US3702948A - Ultrasonic motors and scissors - Google Patents

Ultrasonic motors and scissors Download PDF

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US3702948A
US3702948A US216130A US3702948DA US3702948A US 3702948 A US3702948 A US 3702948A US 216130 A US216130 A US 216130A US 3702948D A US3702948D A US 3702948DA US 3702948 A US3702948 A US 3702948A
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means
ultrasonic motor
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transmission
transmission members
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Lewis Balamuth
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Ultrasonic Systems Inc
ULTRASONIC SYSTEMS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/32Surgical cutting instruments
    • A61B17/3201Scissors
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/32Surgical cutting instruments
    • A61B17/320068Surgical cutting instruments using mechanical vibrations, e.g. ultrasonic
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B06GENERATING OR TRANSMITTING MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS IN GENERAL
    • B06BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR GENERATING OR TRANSMITTING MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS OF INFRASONIC, SONIC, OR ULTRASONIC FREQUENCY, e.g. FOR PERFORMING MECHANICAL WORK IN GENERAL
    • B06B3/00Methods or apparatus specially adapted for transmitting mechanical vibrations of infrasonic, sonic, or ultrasonic frequency
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K20/00Non-electric welding by applying impact or other pressure, with or without the application of heat, e.g. cladding or plating
    • B23K20/10Non-electric welding by applying impact or other pressure, with or without the application of heat, e.g. cladding or plating making use of vibrations, e.g. ultrasonic welding
    • B23K20/106Features related to sonotrodes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B26HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING
    • B26BHAND-HELD CUTTING TOOLS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B26B19/00Clippers or shavers operating with a plurality of cutting edges, e.g. hair clippers, dry shavers
    • B26B19/38Details of, or accessories for, hair clippers, or dry shavers, e.g. housings, casings, grips, guards
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B26HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING
    • B26BHAND-HELD CUTTING TOOLS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B26B21/00Razors of the open or knife type; Safety razors or other shaving implements of the planing type; Hair-trimming devices involving a razor-blade; Equipment therefor
    • B26B21/08Razors of the open or knife type; Safety razors or other shaving implements of the planing type; Hair-trimming devices involving a razor-blade; Equipment therefor involving changeable blades
    • B26B21/14Safety razors with one or more blades arranged transversely to the handle
    • B26B21/38Safety razors with one or more blades arranged transversely to the handle with provision for reciprocating the blade by means other than rollers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/02Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure
    • B29C65/08Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/80General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof
    • B29C66/83General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof characterised by the movement of the joining or pressing tools
    • B29C66/832Reciprocating joining or pressing tools
    • B29C66/8322Joining or pressing tools reciprocating along one axis
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/80General aspects of machine operations or constructions and parts thereof
    • B29C66/84Specific machine types or machines suitable for specific applications
    • B29C66/861Hand-held tools
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/70General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material
    • B29C66/73General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the intensive physical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the optical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the extensive physical properties of the parts to be joined, by the state of the material of the parts to be joined or by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset
    • B29C66/739General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the intensive physical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the optical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the extensive physical properties of the parts to be joined, by the state of the material of the parts to be joined or by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset characterised by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset
    • B29C66/7392General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the intensive physical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the optical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the extensive physical properties of the parts to be joined, by the state of the material of the parts to be joined or by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset characterised by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset characterised by the material of at least one of the parts being a thermoplastic
    • B29C66/73921General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts characterised by the composition, physical properties or the structure of the material of the parts to be joined; Joining with non-plastics material characterised by the intensive physical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the optical properties of the material of the parts to be joined, by the extensive physical properties of the parts to be joined, by the state of the material of the parts to be joined or by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset characterised by the material of the parts to be joined being a thermoplastic or a thermoset characterised by the material of at least one of the parts being a thermoplastic characterised by the materials of both parts being thermoplastics
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10T74/15Intermittent grip type mechanical movement
    • Y10T74/1558Grip units and features
    • Y10T74/1565Gripper releasing devices
    • Y10T74/1576Holding pawl lifter

Abstract

An ultrasonic motor construction wherein the compressional wave mechanical energy is transmitted through a transmission member into flexural vibrational wave energy to a working tip or surface removed a distance from the transducer associated therewith. Various forms of ultrasonic motor constructions are illustrated as in the form of a welding instrument or scissor. The ultrasonic motor operates between 10,000 cps and 500,000 cps and produces peak accelerations of the order of the last 1,000g.

Description

United States Patent TRANSMISSION LINE 111 Balamuth 5] Nov. 14, 1972 ULTRASONIC MOTORS AND 1,718,147 6/1929 l-lerrmann et a1 ..3l0/20 SCISSORS 3,209,447 /1965 Jones ..310/26 X 3,053,124 9/1962 Balainuth et a1 ..310/26 X [72] Invent Lewis Bahmuth New 3,343,010 9/1967 Snaper ..310/ [73] Assignee: Ultrasonic Systems, Inc., Farmingdale, N Primary Examiner-J. D. Miller Assistant ExaminerMark O. Budd [22] Ffled: 1972 Attorney-Leonard W. Suroff 21 A 1. No.: 216 130 a l 1 57 ABSTRACT Roland Application Data An ultrasonic motor construction wherein the com- [63] Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 38,149, May pressiona-l wave FS enefgy is transmftted.

