US3723865A - On-line electronic moisture analysis system - Google Patents

On-line electronic moisture analysis system Download PDF

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US3723865A
US3723865A US3723865DA US3723865A US 3723865 A US3723865 A US 3723865A US 3723865D A US3723865D A US 3723865DA US 3723865 A US3723865 A US 3723865A
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means
goods
comparator
coupled
temperature
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R Batey
T Welte
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CONTINENTAL BAKING COMPANY A CORP OF
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ITT Corp
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N27/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means
    • G01N27/02Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating the impedance of the material
    • G01N27/22Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating the impedance of the material by investigating capacitance
    • G01N27/223Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating the impedance of the material by investigating capacitance for determining moisture content, e.g. humidity

Abstract

A moisture analysis system is provided to analyze and determine the moisture content of uniformly baked goods according to predetermined standards. The dielectric properties of the goods are tested by using a fringe field electrode and a comparator. The temperature of the goods is measured, and a compensation signal provided to the comparator so that a direct moisture determination may be made and recorded.

Description

Waited States Patent 1191 atey et al.

1 1 Mar. 27, 1973 [541 ON-LINE ELECTRONIC MOISTURE 3,387,134 6/1968 Treharne' ..250/83.3 H ANALYSIS SYSTEM 3,515,987 6/1970 Zurbrick etal.... ....324/61 R 3,566,260 2/l97l Johnston ..324/61 R [75] Inventors: Robert W. Batey, Portchester, N.Y.;

Theodore welte Stamford Primary ExaminerAlfred E. Smith Attorney-C. Cornel Remsen, Jr., Walter J. Baum, [73] Assignee: International Telephone and Tele- Paul f g Charles On, Jr., Ph1l1p graph Corporafion Nufley M. Bolton, Isidore Togut, Edward Goldberg and Menotti J. Lombardi, Jr. [22] Filed: Mar. 1, 1971 21 Appl. No.: 120,027 [571 ABSTRACT A moisture analysis system is provided to analyze and 52 U.S. c1 324/61 R 209/75 determine the baked [51] Int Cl i 27,26 goods according to predetermined standards. The [58] Field 250/83 3 dielectric properties of the goods are tested by using a fringe field electrode and a comparator. The temperature of the goods is measured, and a compensation [56] Referelices Clted signal provided to the comparator so that a direct UNITED STATES EN moisture determination may be made and recorded.

3,231,814 1/1966 Fathauer et al ..324/61 R 7 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures 1 i i TEMPERATURE TMPRA TURE 1 co/v moL :mmsen FOR fi fiifirf fi CIRCUIT PYROM7R "575R cmcu/r AUTO M'ATIC': Zggggfggrssrmnzs EJECTOR 3 #000067 224:. Gnu/vv CAPAc/rANC' 001 1951154735 COMM N0 COMM/470R 1 M0 Ma/sw WOCATORS mo/cAroR l nnooucr CAPACITANCE 22 I a rwvsn gm/$ 1;): cm'mr 8a\ 00 A R aeconoee WINTERS AUTOMATIC TEST LIMIT saecron AND IQ QZZZYf SIQIV/A L INDICATORS 24 /8 REMOTE cauur-AzARM ANO RESET I TIME DELAY AND 1557' 33 SEQUENCE CIRCUIT \eo Patented March 27, 1973 3,723,865

4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Qfiig-E s o 7557' LIMIT SELECTOR "1 I9 COUNTERS FJEU 10141. Edit? 195.15g

I rad Moran fi f 2a =1 ADJUST 512% SR SWITCH $7ANOARO Z33? CPC fi/ com o 6N7 L. jfl COMPARATOR F. 15v01.rs l

