US3697366A - Lightweight gypsum panel - Google Patents

Lightweight gypsum panel Download PDF

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Publication number
US3697366A
US3697366A US3697366DA US3697366A US 3697366 A US3697366 A US 3697366A US 3697366D A US3697366D A US 3697366DA US 3697366 A US3697366 A US 3697366A
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Grant
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Prior art keywords
gypsum
wallboard
paper
core
lightweight
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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George H Harlock
Edward A Burkard
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National Gypsum Co
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National Gypsum Co
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Publication date
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28BSHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS, SLAG, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER
    • B28B23/00Arrangements specially adapted for the production of shaped articles with elements wholly or partly embedded in the moulding material; Production of reinforced objects
    • B28B23/0081Embedding aggregates to obtain particular properties
    • B28B23/0087Lightweight aggregates for making lightweight articles
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B16/00Use of organic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of organic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone
    • C04B16/04Macromolecular compounds
    • C04B16/08Macromolecular compounds porous, e.g. expanded polystyrene beads or microballoons
    • C04B16/087Macromolecular compounds porous, e.g. expanded polystyrene beads or microballoons shredded
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S264/00Plastic and nonmetallic article shaping or treating: processes
    • Y10S264/07Binding and molding cellular particles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S521/00Synthetic resins or natural rubbers -- part of the class 520 series
    • Y10S521/921Preparing a nonpolyurethane cellular particle from a nonparticulate material
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/26Web or sheet containing structurally defined element or component, the element or component having a specified physical dimension
    • Y10T428/268Monolayer with structurally defined element
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/27Web or sheet containing structurally defined element or component, the element or component having a specified weight per unit area [e.g., gms/sq cm, lbs/sq ft, etc.]

Abstract

GYPSUM WALLBOARD IN WHICH ABOUT HALF THE VOLUME OF THE CORE CONSISTS OF VERY LIGHTWEIGHT PARTICLES FORMED BY TEARING FOAMED POLYSTYRENE BEADS INTO A SHREDDED FORM.

Description

Oct. 10, 1972 HARLQCK EIAL 3,697,366

LIGHTWEIGHT GYPSUM iANEL Filed April 13, 1970 ska- INVENTORS George H. Hurloc'k Ed we rd A. Burke rd wwzzm ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 10, 1972 3,697,366 LIGHTWEIGHT GYPSUM PANEL George H. Harlock and Edward A. Burkard, East Amherst, N.Y., assignors to National Gypsum Company, Buffalo, N.Y.

Filed Apr. 13, 1970, Ser. No. 27,755 Int. Cl. 83% 13/00 US. Cl. 161-159 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Gypsum wallboard in which about half the volume of the core consists of very lightweight particles formed by tearing foamed polystyrene beads into a shredded form.

This invention relates to a lightweight gypsum wallboard having a substantial portion of lightweight aggregate consisting of shredded polystyrene beads.

Several types of lightweight aggregate have been tried, some successfully and some unsuccessfully, in forming the core of gypsum wallboard. The most common means for providing a lower density of the set gypsum core involves the use of a soap to produce a foam which results in a multitude of voids throughout the core. Various problems have presented themselves with regard to the use of various lightweight aggregates. There are practical limits to how low the density can be for any aggregate, without effectively destroying the integrity of the aggregate. Inability of some aggregates to adhere to the gypsum matrix can result in inadequate core integrity. Cost of an aggregate can outweigh its advantages.

It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved lightweight gypsum board. It is a further object to provide a novel core formulation of set gypsum and lightweight aggregate.

Briefly, the present invention provides a lightweight gypsum board having an aggregate formed by shredding low density polystyrene beads.

These and other objects and advantages of the invention will be more readily apparent when considered in relation to the preferred embodiments as set forth in the specification and shown in the drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a paper covered gypsum wallboard embodying the present invention.

FIG. 2 is an enlarged end view of a portion of the gypsum Wallboard of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is an elevational view illustrating, in enlarged form, particles of low density shredded plastic foam aggregate.

Referring to FIG. 1 there is shown a gypsum Wallboard 10 consisting of a core 12 enclosed with a face paper 14, which extends across the wallboard face 16 and completely around each edge 18, and a back paper 20 which extends almost across the wallboard back 22. Face paper 14 has edges 24 extending onto the wallboard back 22. Edges 26 of back paper 20 overlap the edges 24 of face paper 14.

Each wallboard edge 18 is of tapered form for use in drywall construction with well known joint-concealing systems; however, the invention is suited for wallboards having a square edge. bevelled edge or round edge.