18, 1970, Pat 3,666,975 through a transmission member nto ilexural vibrational wave energy to a workmg tip or surface removed a distance from the transducer associated [52] US. Cl. ..310/8.2, /272, 74/155, therewith. various forms of utrasonic motor com 310/8.3, 3 l0/8.7, 310/9.1, 310/20, 310/2 s'tructions are illustrated as in the form of a welding instrument or scissor. The ultrasonic motor operates Int. ..H04l' b t cps and cps and produces [58] Field Of Search ..3 10/8, 8.2, 8.3, 8.5, 8.6, peak accelerations of the order of the last 1,000g.

[56] References Cited 28 Claims 11 Drawing Figures UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,816,102 7/1931 Waters etal ..310/20X 36 TRANSDUCER v //i GENERIC 27 COMPRESSION WAVE TRANSDUCER 36 TRANSMISSION LINE 11,15 1

FLEXUAL WAVE TRANSMISSION LINES P'IIIENIEIIIII 14.912

SHEET 1 [IF 3 l4 I6 9 2 y 2/ 36 TRANSMISSION LINEI 3 GENERIC TRANSDUCERj-I '25 27 COMPRESSION WAVE 35M IEQQSBL I'ZKVE 36; TRANSMISSION LINEII 2 TRANSMISSION LINES 10 z /6 20 FIG. 2 29 m. TRAIISMISSION'I IN E Ifl/z/a 254. J TRANSDUCER GENERIC TRANSMISSION LINE 1:

/fla

F G 3 lab 3% PERMANENT FERRITE 4 MAGNET RING DRIVIN IL EH} AFERRITE CYLINDER- k45b IMP I I I I km I ULTRASONIC MOTORS AND SCISSORS CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION ing application is incorporated herein by reference as if fully herein set forth.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention describes ultrasonic motors in which the vibratory mechanical energy is transmitted to a point remote from the generating source for transmitting vibratory energy and particular adaptations thereof for use as for example, a welding device and scissor.

The prior art designs of ultrasonic motors are generally limited in that the vibratory energy generated thereby is transmitted and used in a plane substantially along the axis thereof and not at a point or plane remote from the axis along which the mechanical vibrations are generated.

The ability to be able to transmit these mechanical vibrations at an ultrasonic frequency, herein defined to include vibrations in the range of 1,000 to 1,000,000 cycles per second, permits the design of various motor constructions not heretofore possible.

Numerous types of hand held ultrasonic motors have been disclosed in the prior art; however, in this invention we have to do with a new type of ultrasonic motor, which involves mode conversion in going from the more than a horse-and-buggy speed, but with a peak acceleration which is enormous compared with gravity. This unique state of affairs cannot be duplicated by any other known means, and herein lies the uniqueness offered by the ultrasonic motor. The present invention pertains to various ultrasonic motors and other systems having peak accelerations in the order of at least 1,000g and preferably in the range of 10,000 to 500,000 cycles per second. I

Accordingly, one of the novel aspects of the present invention is to provide apparatus in which an object may be cut, as in a scissor, along a surface with almost frictionless ease. The cutting edge may vibrate at 20,000 cycles per second, a distance longitudinally approximately 0.002 inch, or say in the range of 0.002-0.003 inches. This vibration achieves peak acceleration of about 41,000-62,000g and forms a zone of motion which is essentially impenetrable by the ob ject being cut. The actual contact of the object with the transducer to the tool or transmission part, and which 1 takes advantage of this mode conversion in order to create novel means for a variety of purposes. Among such purposes, for example, are included a system in the form of hand shears for the purpose of securing suture knots in surgery, another form of hand shears to embody an ultrasonic scissors capable of smooth cutting of tissue even down to miniature levels, such as are required in eye surgery, a form of said motor may be adapted to be used as a tooth brush, razor, scalpel, etc.

Now, an ultrasonic motor is distinguished by the fact that its peak stroke is generally microscopically small, usually expressed in mils (or thousandths of an inch). In order to see what kind of ball park we are playing in, as to the magnitude of these quantities, suppose we take a commonly found case for ultrasonic motors,

namely, a frequency of 20,000 cycles per second and a peak stroke ofg'2 mils. In this case, we can calculate the peak speed, v,,,,,,, and the peak acceleration a from equation (1) and (2). Doing so we get (3) v,,,,,,, 10.5 feet/sec, a -=41 ,OOOg

(g= acceleration of gravity 32.2 ft/sec) (f 20,000 cycles/sec) (s 2 mils) Equation (3) tells us that the output surface, S, of our ultrasonic motor reaches a peak speed of 10.5 ft/sec or about 7 miles. per hours, while it also reaches a peak acceleration of 41,000 times the acceleration of gravity! In other words, under the prescribed conditions of frequency and stroke, the ultrasonic motor describes an invisible zone of motion never attaining cutting surface edge is for only a small portion of each cycle of vibration such that the object actually rides on a cushion of air, and friction is therefore reduced to almost zero. In consequence of the large friction zone reducfion, the cutting zone is reduced by at least a corresponding amount.