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L coMna/v w l 750. i 200.0. w I 9.1, 9 9b INVENTORS I 25041. ROBERT w. BATEY 1 BY THEODORE J. R. WEIL TE L M/ ATTORNEY Patented March 27, 1973 4 Sheets$heet :3

y 1. DRIVER Fi s? 70 177" ssaecron 4 1 ANN ER ro neconoen ACCE P7 AMPUF/ER M'AS (JR ED CAPACITANCE REtAY REMY! TUNER 8 CAPACITANCE af g C CEPT Maw LIMIT l AMPl/F/ER REJEC I' NOICAIOR l/VO CA 0R A 0.105 r COMPARATOR QROUNO EX TED/OR SW! TC H FROM PHOTO C LL EFEREWE VOL TA GE RC "MON FERE/VCE T0 COgIPARATOQ A DRIVER AMPLIFIER REJEC 7' 7'0 TA L COUN 75R (0 (IA/76R A B lull/(Arm l9 ALARM I +12 vac TO T557 LIMIT I SELECTOR-I 12 g MOME/VIARY OFF/ON fie VDC INVENTORS ROBERT W. 8ATY BY THEODORE U. R. WLT

A TORNEY ON-LINE ELECTRONIC MOISTURE ANALYSIS SYSTEM BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION In general, this invention relates to a system to determine the moisture content in a baked product, and more particularly to an on-line moisture analysis system for directly indicating the moisture content of uniformly baked goods.

In order to produce and package, for example, a baked Danish pastry item, with an'acceptable shelf life, the moisture content must be accurately controlled. If the product is packaged at too high a moisture content, there is a chance that it will become moldy during storage, and if the product is dried too long, it may have marginal acceptance with the consumer. There are a number of known methods to determine the amount of moisture in the product being packaged. One method for moisture determination is the A.O.A.C. Vacuum- Oven Determination which requires 18 hours. Another method of moisture determination is by means of the Cenco Moisture Balance, requiring minutes time to complete, or by means of the Model G-8 Moisture Register requiring about 1 hour for a determination.

Since a volume baked product is produced at the rate of approximately 200 items per minute, it is difficult to make a statistically significant number of determinations per day with one"Cenco Moisture Balance or one Model G-8 Moisture Register. Also, if the Vacuum-Oven Method were used to make a significant number of determinations, the results obtained would be too late to be relevant to the product output produced. 1

Further complications for the available apparatus is that to make three rapid and accurate moisture determinations, the product to be tested must be maintained at a constant temperature within a few degrees. Normally, the volume baked product moves on a cooling conveyor to the packaging machines, and varies in temperature from approximately 95F to l40F. Therefore, temperature compensation must be added to any measuring apparatus to make meaningful and accurate determinations.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is therefore an object of this invention to provide an on-line moisture analysis system.

Another object of this invention is to make a simultaneous dielectric evaluation and temperature measurement on uniformly baked goods and directly indicate their moisture content.

A further object of the invention is to provide an online moisture analysis system to analyze and determine the moisture content of uniformly baked goods according to an adjustable predetermined schedule, such that the goods may be accepted or rejected on a predetermined basis triggered by the determined moisture content.

According to the broader aspects of the invention there is provided a moisture analysis system for uniformly baked goods comprising means for measuring the dielectric properties of said goods, comparator means coupled to the measuring means to indicate the changes in capacitance of said goods as compared to a standard, and means for measuring the temperature of said goods and providing a compensation signal to said comparator means, whereby said comparator means directly indicates the moisture content of said goods.

A feature of the invention is that the on-line moisture analysis system further includes means for recording and indicating the moisture-content, means for accepting or rejecting the goods on a predetermined basis as related to the moisture content, and means for sampling and testing the goods in a predetermined time and test sequence.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The foregoing objects and features of the invention will best be understood if reference is made to the drawings in connection with the following description, in which:

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an embodiment for an on-line moisture analysis system;

FIG. 2 shows details of portions of the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1;

FIG. 2a illustrates further details of the arrangement of FIG. 2; I

FIG. 3 shows details of a time delay and test sequence circuit which may be utilized in connection with the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1 and FIGS. 3a-c show further details of the time delay and test sequence circuit of FIG. 1.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to FIG. 1, the various features of the invention are illustrated in a block diagram of the on-line moisture analysis system. A product 10 to be tested is placed on fringe field electrode 11, and the change in capacitance is measured in a capacitance comparator and moisture indicator 12. One such type of comparator and indicator is identified and marketed as a Danbridge CPC4 Comparator", by the Danbridge Company, Copenhagen, Denmark. Coupled to the 7 comparator 12 are extemals standards including a product gain compensator 13 and a product capacitance tuner 14. The change in capacitance is measured as a plus or minus change compared to the standard capacitance set in the product capacitance tuner 14. In the comparator 12, the unbalanced voltage from a junction between the unknown and standard capacitance is fed into its input amplifier. The output of the amplifier is fed through attenuators of the product gain compensator 13 to drive the indicator arm of the meter. The meter on the type comparator specified above has a plus or minus 1 volt for full scale deviation.