'allboard 10 is preferably made on well known con tinuous machines for producing gypsum wallboard of all kinds, wherein face paper 14, in continuous form, is disposed on a continuous conveyor. :1 water slurry of the settable gypsum core material is disposed on the face paper, back paper 20. in continuous form. is disposed on the slurry, the edges 24 of the face paper are folded up and over the edges 26 of the back paper, the settable gypsum core material hardens, the continuous hardened board is cut into desired length boards 10 and the boards 10 are dried.

The paper may be of the type commonly employed for gypsum boards, such as relatively high quality cream face paper for face paper 14 and a greyback grade of paper for back paper 20. These papers are commonly made on a cylinder type paper-making machine wherein about six to ten plies are combined to form a unitary paper sheet of about .020 inch thickness. The creamface type paper dilfers from the greyback in that the top ply or top two plies of creamface consist of a lighter colored pulp stock, forming a cream-colored outer surface on the wallboard face 16.

FIG. 2 is an enlarged view of the end of wallboard 10, showing the combination in the core 12 of shredded plastic foam fragments 30, and a continuous matrix therebetween of set gypsum 32. The composition of the core of wallboard 10, containing these very lightweight fragments 30, produces a very lightweight wallboard.

EXAMPLE I A formulation of core 12 that has been found highly advantageous in accordance with the invention, based on 1000 sq. ft., of V2 inch wallboard, is as follows:

Lbs.

'Settable gypsum 946 Water of rehydration 123 Starch 9.33

Pulp 7.2 Set Gypsum Accelerator l2 Shredded plastic foam 1 8.3 Soap 17 Core weight 1106.00 Face and back paper 144.00

Wallboard weight 1250.00

1 .3 lb./eu. ft.

As is well known in wallboard manufacture, there will also be needed an additional amount of water to provide the desired consistency during forming of the core, which excess water is evaporated off in the drying step.

EXAMPLE II An even lighter wallboard has been satisfactorily produced with the following core formulation:

Lbs.

Settable gypsum 915.8 Water of rehydration 119.1 Starch 8.93 Set gypsum accelerator l3 Shredded plastic foam 1 S Soap .17

Core weight 1065.00 Face and back paper 144.00

Wallboard weight 1209.00

.3 lb./cu. ft.

Waste newspaper pulp, a common ingredient in wallboard, has been omitted in Example II. A second difference, essentially unrelated to the omission of the pulp, is the lighter weight, which resulted from a different mixing of the wet ingredients avoiding breaking down as much of the soap-produced foam in the mix. The pulp in Example I may have lessened the stability of the soap-produced foam to some extent.

. Although determining variability in accordance with the invention would require endless evaluation, it is contemplated that at least the following ranges of ingredients is possible:

Settable gypsum lbs 900-1200 Water of rehydration -lbs As required Starch 6l4 Pulp lbs 14 Accelerator lbs As required Shredded plastic foam cu. ft Up to 35 The shredded plastic foam is preferably the product of shredding expanded polystyrene beads. Shredding is to be understood as distinctly different from a severing which produces a clean or smooth surface. It is essential, in accordance with the invention that the shredded plastic foam be small particles which are produced in a way which produces an extremely uneven surface,

One suitable method for producing the critical shredded rough surface is disclosed in US. Pat. 3,338,848 to be by a hammer mill, and since the fragmented particles which are described therein are equivalent to the critical shred ded plastic foam of the present invention, reference thereto can assist in understanding the present invention.

The expanded polystyrene beads may be ellipsoids with a major diameter of about A to /2 inch and a density of about .3 to about 1.0 lb./cu. ft, preferably about .3 lb./ cu. ft. After shredding the beads, the density of the shredded material should be about the same as the bead density and the shredded particles will mostly be of a size of about V to /4 inch.

In FIG. 3, two shredded plastic foam fragments 30 are shown, enlarged, to give an idea of the randomness and roughness of the shape, which permits settable gypsum to form crystals which penetrate the fragments and become firmly bonded thereto, in the setting of the gypsum board core 12.

Wallboards made in accordance with the invention have a central cast gypsum core of unusual strength and in tegrity, in many respects equal to the characteristics of the present standard gypsum board cores which average about 50% higher weight.

As can be seen in FIG. 2, the surface of the central cast gypsum core conforms smoothly to the paper and has a surface formation which is independent of the shape of the fragments 30 embedded within the cast, or, in this example, the wallboard core.

The formulations of the invention permit ease of manufacture of gypsum wallboard and result in improved drying characteristics, permitting faster drying and less heat requirement relative to standard wallboard. Warehousing and shipping costs are reduced since larger units, of equal weight, can be handled.

Having completed a detailed disclosure of the preferred embodiments of the invention, so that others may practice the same, we contemplate that variations may be made without departing from the essence of the invention.