Accordingly, suppose the cutting edge surface has a peak stroke of 0.004 inch, then it would reach a peak acceleration of 82,000g. So, in the first instance we see that the output is relatively low speed 21 ft./sec. which is approximately 14 miles/hour. But the peak acceleration exceeds anything that can be achieved in any other way by mechanical means at suchlow speed.

Therefore, one of our first discoveries about the vibrating surface is that its peak output speedsare very safe, while at the same time extraordinarily high accelerations are utilized. An immediate consequence of this fact is that for bodies moving with accelerations of say one g, there will be very little penetration of the zone of motion. For example, suppose the object being cut is in contact with the cutting edge surface at the end of a stroke and is capable of moving into the zone of motion with an acceleration of one g. Then the cutting edge surface will retract a distance, S, and return the same distance in a time equal to one period of oscillation of the motor. Since, for 20,000Hz this period is 50 microseconds, we can calculate how far a one g accelerated body can move in 50 microseconds, starting from rest. This we get from the simple equation.

d=distancemvelled d= at a acceleration due I to gravity, g" 11 0.483 10"in. r==time s=0.004in.=4 l0in. s=stroke d/s=0.0l2 10" or 0.012%

Thus, d/s, which measures the penetration of the zone of motion amounts to less than 0.012 percent. Accordingly, the object being cut is moving towards the cutting surface with an acceleration of one g and the space penetration is less than 0.12 percent.

Thus, the object being cut moving on such a vibrating surface would be in contact with the surface for less than 0.012 percent of the time. This means the object is essentially air borne and so should exhibit practically no friction and hence greatly reduced resistance to the cutting force.

OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION An object of the invention is to provide an ultrasonic motor construction in which the energy is transmitted through transmission means by flexural vibrations ap plied at a point remote from the transducer generating the vibrations.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention discloses an ultrasonic motor having a variety of applications since it permits the generation of mechanical vibrations at selected locations in spaced relation to the transducer initially generating the compressional waves. The motor may include a pair of spaced apart elongated arm transmission members, at

least one of which has a free end adapted to be used for transmitting vibrations and coupling means for maintaining the transmission arms in a relatively fixed position with respect to each other. Transducer means extend between the transmission members for inducing ultrasonic mechanical vibrations in the transmission members in spaced relation to the free ends thereof, wherein vibrations are transmitted therethrough to induce flexural vibrations at the free end. Gripping means may be secured to one or both of the spaced apart transmission members and adapted to be manipulated by the user thereof for hand held size motors. The gripping means may be positioned at nodal regions of vibration for minimum vibrational transmission to the gripping means. In accordance with one form the gripping means are in the form of finger rests containing extending tabs which overlap the respective transmission members with a pin extending transversely through the transmission members and into the tabs.

To enclose the transducer housing means may be provided which permits the transmission members to extend therethrough. The transmission members may have inwardly directed projections containing positioning means therein for retaining the members, for exampie, to be welded, in a relatively fixed position with respect to each other. The amplitude of flexural vibration at the free end of each transmission member may be varied or selected by having a different mass via the cross-sectional area of each member.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Although the characteristic features of this invention will be particularly pointed out in the claims, the invention itself, and the manner in which it may be made and used, may be better understood by referring to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, wherein like reference numerals refer to like parts throughout the several views and in which:

FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 show in somewhat schematic form ultrasonic motor constructions generic to the present invention; 7

FIG. 4 is a plan view of an ultrasonic motor embodying the invention in a particular form;

FIG. 5 is a side elevational view of the motor of FIG.

FIG. 6 is a plan view of another ultrasonic motor embodying the invention in a particular form;

FIG. 7 is a side elevational view of the motor of FIG.

FIG. 8 is a plan view of another ultrasonic motor embodying the invention in a particular form;

FIG. 9 is a side elevational view of the motor of FIG.

FIG. 10 is a plan view of an ultrasonic scissorin accordance with the present invention; and

FIG. 11 is a side elevational view of the ultrasonic scissor of FIG. 10.

DETAILED DISCUSSION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to the drawings and initially to FIGS. 14 thereof, we have somewhat schematic representations of the motor constructions of the present invention in which as illustrated in FIG. 1 the motor 10 includes a pair of spaced apart elongated arms or transmission members or lines 11 and 12, which may be referred to as the first and second transmission members for convenience. The transmission members may each have a free end 14 and 16 with a respective output end or tip 18 and 20 adapted to be vibrated in a flexural mode, as hereinafter described, to obtain flexural vibrations as indicated by the double headed arrows 21.

The transmission members 11 and 12 are maintained in a relatively fixed position with respect to each other by coupling means 25 which may include a support member 26 conventionally secured to the respective transmission members 1 1 and 12, as at their inner edge or surface 27 and 28. The support member 26 is positioned in longitudinally spaced relation to the free ends 14 and 16 and may be located at the rear ends 29 and 30, or therebetween as shown. The support member 26 may be joined to the transmission members 11 and 12 at substantially a nodal region of flexural vibration where the amount of transmitted mechanical vibrations is maintained at a minimum.

Extending between the transmission members 1 1 and 12 and in energy coupling relation thereto is transducer means 35 capable of generating compression waves in the frequency range of l,000 to 1,000,000 cycles per second which mechanical energy waves indicated by arrows 36 are transmitted to the first or second transmission lines, or both, to excite them in their flexural mode for effecting the flexural vibrations at their free ends 14 and 16 as indicated by the arrows 21.

The ultrasonic elastic waves of a compressional wave form are produced by a transducer 35 which is energized by an oscillation generator adapted to produce electrical energy having an ultrasonic frequency which for the purposes of this invention is defined between the approximate range of 1,000 cycles per second to 1,000,000 cycles per second. The transducer 35 may .be one of a variety of electro mechanical types, such as electrodynamic, piezoelectric or magnetostrictive.

Preferably the transducer 35 and generator may be operated at both a fixed frequency or modulated over defined frequency range. The specific oscillation generator and transducer 35 for accomplishing the result may be conventional, and as such, a detailed description thereof need not be includedin this disclosure since it is known to those skilled in the art.

FIG. 2, illustrates an ultrasonic motor a similar to that illustrated in FIG. 1, wherein the transmission members 11a and 12a extend in substantially spaced apart relation to each other with the coupling means 25a extending between the rear ends 29a and 30a at one end of the motor. The support member 26a may have a substantially U-shaped configuration to provide the necessary coupling effect. The transducer means 35a extends between the transmission members 11a and 12a to generate the longitudinal vibration as indicated by arrows 36a to set up flexural vibrations that are transmitted to the tips 18a and 20a as indicated by arrows 210.

FIG. 3, illustrates a motor 10b in which the transducer means 35b is of a magnetostrictive type using a ferrite cylinder 38b with a permanent ferrite magnet ring 39b adjacent thereto and clamped together by a bolt 40b that extends between the transmission members 11b and 12b to induce flexural vibrations at the output ends 18b and 20b as indicated by the arrows 21b. A driving coil 41b, connected to an electrical source not shown, extends around the support member 26b to excite the transducer 35b to cause it to vibrate.

FIGS. 4 and 5, illustrate an ultrasonic motor 100 which includes a pair of spaced apart elongated arms or transmission members 110 and 120 having respective rear sections 430 and 440 that may be integrally formed with the support member 26c of the coupling means 25c which is positioned at one end of the motor 10c. The rear sections 43c and 44c merge with middle sections 45c and 460 which extend inwardly and decrease in cross-section and merge with respective front sections 47c and 48c which form the transmission members 1 1c and 12c. The front sections 47c and 48c merge with contoured tips 50c and 51c respectively, that terminate in an output edge or surface 490 and 530 for engagement with the work to be contacted and to which the mechanical vibrations indicated by arrows 21d is transmitted. The tips 50c and 51c, as well as the transmission members llc and 120 may be of equal or different cross-sectional configuration depending upon the specific need or application of the motor. Accordingly, the amplitude and direction of mechanical vibration designated by each arrow 21c may be varied by the selection of the proper design criteria of the transmission members.

The transducer means 35c may include two piezoelectric wafers or disks, which may be referred to as the front disk 52c and rear disk 54c separated by an electrode 55c electrically connected to a power source in a conventional manner by wire 560. The disks may be located at or in the region of a node of longitudinal vibration of the transducer 350. The piezoelectric disks may be of commercially available PZT-4 material from the Clevite Corporation. The front disk 520 is directly connected to a metallic output transmission section 570 which includes a flanged portion 580, which may have a circular cross-section substantially equal to that of the circular cross-section of the crystal 52c, with an output portion 59c of a reduced diameter for engagement with the rear section 43c. A second output transmission section 600 may be provided which includes a flanged portion 610 which may have a circular cross-section substantially equal to that of the circular cross-section of the crystal 540, with an output portion 62c of a reduced diameter for engagement with the rear section 44c. The axial length of the transducer may be of a half wavelength at the frequency of vibration of the overall motor. The disks 52c and 54c, electrode 55c and transmission sections 57c and 600 may be secured or bonded together with an epoxy cementing compound along or by a bolt 650. The bolt 65c extends through the rear section 44c and 43c in a conventional manner to compress the disks together. An insulating sleeve 66c may surround the bolt 65c in a conventional manner.

The electrical connection of the motor 100 is to a converter or generator 67c of any well known type, with lead 56c and lead 68c connected thereto with the latter lead coupled by fastener 69c. The converter 67c may be provided with conventional power control adjustments etc.

The motor 10c to be used is generally positioned in a mechanical device or may be hand held to perform the desired transmission of the ultrasonic mechanical vibrations to a work object. As seen in FIGS. 4 and 5, gripping or retaining means 70c is provided and secured to the spaced apart transmission members 11c and 120 to permit the respective members to be manipulated by the user 71c. The gripping means 70c may be in the form of finger rests 72c with formed tabs 73c which overlap the front sections 47c and 48c, with a-pin 75c extending transversely through the transmission members into the tabs 73c. The pin 75c may have a rectangular cross-section to prevent angular rotation of the grips 72c when positioned between the fingers of the user 71c and the static force applied thereto will flex the transmission members 11c and 120 so that the output edges 49c and 530 may be moved towards and away from each other. The gripping means may be positioned at a node of flexural motion so that the vibratory energy transmitted to the user 71c is not present or minimal. The rigidly of the transmission members are selected to have a longitudinal length and cross-sectional area to permit a preselected degree of gross movement when held in the hand of the user. In addition the amplitude of vibration is also a factor of the longitudinal length and cross-sectional area of the transmission members and 120, and by selecting these variables each output edge 49c and 530 may exhibit the same or different amplitudes of vibration. The shape and cross-section of the tips 500 and 51c also dictate the direction and amplitude of mechanical vibrations exhibited by the arrows 21c.

The motor in operation may have the output edges 49c and 53c first placed over the work object, which for welding may be overlapping sheets of thermoplastic material, and then compressed by the user 71c placing his fingers on the gripping means 70c and applying the necessary static force against the objects with the power from generator 67c then turned on to energize the transducer means 350. The mechanical vibrations are then transmitted via the transmission members 11c and 12c to the work edges 49c and 530. The spacing between the opposing edges 49c and 530 may be in the order of 0.001 inch to 1.0 inch for most applications, but may extend to as much as one foot or more for ,7 large objects such as the welding of rigid plastic members.

FIGS. 6 and 7, illustrate another form of the invention in which the motor 10d is of a design in which the transmission members 11d and 12d are of different cross-sectional areas such that the degree of vibration exhibited by the arrows 21d will differ. The transducer 35d transmits the mechanical vibrations to the rear sections 43d and 44d which are mechanically joined together by coupling means "25d in the form of a support member 26d that is connected to or integrally formed with the rear sections 43d and 44d. The, rear section 43d is joined to the front section 47d and in turn to a tip portion 50d having an output edge 49d. The rear section 44d is coupled to front section 48d and terminates in a tip portion 51d having an output edge 53d. Positioning means 80d is provided in the form of a recess or depression 81d on each of the output edges 49 d and 53d to contain therein the work object illustrated in the form of filaments or wires 82d. As seen in FIG. 7, a knot 83d is shown, as for example as used in suturing where it is desired to weld or bond ultrasonically overlapping segments thereof which are welded together when a static force is applied to the spaced apart transmission members 11d and 12d. The gross movement of the transmission members 11d and 12d may be obtained manually or by other mechanical means as in a press for welding larger size objects.

FIGS. 8 and 9, illustrate another form of the invention in which the motor 10e is designed to have a single transmission member 12s that is ultrasonically vibrated by means of transducer means 35c coupled to rear section 43c and 44e, that are joined together by coupling means 25e in the form of support member 26c. The rear section 44e tapers downwardly by middle section 46c in which in turn is connected to front section 48 which terminates in a tip Sle that may taper downwardly to an output edge 532. The flexural vibrations generated, as shown by arrows 21e, may be used for various applications of ultrasonic energy since-themotor 10e has use in various fields with one application being illustrated forconvenience only. For welding of materials as sheets 83 and v84'e', the' motor is used in combination with supporting or anvil means 85e on which the sheets are contained. The static force is applied by moving the motor 10e along an axis indicated by arrow 86e. Retaining means 70e is provided in the form of a shaft 88c threadably engaged with the coupling means 25e. The shaft 88e may be coupled to a press that is automatically cycled to compress and weld the sheets 83c and 84e.

FIGS. 10 and 11, illustrate a form of the motor 10f as incorporated and made part of a cutting instrument 90f which is illustrated in the form of an ultrasonic scissor. The motor 10f includes a transducer 35f mounted between the rear section 43f of transmission member or first arm 11f and rear section 44f with the coupling means 25f in the form of support member 26f connecting them together. The middle section 45f extends into a front section 47f terminating in a tip 50f. The transmission member 11 f may be tapered as in a scissor with a shearing or cutting edge 91 f provided to extend along one surface or edge of the first arm 11 f.