Since the capacitance reading of the comparator 12 varies with the moisture in the product and with the temperature of the product if its weight, chemical composition and configuration are held constant, a radiation pyrometer 15 enclosed in a controlled temperature chamber 15a is utilized to measure the temperature at which the product is being tested for moisture content. A temperature control circuit 9 is used to adjust the pyrometer 15 for the ambient room temperature. The output from the pyrometer 15 is coupled through a temperature compensation circuit 16 to produce an electrical signal which is added algebraically to the electrical signal from the fringe field electrode to compensate for variations in temperature of the product, thereby the meter on the comparator 12 reads directly the moisture content of the tested product.

The resultant temperature compensated signal, besides driving the indicator arm of the meter, is also coupled from the comparator to a chart recorder 17 which records the analog out voltage which indicates the moisture level of each item tested. This signal is further connected to a test limit selector 18. The selector 18 is coupled to a pair of counters 18a. A pass-reject indicator-alarm 19 is activated in accordance with the preset numbers in the counters 18a in a known manner. The sampling and timing intervals are controlled by a time delay and test sequence circuit 20. Circuit 20 is coupled to the command indicators 22 including TEST, WAIT, and LOAD. In order to start a test, photo detector 21 indicates the presence of item 10. The chart recorder 17 and limit selector 18 are activated and controlled by circuit 20. The automatic test sample ejector 22 is activated and controlled by circuit 20 and may comprise a single solenoid to push or pull the product off the electrode 11. Additional components of the system may include a remote count, alarm, and reset means 23, an automatic reload signal means 24, and an indicator modulator 25 for flashing the command indicator lights.

The scheduling of operations is indicated by the three command lights 22a,b,c. When the instrument is turned on, a LOAD light on the test jig lights, after the item to be tested is properly placed on the jig, the LOAD lights goes off and a TEST light goes on. The time and sequence circuit is activated by the photo cell 21 adjacent the electrode 11. The test period is ended when a timer causes a solenoidejector 22 to eject the item being tested from the test jig. The command indicator then switches from a TEST light to a WAIT light. The duration of the WAIT light is controlled by a timing circuit 20 which can be controlled between 10 and 260 seconds. At the end of the WAIT cycle, the WAIT light goes off and the LOAD light goes on. The LOAD light blinks off and on under control of modulator to attract the attention of the operator. When the operator properly places an item on the test jig, the LOAD light goes off and the TEST light goes on and a cycle is completed.

The analysis system according to the invention will be further described in connection with FIG. 2. The dielectric properties of a single baked item are determined by placing the item on the fringe field electrode 11 comprising a plurality of interleaved elements l1a,b and having circular configuration. The capacitance of the fringe field electrode is changed by the addition of the baked item. The change in capacitance is measured as a plus or minus change in capacitance compared to a standard capacitance set 10 tuner capacitors 14a-j providing 1-30 pico farads. In the comparator, the unbalance voltage from the junction between the unknown input and the standard input is coupled to the comparator amplifier. The output of the amplifier is fed through range attenuators of the 10 200 ohm 20 turn trimpots 13a-j to drive the meter 12a. The meter 12a on the comparator has i 1 volt for full scale deviation.

According to predetermined data analysis for the described embodiment, an acceptable uniformly made product has a 15.5 percent moisture contact. A one sigma deviation from the 15.5 percent moisture is 16.5 percent or 14.5 percent moisture, and an acceptable limit is i 2 sigma or up to 17.5 percent moisture and down to 13.5 percent moisture. The meter 12a on the comparator must be calibrated from 13.5 percent moisture to 18.5 percent moisture for all products to be tested by the electrode 11. The standard range attenuators and the standard capacitors are adjusted so that the meter is calibrated for each product.

The capacitance reading of the comparator varies with the moisture in the freshly baked product and with the temperature, if the weight, the chemical composition and the configuration of the product are held constant. For example, when a hot (130F) baked item is placed on the fringe field electrode, the capacitance reading will increase as the temperature of the item decreases. If it were only necessary to hold the temperature constant during the measuring period, a heated chamber would suffice. However, the baked items may reach the testing location at the same moisture content, but at random temperatures between F and F, therefore the temperature must also be measured. Since the temperature cannot be measured by means ofa probe, because a probe must be inserted into each item in the exact same spot, and this insertion tends to destroy the sample so that it cannot be sold. A radiation pyrometer 15 is mounted over the fringe field electrode 11 and measures the temperature of the product simultaneously as the dielectric properties are being measured. An electrical compensation signal is added algebraically to the signal from the fringe field electrode when switch 26 is closed to compensate the meter readings for variations in temperature of the product. A Mikron 10 type pyrometer 15 may be used, this type has an output of 0 MV at 60F and 100.0 MV at "F. The pyrometer is contained in a temperature controlled (115F at i 1F) cabinet 15a to insure the stability of its output.

The temperature control circuit 9 to adjust the pyrometer 15 to room ambient comprises a resistance 16a and a 10 turn potentiometer 16b. The output of pyrometer is amplified in the temperature compensation circuit 16 comprising a pair of amplifiers type 1:.A727 and uA74l which are connected to i 15 volt power supply. A resistive feedback network 16a is connected to the amplifiers as illustrated. The analog output on line 26a from the circuit is i 1 volt with the zero voltage output being at ll5F. There is no compensation when the pyrometer is at 115F. There is a negative temperature compensation for pyrometer readings that are less than 1 15F and positive compensation for temperatures over 1 15F.

Analyses of the data on several items of baked goods indicate that the temperature correction is about 0.195 pf change per l.OF change in temperature. When this correction is applied to the calibration of the meter on the comparator, the correction is 0.137 percent moisture change per l.0F change in temperature. The amount of temperature compensation can be checked by placing a hot item to be measured on the fringe field electrode and then reading the meter with the compensation switch 26 in the OFF and ON position. Since the described circuit takes approximately'ten seconds for the comparator circuit to come to equilibrium and for the recorder to record a visible record on a strip chart, it is possible to measure and record up to 360 items per hour using the just described system.

Other features of the invention will now be described. The selector 18 is coupled to the comparator output and to two counters A and B. One counter counts the total number of items tested, and when the counter reaches a preset number, it activates an indicator alarm to notify the operator that the sample number has been examined. The second counter counts the number of samples in the reject category, and when this counter reaches a preset number, it activates'the indicator alarm to notify the operator that the sample number being tested is not acceptable. The selector 18 accomplishes the classification of the item being tested into the proper category, and one type is identified and marketed as the Danbridge TLS-l Test Limit Selector, by the Danbridge Company, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Referring now to FIG. 2a, further details ofthe arrangement of FIG. 2 are illustrated. The CPC4 component comparator 12 contains a comparator amplifier whose input is tied to the measured capacitance from the test electrode 11 and the standard tuner capacitance 14 which have been tuned to the "particular type sample. The selector switch 12s is ganged to both the product gain tuner 13 and to the capacitance tuner so that they are simultaneously adjusted to the particular value, besides the individual adjustments to the components. The product gain'tuner adjusts the output gain of the CPC4 comparator amplifier. Connected in series with the zero adjust K ohm resistor for the amplifier is the .450 ohm resistor and the 100 ohm variable resistor illustrated in FIG. 2. The resistors are parallel connected by switch 26 to the amplifier ptA74l' of the compensation circuit and to the common in reference to the comparator ground. This arrangement provides" the compensated output signal which is coupled to the meter. The compensated output signal is also coupled to the recorder and to the test limit selector 18. The test limit selector 18 includes a low limit amplifier 18b, an accept amplifier 18c, and a high limit amplifier 1811. The signal from each amplifier is coupled through relays l8e,f,g to activate the low, accept, and high reject indicators. The output from the low limit and high limit amplifier are coupled through a driver amplifier A to reject counter A and to the indicator alarm 19. In a similar manner, each compensated output signal is coupled through to driver amplifier B to the total counter B and then tothe indicator alarm 19 In this manner, the specified CPC4 component comparator and test limit selector are utilized to directly indicate and record the amount of moisture of a test sample, and to register in counters A and B a total number sample and reject count. When the preset number is reached, an alarm indication is given by unit 19.

For example, with a sample size set at 100 items on the total counter, the one sigma limit for a 100 item sample may be set at 32 items (68.3 percent of product within l sigma limits). Further, if we assume that for the small 100 item sample that the baked items tend to be too wet or too dry rather than a combination of too wet and too dry, the limit is set at 16 items for a plus or a minus 1 sigma variation. If the limit were set at the 2 and as long as the number of rejects is less than 16 percent of the number of items tested, the process is in control. The item sample could be tested in 17 minutes or over a period of hours with practically the same statistical significance. If a sample were to be taken every 10 seconds, a full-time operator would be required to place the samples on the electrode. If the sample is to be taken every 30 seconds, the 2-3 seconds required to place the sample on the electrode is not an imposition to the operator who may also be controlling the feeding of an on-line packaging machine. At one item every 30 seconds, the 100 item sample would take 50 minutes. Every 50 minutes or less a quality control status of the process (number of rejects per sample) may be made.

An example of the standard capacitances against which products are measured may be set for the various uniformly baked products as follows: (A) Cinnamon 1 1.67 pico Farads; (B) Strawberry 10.01 pico Farads; (C). Apple 12.62 pico Farads; (D) Blueberry 14.23 pico Farads; (E) Butterscotch 10.70 pico Farads; and (F) Chocolate 14.12 pico Farads.

For these items there. is a different change in capacitance for each one percent change in moisture. The deviation of the measuring signal from the standard signal (standard capacitance) is amplified and then attenuated to achieve various levels of amplification. The trimpotentiometers l3a-j are individually switched into the comparator circuit to adjust the range of the comparator meter. When the standard range is set by switch 12s at 3 percent for full scale on the meter, the range for a Blueberry item should be set at 3.38 percent and the range for a Chocolate" item should beset at 3.27 percent. The meter on the comparator is set on the 10 percent rangewhen the instrument is used, at a deviation of 10 percent from the standard or center value, so that the meter is at full scale deflection. The meter can be calibrated for moisture values according to the following scale: (A) 17.5 percent moisture for +7.0 percent deflection; (B) 16.5 percent moisture for +3.5 percent deflection; (C) 15.5 percent moisture for 0.0 percent deflection; (D) 14.5 percent moisture for 3.3 percent deflection; (E) 13.5 percent moisture for 6.2 percent deflection; and (F) 12.5 percent moisture for 9.0 percent deflection.

Referring now to FIGS. 3-3c, an embodiment of the time delay and test sequence circuit is illustrated. FIG. 3 shows five relay circuits 31, 32, 33, 34 and 35 for timing and sequency. Relay 31 includes only a relay coil and its associated contacts 31a-d. The relay is connect'ed to the photo cell detector 21, schematically illustrated as a switch 21a, one side of which is coupled to a 12 volt DC source. The contact 310 is connected to the test indicator light 22a of the command indicators 22 and is activated to indicate ready for test when the photo cell switch 21a is closed. The contact 31d starts the recorder motor. Relay 32 is a three-second delay relay and is intiated by contact 31a of relay 31. Relay 32 is more particularly described in connection with FIG. 3a. The relay 32 has its outputs coupled to the test limit selector 18 and recorder 17.

Relay 33 provides a 10 second delay and is further detailed in connection with FIG. 3b. Operation of relay 33 is initiated by contacts 31b of relay 31. Relay 33 includes two active contacts 33l and 33m. Contact 33m is connected to control the solenoid of theautomatic test sample ejector. Relay 34 includes a coil which is rendered conductive by SCR 34a upon operation of contact 331, relay 34 operation initiates switching contacts 34b and 340. Relay 35 provides a 26 second delay and is further detailed in FIG. 3c. Relay 35 in response to contact 34b operates contact 350 to cause modulator 25 to blink load indicator light 220. In addition, the operation of 35a also removes power from the WAIT light 22b which was activated by contact 34c.