We claim:

1. The method of making gypsum wallboard comprising the steps of forming lightweight expanded cellular plastic beads having a major diameter of about A to V;

inch and a density of about 0.3 to 1.0 lb./cu. ft., shredding said beads into lightweight fragments of a size of about ,5 to 4 inch having highly uneven, rough exterior surfaces, mixing said shredded fragments with an aqueous settable gypsum slurry, placing said slurry between a face paper and a back paper to form a wallboard, the solids content of said slurry comprising a major portion of gypsum binder, and allowing said slurry to set and dry with said fragments embedded within said slurry between said face paper and said back paper, thus resulting in a very lightweight, strong gypsum core.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein said beads are formed of polystyrene.

3. The method of claim I wherein said set and dried wallboard has a nominal weight of about 1200 pounds per thousand square feet, per half inch thickness.

4. The method of claim 1 wherein said shredded fragments are about one-half the dry volume of said wallboard.

5. A set gypsum cast containing a lightweight aggregate and a major portion of weight of set gypsum binder, said aggregate consisting of shredded particles of low density cellular plastic, said particles having highly uneven, rough exterior surfaces, said set gypsum forming a substantially continuous binder matrix extending about and into said rough surfaces of said shredded particles, said cast having an exterior surface formation which is substantially independent of the shape of said particles.

6. A set gypsum cast as defined in claim 5, wherein said low density cellular plastic particles are shredded polystyrene beads of about 0.3 to 1.0 lbs. per cu. ft.

7. A lightweight gypsum wallboard having a central core disposed between a face paper and a back paper, said central core consisting of a set gypsum cast as defined in claim 5.

8. A lightweight gypsum wallboard as defined in claim 7 wherein said low density cellular plastic particles are shredded polystyrene beads of about 0.3 to 1.0 lbs. per cu. ft.

9. A lightweight gypsum wallboard as defined in claim 8 wherein said particles are of a size of about to A inch.

10. A lightweight gypsum wallboard as defined in claim 8 wherein said particles are about half the volume of said central core.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,009,146 7/[935 New l06-ll0 2,366,673 l/l945 Paley lO6ll0 3,257,338 6/l966 Sefton 2602.5 B 3,338,848 8/1967 Hamilton 260-25 B 3 462,34l 8/1969 Littin l5642 MORRIS SUSSMAN, Primary Examiner Notice of Adverse Decision in Interference In Interference No. 99,139, involving Patent No. 3,697,366, G. H. Harlock and E. A. Burkard, LIGHTWEIGHT GYPSUM PANEL, final judgment adverse to the patentees was rendered Oct. 29, 197 6, as to claim 1.

[Ofiicz'al Gazette February 1, 1.977.]

US3697366A 1970-04-13 1970-04-13 Lightweight gypsum panel Expired - Lifetime US3697366A (en)