To control the movement of the transmission member 1 1f gripping means f is provided in the form the support member 26f such that at least no noticable vibration is transmitted thereto. The shaft 88f at its opposite end is formed as a finger grip 92f for the finger of the user. The shaft 88f and finger grip 92f may be hollow to accommodate the power lines in a conduit 93f which is coupled to an electrical converter for energizing the motor.

To enclose the motor 35f housing means 95f is provided and includes a hollow shell 96f which covers a portion of the transmission member 11f with a front plate 97f attached to the housing casing 96f and having an opening therein for a portion of the transmission member 43f to extend therethrough. Obviously the shape and configuration of the housing means will vary as to the shape and size of the motor which is a factor of the frequency of the motor i.e., 2O Kc, 40 Kc, Kc, etc., as well as if it is magnetostrictive or piezoelectric.

As second arm 100f is provided having a finger grip 101f at one end thereof with a tapered member 102f having a complimentary cutting or shearing edge 103f for use in conjunction with edge 91f. As seen in FIG. 11, the arm 100 is contoured to avoid engagement with the housing f and to permit free movement therebetween. If desired the second arm may be similarly constructed as the first arm in that an ultrasonic motor may be incorporated therein such that each arm is ultrasonically vibrated to effect a severing of the tissue or any other material for which the ultrasonic scissor is used with a minimum of friction.

To connect the arms 11f and f for pivotally moving them, connecting means 105f is used and may consist of a pin 106f that extends through the arms and is headed over at each side thereof. The location of the pin may be at substantially a node of motion so that the pin l06f remains substantially isolated from vibrational energy. lfdesired a rubber or other acoustic material to absorb vibrations may be used in conjunction with the connecting means.

The scissor may be used for industrial applications as well as medical as in the cutting of human or other animal tissue for surgical purposes. By reducing the frictional effect by vibrating the cutting edge controlled movement of the scissor with minimal effort can take place. Although the scissor is designed for movement between the arms a shearing action may take place with the blades maintained in a fixed position after they have been set in place by the user.

The instrument illustrated in FIGS. 10 and 11, is also capable of being used for other applications of hand held instruments in which ultrasonic energy is to be applied, as for example, in welding of materials. The cutting edge is essentially a free end and may have various configurations adapted for use on the particular application of ultrasonic energy. For example, a series of indentations may be provided so that a welding and cutting action may be simultaneously obtained as in the welding of sutures.

Although illustrative embodiments of the invention have been described in detail herein with reference to the accompanying drawings it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to those precise embodiments, and that various changes and modifications may be effected therein without departing from the scope or spirit of the invention.

I claim:

1. An ultrasonic motor, comprising:

A. a pair of spaced apart transmission members, at least one of which has a free end adapted to be used,

8. coupling means for maintaining said transmission members in a relatively fixed position relative to each other,

C. transducer means extending between said transmission members for inducing high frequency mechanical vibrations in at least one of said transmission members in spaced relation to said free end, wherein vibrations are transmitted therethrough to induce mechanical vibrations at said free end at a frequency in the range of 10,000 to 500,000 cycles per second with peak accelerations of the order of at least l000g,

D. engaging means positioned at the free end of said transmission member having a reduced cross-sectional area at its output edge for transmitting said mechanical vibrations, and

E. housing means substantially enclosing said transducer means.

2. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, and further including gripping means secured to at least one of said transmission members for controlled movement of said motor.

3. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 2, wherein said gripping means is positioned substantially at a nodal region of vibration for minimum vibrational transmission to the gripping means.

4. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 2, wherein said gripping means is in the form of finger rest containing extending tabs which overlap said transmission member with a pin extending transversely through said transmission member and into said tabs.

5. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, wherein A. said transmission members extend in substantially parallel spaced apart relation to each other, and

B. said coupling means extends between said transmission members at substantially one end thereof.

6. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1,,wherein said transmission members are substantially of equal length having spaced apart free ends.

7. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 6, wherein one of said transmission members is adapted to be moved towards and away from the other transmission member.

8. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 6, wherein said engaging means have inwardly directed projections containing positioning means thereon for retaining members to be positioned therebetween in relatively fixed position with respect to each other.

9. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, wherein said transmission members are of difi'erent mass wherein one of said free ends exhibits a greater degree of mechanical vibration than the other.

10. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, wherein said transducer means extends transversely to the direction of said transmission members at substantially one end thereof.

11. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, wherein said transducer means is of a piezoelectric material.

12. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, wherein said transducer means includes a pair of piezoelectric disks with an. electrode therebetween and spaced apart end members at least one of which is in engagement with one of said transmission members for transmitting mechanical vibrations thereto.

13. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 12, wherein said transducer means includes a central bolt which serves to compress said transducer means between said end members.

14. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, and further including means for rigidly mounting said ultrasonic motor.

' 15. An ultrasonic motor, comprising:

A. a pair of spaced apart transmission members in substantially parallel spaced apart relation to each other, at least one of which has a free end adapted to be used, and one of said transmission members at its free end adapted to be moved towards and away from the other transmission member for gross movement therebetween from an open position in which members may be freely positioned therein to a closed position for transmitting ultrasonic vibrations thereto,

B. coupling means for maintaining said transmission members in a relatively fixed position relative to each other at adjacent said coupling means extending therebetween at substantially one end thereof, said transmission members being of a length and cross-sectional area to permit said gross movement therebetween,

C. transducer means extending between said transmission members for inducing ultrasonic mechanical vibrations in at least one of said transmission members in spaced relation to said free end, wherein vibrations are transmitted therethrough to induce mechanical vibrations at said free end at a frequency of at least 10,000 cycles per second with peak accelerations of the order of at least 1,000g, and

D. engaging means positioned substantially at the free ends of said transmission members for movement from said open position for receiving therebetween members to which the mechanical vibrations are to be coupled when said engaging means is in said closed position.

16. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 15, wherein said transducer means is of piezoelectric material, and includes a pair of piezoelectric disks with an electrode therebetween and spaced apart end members at least one of which is in engagement with one of said transmission members for transmitting mechanical vibrations thereto, with a central bolt extending through the transmission member said end member is in engagement with for compressing said transducer means between said end members.

17. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 15, and further including gripping means secured to at least one of said transmission members for controlled movement of said motor.

18. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 17, wherein said gripping means is positioned substantially at a nodal region of vibration for minimum transmis- 20. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 15, wherein said transmission membersare of different mass wherein one of said free ends exhibits a greater degree of mechanical vibration than the other.

21; A hand held instrument, comprising:

A. a pair of arms each having a free end adapted to be used,

B. gripping means on each of said arms at the other end thereof,

C. means pivotally connecting said arms together to permit cooperation between said free ends, and

D. means for ultrasonically vibrating at least one of said free ends at a frequency of at least 10,000 cycles per second with peak accelerations of the order of at least 1,000g.

22. A hand held instrument as claimed in claim 21, wherein said arm is vibrated along its length to obtain the ultrasonic mechanical vibration at its free end.

23. A hand held instrument as claimed in claim 21, wherein said means for ultrasonically vibrating at least one of said ends includes:

a. a vibrating generator,

b. an ultrasonic motor connected to said vibration generator, and

c. means connecting said ultrasonic motor to said vibrated arm for transmitting said vibrations thereto.

24. A hand held instrument as claimed in claim 23, and further including housing means enclosing said ultrasonic motor.

25. A hand held instrument as claimed in claim 21, wherein said means pivotally connecting said arms together is located at a node of vibrational motion.

26. A hand held instrument as in claim 21, wherein one of said free ends is in the form of a cutting edge, to permit the instrument to be used as a scissor.

27. A hand held instrument, comprising:

A. a pair of arms each having a cutting edge extending along one edge from one end thereof,

B. gripping means on each of said arms at the other end thereof,

C. means pivotally connecting said arms together to permit cooperation between said cutting edge,

D. means for ultrasonically vibrating at least one of said arms to obtain high frequency mechanical vibrations at said cutting edge, at a frequency in the range of 10,000 cycles per second to 500,000 cycles per second with peak accelerations of the order of at least 1,000g, said means including:

1. a vibration generator,

2. an ultrasonic motor connected to said vibration generator, and

3. means connecting said ultrasonic motor to said vibrated arm for transmitting said vibrations thereto, and

E. housing means enclosing said ultrasonic motor.

28. A hand held instrument as claimed in claim 27, wherein said means pivotally connecting said arms together is located at a node of vibrational motion.

Claims (30)

1. An ultrasonic motor, comprising: A. a pair of spaced apart transmission members, at least one of which has a free end adapted to be used, B. coupling means for maintaining said transmission members in a relatively fixed position relative to each other, C. transducer means extending between said transmission members for inducing high frequency mechanical vibrations in at least one of said transmission members in spaced relation to said free end, wherein vibrations are transmitted therethrough to induce mechanical vibrations at said free end at a frequency in the range of 10,000 to 500,000 cycles per second with peak accelerations of the order of at least 1000g, D. engaging means positioned at the free end of said transmission member having a reduced cross-sectional area at its output edge for transmitting said mechanical vibrations, and E. housing means substantially enclosing said transducer means.
2. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, and further including gripping means secured to at least one of said transmission members for controlled movement of said motor.
2. an ultrasonic motor connected to said vibration generator, and
3. means connecting said ultrasonic motor to said vibrated arm for transmitting said vibrations thereto, and E. housing means enclosing said ultrasonic motor.
3. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 2, wherein said gripping means is positioned substantially at a nodal region of vibration for minimum vibrational transmission to the gripping means.
4. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 2, wherein said gripping means is in the form of finger rest containing extending tabs which overlap said transmission member with a pin extending transversely through said transmission member and into said tabs.
5. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, wherein A. said transmission members extend in substantially parallel spaced apart relation to each other, and B. said coupling means extends between said transmission members at substantially one end thereof.
6. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, wherein said transmission members are substantially of equal length having spaced apart free ends.
7. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 6, wherein one of said transmission members is adapted to be moved towards and away from the other transmission member.
8. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 6, wherein said engaging means have inwardly directed projections containing positioning means thereon for retaining members to be positioned therebetween in relatively fixed position with respect to each other.
9. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, wherein said transmission members are of different mass wherein one of said free ends exhibits a greater degree of mechanical vibration than the other.
10. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, wherein said transducer means extends transversely to the direction of said transmission members at substantially one end thereof.
11. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, wherein said transducer means is of a piezoelectric material.
12. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, wherein said transducer means includes a pair of piezoelectric disks with an electrode therebetween and spaced apart end members at least one of which is in engagement with one of said transmission members for transmitting mechanical vibrations thereto.
13. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 12, wherein said transducer means includes a central bolt which serves to compress said transducer means between said end members.
14. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 1, and further including means for rigidly mounting said ultrasonic motor.
15. An ultrasonic motor, comprising: A. a pair of spaced apart transmission members in substantially parallel spaced apart relation to each other, at least one of which has a free end adapted to be used, and one of said transmission members at its free end adapted to be moved towards and away from the other transmission member for gross movement therebetween from an open position in which members may be freely positioned therein to a closed position for transmitting ultrasonic vibrations thereto, B. coupling means for maintaining said transmission members in a relatively fixed position relative to each other at adjacent said coupling means extending therebetween at substantially one end thereof, said transmission members being of a length and cross-sectional area to permit said gross movement therebetween, C. transducer means extending between said transmission members for inducing ultrasonic mechanical vibrations in at least one of said transmission members in spaced relation to said free end, wherein vibrations are transmitted therethrough to induce mechanical vibrations at said free end at a frequency of at least 10,000 cycles per second with peak accelerations of the order of at least 1,000g, and D. engaging means positioned substantially at the free ends of said transmission members for movement from said open position for receiving therebetween members to which the mechanical vibrations are to be coupled when said engaging means is in said closed position.
16. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 15, wherein said transducer means is of piezoelectric material, and includes a pair of piezoelectric disks with an electrode therebetween and spaced apart end members at least one of which is in engagement with one of said transmission members for transmitting mechanical vibrations thereto, with a central bolt extending through the transmission member said end member is in engagement with for compressing said transducer means between said end members.
17. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 15, and further including gripping means secured to at least one of said transmission members for controlled movement of said motor.
18. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 17, wherein said gripping means is positioned substantially at a nodal region of vibration for minimum transmission to the gripping means.
19. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 17, wherein said gripping means is in the form of finger rest containing extending tabs which overlap said transmission member with a pin extending transversely through said transmission member and into said tabs.
20. An ultrasonic motor as defined in claim 15, wherein said transmission members are of different mass wherein one of said free ends exhibits a greater degree of mechanical vibration than the other.
21. A hand held instrument, comprising: A. a pair of arms each having a free end adapted to be used, B. gripping means on each of said arms at the other end thereof, C. means pivotally connecting said arms together to permit cooperation between said free ends, and D. means for ultrasonically vibrating at least one of said Free ends at a frequency of at least 10,000 cycles per second with peak accelerations of the order of at least 1,000g.
22. A hand held instrument as claimed in claim 21, wherein said arm is vibrated along its length to obtain the ultrasonic mechanical vibration at its free end.
23. A hand held instrument as claimed in claim 21, wherein said means for ultrasonically vibrating at least one of said ends includes: a. a vibrating generator, b. an ultrasonic motor connected to said vibration generator, and c. means connecting said ultrasonic motor to said vibrated arm for transmitting said vibrations thereto.
24. A hand held instrument as claimed in claim 23, and further including housing means enclosing said ultrasonic motor.
25. A hand held instrument as claimed in claim 21, wherein said means pivotally connecting said arms together is located at a node of vibrational motion.
26. A hand held instrument as in claim 21, wherein one of said free ends is in the form of a cutting edge, to permit the instrument to be used as a scissor.
27. A hand held instrument, comprising: A. a pair of arms each having a cutting edge extending along one edge from one end thereof, B. gripping means on each of said arms at the other end thereof, C. means pivotally connecting said arms together to permit cooperation between said cutting edge, D. means for ultrasonically vibrating at least one of said arms to obtain high frequency mechanical vibrations at said cutting edge, at a frequency in the range of 10,000 cycles per second to 500,000 cycles per second with peak accelerations of the order of at least 1,000g, said means including:
28. A hand held instrument as claimed in claim 27, wherein said means pivotally connecting said arms together is located at a node of vibrational motion.
US216130A 1972-01-07 1972-01-07 Ultrasonic motors and scissors Expired - Lifetime US3702948A (en)

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