Referring to FIG. 3a, relay 32 includes a transistor 32a, two input resistors 32b, 32c and 32d, and timing capacitor 32e. Upon turning on transistor 32a, coil 32f, paralleled by diode 32g, is activated energizing contacts 32h and 321. Resistor 32j is connected to the +12 volt DC source, and when activated to timing capacitor 32k. The other side of capacitor 32k is connected to the volt DC line. Coil 321, when activated, closes its contact 32m to provide the momentary off-on signal to the test limit selector 18 to indicate the testing of a unit.

FIG. 3b illustrates the components of relay number 33 providing a 10 second delay. Contact 31b connects to a time constant capacitor 330 which through resistor 33b and diode 330 is connected to emitter base coupled transistor 33d and 33e. The resistor 33f is connected at one end to the +12 volt DC power source and at the other end connected to one arm of the contact 31b. The other contact of relay 31b is connected to a variable resistor 33g and fixed resistor 33h to the 0 volt DC line. Transistor 33d has its collector connected by resistor 33i to the 0 volt DC line and transistor 33e has its collector connected by a coil 33 paralleled by diode 33k, to the 0 volt DC line. The coil 33 when energized, controls relays 331, 33m and 33n. This arrangement permits a time delay adjustment for a test period from to 30 seconds. FIG. 30 illustrates the 26 second delay 35.

The circuit of FIG. 3c is similar to that of FIG. 3b with the following modifications. The input is controlled from relay 34 by contact 34b, the resistor 35b is 500 ohms, the input timing capacitor 350 is 1,000 MFD, and the resistor 35d is 10,000 ohms. Otherwise, the elements of this delay circuit are the same as that illustrated in FIG. 3f. With the components illustrated, the time delay for the waiting period of the command indicators can be adjusted from seconds to 4 minutes and seconds.

According to the foregoing specification, there is described a moisture analysis system for uniformly baked goods in which a fringe field electrode is coupled for measuring the dielectric changes of said goods, a comparator is coupled to the fringe field electrode to measure the changes'in capacitance as compared to a predetermined and set standard, and the temperature of the goods is measured and a compensation signal coupled to the comparator so that the comparator directly indicates the moisture content of the goods. The system operates in a predetermined test sequence to record, select, pass or reject goods on a predetermined count basis as triggered by the comparator output under the control of the timing and sequence circuit.

Although I have described the invention in connection with specific apparatus, it should be clearly un- 6 derstood that this description is given by way of example only and not as a limitation on the scope of the invention as set forth in the objects and features thereof and in the accompanying claims.

We claim:

1. A moisture analysis system for uniformly baked goods comprising:

a fringe field electrode positioned for holding and for measuring the dielectric properties of said goods;

comparator means including a comparator amplifier having one input coupled to said electrode to indicate the changes in capacitance of said goods as compared to a standard, and said comparator amplifier having gain compensation and capacitance tuning inputs for adjusting said comparator means for different types of baked goods;

means for measuring the temperature of said goods and providing a compensation signal to said comparator amplifier, whereby said comparator means directly indicates the moisture content of said goods;

means for detecting the presence of a sample of said goods to be tested;

command indicators coupled to said detecting means by a sequence circuit to indicate what portion of the test sequence is being performed; and

means for ejecting said sample coupled to said sequence circuit.

2. The system of claim 1 wherein said temperature measuring means includes:

a radiation pyrometer;

a temperature control circuit to adjust said pyrometer for room ambient temperature; and

a temperature compensation circuit coupled to said pyrometer to provide said compensation signal to said comparator means.

3. The system of claim 1 including a time delay and test sequence circuit coupled to control the operation of said system.

4. The system of claim 1 including means coupled to said comparator to record the moisture content of said goods.

5. A moisture analysis produced goods comprising:

means for measuring the dielectric properties of said goods;

comparator means coupled to said measuring means to indicate the changes in capacitance of said goods as compared to a standard;

means for measuring the temperature of said goods and providing a compensation signal to said comparator means, whereby said comparator means directly indicates the moisture content of said goods;

a time delay and test sequence circuit coupled to control the operation of said system;

means coupled to said circuit and positioned to detect the presence of a sample of said goods to be tested;

command indicators coupled to said circuit to indicate the portion of the test sequence being performed; and

means coupled to said circuit and positioned to eject said sample at completion of the testing sequence.