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Cited By (33)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3855049A (en) * 1971-03-02 1974-12-17 Normac Composite polymer products for that
US3864201A (en) * 1970-10-06 1975-02-04 Lion Fat Oil Co Ltd Thermoplastic resins loaded with filler bonded to cover layers
US3948009A (en) * 1973-04-28 1976-04-06 Bayer Aktiengesellschaft Sound insulating wall made from composite rubber material
US4010817A (en) * 1974-05-20 1977-03-08 United States Gypsum Company Paper-backed acoustical tile
US4076880A (en) * 1973-07-20 1978-02-28 Lancaster Research And Development Corporation Mastic composition and composite structural panels formed therefrom
US4100242A (en) * 1971-02-24 1978-07-11 Leach Irby H Method of molding aqueous settable slurries containing shredded open-cell polystyrene particles
US4306395A (en) * 1978-06-01 1981-12-22 Carpenter Orval R Lightweight cementitious product and method for making same
US4331726A (en) * 1979-06-13 1982-05-25 Cleary Patrick J Roofing composition and structure
US4480053A (en) * 1980-03-11 1984-10-30 Aperm Of South Carolina Coating composition and method
EP0241205A2 (en) * 1986-04-07 1987-10-14 W.R. Grace & Co.-Conn. Sprayable fireproofing composition
US5352390A (en) * 1989-07-25 1994-10-04 W. R. Grace & Co.-Conn. Cementitious compositions containing shredded polystyrene aggregate
US5453310A (en) * 1992-08-11 1995-09-26 E. Khashoggi Industries Cementitious materials for use in packaging containers and their methods of manufacture
US5506046A (en) * 1992-08-11 1996-04-09 E. Khashoggi Industries Articles of manufacture fashioned from sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5508072A (en) * 1992-08-11 1996-04-16 E. Khashoggi Industries Sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5543186A (en) * 1993-02-17 1996-08-06 E. Khashoggi Industries Sealable liquid-tight, thin-walled containers made from hydraulically settable materials
US5545450A (en) * 1992-08-11 1996-08-13 E. Khashoggi Industries Molded articles having an inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5580409A (en) * 1992-08-11 1996-12-03 E. Khashoggi Industries Methods for manufacturing articles of manufacture from hydraulically settable sheets
US5582670A (en) * 1992-08-11 1996-12-10 E. Khashoggi Industries Methods for the manufacture of sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5614307A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-03-25 E. Khashoggi Industries Sheets made from moldable hydraulically settable compositions
US5631097A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-05-20 E. Khashoggi Industries Laminate insulation barriers having a cementitious structural matrix and methods for their manufacture
US5641584A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-06-24 E. Khashoggi Industries Highly insulative cementitious matrices and methods for their manufacture
US5658603A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-08-19 E. Khashoggi Industries Systems for molding articles having an inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5660903A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-08-26 E. Khashoggi Industries Sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5665439A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-09-09 E. Khashoggi Industries Articles of manufacture fashioned from hydraulically settable sheets
US5705239A (en) * 1992-08-11 1998-01-06 E. Khashoggi Industries Molded articles having an inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5709913A (en) * 1992-08-11 1998-01-20 E. Khashoggi Industries Method and apparatus for manufacturing articles of manufacture from sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5720913A (en) * 1992-08-11 1998-02-24 E. Khashoggi Industries Methods for manufacturing sheets from hydraulically settable compositions
US5738921A (en) * 1993-08-10 1998-04-14 E. Khashoggi Industries, Llc Compositions and methods for manufacturing sealable, liquid-tight containers comprising an inorganically filled matrix
FR2754838A1 (en) * 1996-10-18 1998-04-24 Tisseau Michel Hollow twin-wall plastic extrusion, e.g. for partitions or ceilings
US5830548A (en) * 1992-08-11 1998-11-03 E. Khashoggi Industries, Llc Articles of manufacture and methods for manufacturing laminate structures including inorganically filled sheets
US5849155A (en) * 1993-02-02 1998-12-15 E. Khashoggi Industries, Llc Method for dispersing cellulose based fibers in water
US5928741A (en) * 1992-08-11 1999-07-27 E. Khashoggi Industries, Llc Laminated articles of manufacture fashioned from sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
EP1202941A1 (en) * 2000-04-25 2002-05-08 United States Gypsum Company Gypsum compositions and related methods

Cited By (54)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3864201A (en) * 1970-10-06 1975-02-04 Lion Fat Oil Co Ltd Thermoplastic resins loaded with filler bonded to cover layers
US4100242A (en) * 1971-02-24 1978-07-11 Leach Irby H Method of molding aqueous settable slurries containing shredded open-cell polystyrene particles
US3855049A (en) * 1971-03-02 1974-12-17 Normac Composite polymer products for that
US3948009A (en) * 1973-04-28 1976-04-06 Bayer Aktiengesellschaft Sound insulating wall made from composite rubber material
US4076880A (en) * 1973-07-20 1978-02-28 Lancaster Research And Development Corporation Mastic composition and composite structural panels formed therefrom
US4010817A (en) * 1974-05-20 1977-03-08 United States Gypsum Company Paper-backed acoustical tile
US4306395A (en) * 1978-06-01 1981-12-22 Carpenter Orval R Lightweight cementitious product and method for making same
US4331726A (en) * 1979-06-13 1982-05-25 Cleary Patrick J Roofing composition and structure
US4480053A (en) * 1980-03-11 1984-10-30 Aperm Of South Carolina Coating composition and method
US4751024A (en) * 1986-04-07 1988-06-14 W. R. Grace & Co. Sprayable fireproofing composition
EP0241205A2 (en) * 1986-04-07 1987-10-14 W.R. Grace & Co.-Conn. Sprayable fireproofing composition
EP0241205A3 (en) * 1986-04-07 1988-09-14 W.R. Grace & Co. Sprayable fireproofing composition
US5352390A (en) * 1989-07-25 1994-10-04 W. R. Grace & Co.-Conn. Cementitious compositions containing shredded polystyrene aggregate
US5626954A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-05-06 E. Khashoggi Industries Sheets made from moldable hydraulically settable materials
US5506046A (en) * 1992-08-11 1996-04-09 E. Khashoggi Industries Articles of manufacture fashioned from sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5508072A (en) * 1992-08-11 1996-04-16 E. Khashoggi Industries Sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US6090195A (en) * 1992-08-11 2000-07-18 E. Khashoggi Industries, Llc Compositions used in manufacturing articles having an inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5545450A (en) * 1992-08-11 1996-08-13 E. Khashoggi Industries Molded articles having an inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5580409A (en) * 1992-08-11 1996-12-03 E. Khashoggi Industries Methods for manufacturing articles of manufacture from hydraulically settable sheets
US5582670A (en) * 1992-08-11 1996-12-10 E. