said lower convex portion of a side of the punch with any of the planes intersecting a side of the punch and passing through the axis 24 has, at its point of merger with said upper flat portion 36 a tangent which is substantially coincident therewith, and, at the point of intersection with said axis, a tangent which is substantially perpendicular thereto. As a result, and as corresponds with the profile of the socket described above, the bottom 38 of the punch is substantially rounded and the upper flat portion 36 and the lower convex portion 37 merge smoothly into one another without any apparent line of intersection or discontinuity.

What I claim is:

1. A punch for forming a driving socket in the head of a screw fastening device, said punch having a longitudinal axis and being formed of a plurality of equal sides each of which has an upper flat portion which extends downwardly and slightly inwardly and which merges smoothly into a lower generally convex portion that extends downwardly and inwardly to form a bottom of the punch symmetrically disposed about said axis whereby the curve defined by said lower portion of a side of the punch with any plane which includes said axis has, at its point of merger with said upper flat portion, a tangent which is substantially coincident therewith and, at the point of intersection with said axis, a tangent which is substantially perpendicular thereto, and wherein the cross-section of the punch is, in a progression from, top to bottom of parallel planes perpendicular to said axis, that of a regular polygon in the region of said upper portions, and that of a generally similar polygonal shape having rounded corners in the region of said lower portion.

2. A punch as defined in claim I having four equal sides and a square cross-section.

3. A punch as defined in claim 1 in which the sides of said upper portion are inwardly inclined towards the axis between about 3 and 3%.

shape having progressively more rounded corners and decreasing area whereby in planes adjacent the bottom of the punch said cross-section is of approximately circular configuration.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3, 2 Dated April 24, 1973 Inventofls) l n S ngst er Barclay It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

In the heading, change "Sangster, Allan" to Barclay, Allan Sangster-.

Signed and sealed this 1st day of January 197E.

I (SEAL) Attest:

EDWARD M.FLETCHER,JR. RENE D. TEGTD [EYER 5 Attesting Officer Acting Commissioner of Patent USCOMM-DC 60376-P69 FORM T 04050 (10-69) a u.s. sovzmmsm' manna Qyflci: Ill! (mass-an, I,

Claims (4)

1. A punch for forming a driving socket in the head of a screw fastening device, said punch having a longitudinal axis and being formed of a plurality of equal sides each of which has an upper flat portion which extends downwardly and slightly inwardly and which merges smoothly into a lower generally convex portion that extends downwardly and inwardly to form a bottom of the punch symmetrically disposed about said axis whereby the curve defined by said lower portion of a side of the punch with any plane which includes said axis has, at its point of merger with said upper flat portion, a tangent which is substantially coincident therewith and, at the point of intersection with said axis, a tangent which is substantially perpendicular thereto, and wherein the cross-section of the punch is, in a progression from top to bottom of parallel planes perpendicular to said axis, that of a regular polygon in the region of said upper portions, and that of a generally similar polygonal shape having rounded corners in the region of said lower portion.
2. A punch as defined in claim 1 having four equal sides and a square cross-section.
3. A punch as defined in claim 1 in which the sides of said upper portion are inwardly inclined towards the axis between about 3* and 3 1/2 *.
4. A punch as defined in claim 1 wherein the cross-section of the punch is, in a progression from top to bottom of parallel planes perpendicular to said axis, that of a regular polygon of slightly diminishing sides in the region of said upper portions and in the region of said lower portions that of a generally similar polygonal shape having progressively more rounded corners and decreasing area whereby in planes adjacent the bottom of the punch said cross-section is of approximately circular configuration.
US3728892A 1971-09-15 1971-09-15 Ballistic shape punch and screw head socket Expired - Lifetime US3728892A (en)

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5020954A (en) * 1981-03-30 1991-06-04 Intools, Limited Screw driving socket
US5456100A (en) * 1994-03-14 1995-10-10 Air Tuf Products, Inc. Knock-out pin for bolt making machine
US20030053887A1 (en) * 2001-09-17 2003-03-20 Brooks Lawrence Antony Screw head formation
US20060025225A1 (en) * 2004-08-02 2006-02-02 Keng-Shui Wu Screw head slot shaper
US20060107721A1 (en) * 2003-04-30 2006-05-25 Masatoshi Oishi Punch for punching sheet metal and apparatus for punching sheet metal having the punch
US20080250841A1 (en) * 2007-04-13 2008-10-16 Gm Global Technology Operations, Inc. Stake punch
US20080279653A1 (en) * 2001-09-17 2008-11-13 Lawrence Antony Brooks Screw head formation
US20090069103A1 (en) * 2007-09-07 2009-03-12 Taiwan Shan Yin Int'l Co. Ltd. Punch and related recessed screw
US20110094358A1 (en) * 2008-06-18 2011-04-28 Aramizu Teruo Punch for punching sheet metal, sheet metal punching apparatus having the punch, and method therefor
US20110174127A1 (en) * 2002-12-17 2011-07-21 Ones Co., Ltd. Method for press punching a hole in sheet metal and press die
US20130305889A1 (en) * 2011-02-18 2013-11-21 Eca Medical Instruments Robust nose torque-limiting device

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1978371A (en) * 1931-06-04 1934-10-23 Holo Krome Screw Corp Cold formed socketed or hollow screw and method of and apparatus for making the same
US2977838A (en) * 1957-09-20 1961-04-04 Gen Am Transport Square-recessed screws and punch means for making same
US3177506A (en) * 1961-04-13 1965-04-13 American Fastener Corp Punch and die for upsetting and socketing screw head
US3283638A (en) * 1964-05-04 1966-11-08 Robertson Mfg Co Socket head screw

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1978371A (en) * 1931-06-04 1934-10-23 Holo Krome Screw Corp Cold formed socketed or hollow screw and method of and apparatus for making the same
US2977838A (en) * 1957-09-20 1961-04-04 Gen Am Transport Square-recessed screws and punch means for making same
US3177506A (en) * 1961-04-13 1965-04-13 American Fastener Corp Punch and die for upsetting and socketing screw head
US3283638A (en) * 1964-05-04 1966-11-08 Robertson Mfg Co Socket head screw

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5020954A (en) * 1981-03-30 1991-06-04 Intools, Limited Screw driving socket
US5456100A (en) * 1994-03-14 1995-10-10 Air Tuf Products, Inc. Knock-out pin for bolt making machine
US6755748B2 (en) * 2001-09-17 2004-06-29 Uni-Screw Limited Screw head formation
US20050158148A1 (en) * 2001-09-17 2005-07-21 Uni-Screw Limited, A United Kingdom Corporation Screw head formation
US20070036633A1 (en) * 2001-09-17 2007-02-15 Uni-Screw Worldwide, Inc., A United Kingdom Corporation Screw head formation
US20030053887A1 (en) * 2001-09-17 2003-03-20 Brooks Lawrence Antony Screw head formation
US20080279653A1 (en) * 2001-09-17 2008-11-13 Lawrence Antony Brooks Screw head formation
US20110174127A1 (en) * 2002-12-17 2011-07-21 Ones Co., Ltd. Method for press punching a hole in sheet metal and press die
US20060107721A1 (en) * 2003-04-30 2006-05-25 Masatoshi Oishi Punch for punching sheet metal and apparatus for punching sheet metal having the punch
US20060025225A1 (en) * 2004-08-02 2006-02-02 Keng-Shui Wu Screw head slot shaper
US20080250841A1 (en) * 2007-04-13 2008-10-16 Gm Global Technology Operations, Inc. Stake punch
US7600407B2 (en) * 2007-04-13 2009-10-13 Gm Global Technology Operations, Inc. Stake punch
US20090069103A1 (en) * 2007-09-07 2009-03-12 Taiwan Shan Yin Int'l Co. Ltd. Punch and related recessed screw
US20110094358A1 (en) * 2008-06-18 2011-04-28 Aramizu Teruo Punch for punching sheet metal, sheet metal punching apparatus having the punch, and method therefor
US20130305889A1 (en) * 2011-02-18 2013-11-21 Eca Medical Instruments Robust nose torque-limiting device
US9877764B2 (en) * 2011-02-18 2018-01-30 Eca Medical Instruments Robust nose torque-limiting device

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