6. The system of claim 5 wherein said comparator means includes gain compensation means and capacitance tuning means for adjusting said comparator means for different types of goods.

system for uniformly 7. The system of claim 6 wherein said temperature measuring means includes:

a radiation pyrometer;

a temperature control circuit to adjust said pyrometer for room ambient temperature; and

a temperature compensation circuit coupled to said pyrometer to provide said compensation signal to said comparator means.

Claims (7)

1. A moisture analysis system for uniformly baked goods comprising: a fringe field electrode positioned for holding and for measuring the dielectric properties of said goods; comparator means including a comparator amplifier having one input coupled to said electrode to indicate the changes in capacitance of said goods as compared to a standard, and said comparator amplifier having gain compensation and capacitance tuning inputs for adjusting said comparator means for different types of baked goods; means for measuring the temperature of said goods and providing a compensation signal to said comparator amplifier, whereby said comparator means directly indicates the moisture content of said goods; means for detecting the presence of a sample of said goods to be tested; command indicators coupled to said detecting means by a sequence circuit to indicate what portion of the test sequence is being performed; and means for ejecting said sample coupled to said sequence circuit.
2. The system of claim 1 wherein said temperature measuring means includes: a radiation pyrometer; a temperature control circuit to adjust said pyrometer for room ambient temperature; and a temperature compensation circuit coupled to said pyrometer to provide said compensation signal to said comparator means.
3. The system of claim 1 including a time delay and test sequence circuit coupled to control the operation of said system.
4. The system of claim 1 including means coupled to said comparator to record the moisture content of said goods.
5. A moisture analysis system for uniformly produced goods comprising: means for measuring the dielectric properties of said goods; comparator means coupled to said measuring means to indicate the changes in capacitance of said goods as compared to a standard; means for measuring the temperature of said goods and providing a compensation signal to said comparator means, whereby said comparator means directly indicates the moisture content of said goods; a time delay and test sequence circuit coupled to control the operation of said system; means coupled to said circuit and positioned to detect the presence of a sample of said goods to be tested; command indicators coupled to said circuit to indicate the portion of the test sequence being performed; and means coupled to said circuit and positioned to eject said sample at completion of the testing sequence.
6. The system of claim 5 wherein said comparator means includes gain compensation means and capacitance tuning means for adjusting said comparator means for different types of goods.
7. The system of claim 6 wherein said temperature measuring means includes: a radiation pyrometer; a temperature control circuit to adjust said pyrometer for room ambient temperature; and a temperature compensation circuit coupled to said pyrometer to provide said compensation signal to said comparator means.
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US4177097A (en) * 1975-12-22 1979-12-04 Western Electric Co. Inc. Method and apparatus for controlling the filling of a cable
US4284947A (en) * 1978-08-08 1981-08-18 United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Detecting the size and shape of bodies
US4468610A (en) * 1982-04-14 1984-08-28 Penril Corp. Radio frequency apparatus for measuring moisture content of materials as a function of dielectric constant
US4560923A (en) * 1983-11-15 1985-12-24 Hanson Colin J Moisture analyzer
US5853543A (en) * 1997-01-27 1998-12-29 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Method for monitoring and controlling water content in paper stock in a paper making machine
US5891306A (en) * 1996-12-13 1999-04-06 Measurex Corporation Electromagnetic field perturbation sensor and methods for measuring water content in sheetmaking systems
US5928475A (en) * 1996-12-13 1999-07-27 Honeywell-Measurex, Corporation High resolution system and method for measurement of traveling web
US5944955A (en) * 1998-01-15 1999-08-31 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Fast basis weight control for papermaking machine
US6006602A (en) * 1998-04-30 1999-12-28 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Weight measurement and measurement standardization sensor
US6023170A (en) * 1995-06-08 2000-02-08 Instituut Voor Milieu- En Agritechniek Method for determining the degree of hardening of a material
US6072309A (en) * 1996-12-13 2000-06-06 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation, Inc. Paper stock zeta potential measurement and control
US6076022A (en) * 1998-01-26 2000-06-13 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Paper stock shear and formation control
US6080278A (en) * 1998-01-27 2000-06-27 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Fast CD and MD control in a sheetmaking machine
US6086716A (en) * 1998-05-11 2000-07-11 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Wet end control for papermaking machine
US6087837A (en) * 1996-12-13 2000-07-11 Honeywell-Measurex Compact high resolution under wire water weight sensor array
US6092003A (en) * 1998-01-26 2000-07-18 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Paper stock shear and formation control
US6099690A (en) * 1998-04-24 2000-08-08 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation System and method for sheet measurement and control in papermaking machine
US6149770A (en) * 1998-04-14 2000-11-21 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Underwire water weight turbulence sensor
US6341522B1 (en) 1996-12-13 2002-01-29 Measurex Corporation Water weight sensor array imbedded in a sheetmaking machine roll
DE10044952B4 (en) * 2000-09-12 2007-07-26 Format Messtechnik Gmbh Method and apparatus for measurement of dielectric polarization of foams

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Cited By (25)

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US3951267A (en) * 1973-08-30 1976-04-20 Hauni-Werke Korber & Co., Kg Apparatus for testing the end portions of cigarettes or the like
US4177097A (en) * 1975-12-22 1979-12-04 Western Electric Co. Inc. Method and apparatus for controlling the filling of a cable
US4058766A (en) * 1976-06-21 1977-11-15 Agridustrial Electronics, Inc. Multiple-frequency permittivity tester
US4284947A (en) * 1978-08-08 1981-08-18 United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Detecting the size and shape of bodies
US4468610A (en) * 1982-04-14 1984-08-28 Penril Corp. Radio frequency apparatus for measuring moisture content of materials as a function of dielectric constant
US4560923A (en) * 1983-11-15 1985-12-24 Hanson Colin J Moisture analyzer
US6023170A (en) * 1995-06-08 2000-02-08 Instituut Voor Milieu- En Agritechniek Method for determining the degree of hardening of a material
US6341522B1 (en) 1996-12-13 2002-01-29 Measurex Corporation Water weight sensor array imbedded in a sheetmaking machine roll
US5891306A (en) * 1996-12-13 1999-04-06 Measurex Corporation Electromagnetic field perturbation sensor and methods for measuring water content in sheetmaking systems
US5928475A (en) * 1996-12-13 1999-07-27 Honeywell-Measurex, Corporation High resolution system and method for measurement of traveling web
US6204672B1 (en) 1996-12-13 2001-03-20 Honeywell International Inc System for producing paper product including a compact high-resolution under wire water weight sensor array
US6087837A (en) * 1996-12-13 2000-07-11 Honeywell-Measurex Compact high resolution under wire water weight sensor array
US6072309A (en) * 1996-12-13 2000-06-06 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation, Inc. Paper stock zeta potential measurement and control
US5853543A (en) * 1997-01-27 1998-12-29 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Method for monitoring and controlling water content in paper stock in a paper making machine
US5944955A (en) * 1998-01-15 1999-08-31 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Fast basis weight control for papermaking machine
US6076022A (en) * 1998-01-26 2000-06-13 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Paper stock shear and formation control
US6092003A (en) * 1998-01-26 2000-07-18 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Paper stock shear and formation control
US6080278A (en) * 1998-01-27 2000-06-27 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Fast CD and MD control in a sheetmaking machine
US6149770A (en) * 1998-04-14 2000-11-21 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Underwire water weight turbulence sensor
US6168687B1 (en) 1998-04-24 2001-01-02 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation System and method for sheet measurement and control in papermaking machine
US6099690A (en) * 1998-04-24 2000-08-08 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation System and method for sheet measurement and control in papermaking machine
US6126785A (en) * 1998-04-24 2000-10-03 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation System and method for sheet measurement and control in papermaking machine
US6006602A (en) * 1998-04-30 1999-12-28 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Weight measurement and measurement standardization sensor
US6086716A (en) * 1998-05-11 2000-07-11 Honeywell-Measurex Corporation Wet end control for papermaking machine
DE10044952B4 (en) * 2000-09-12 2007-07-26 Format Messtechnik Gmbh Method and apparatus for measurement of dielectric polarization of foams

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
GB1355940A (en) 1974-06-12 application
NL7202689A (en) 1972-09-05 application
DE2209167A1 (en) 1972-09-21 application

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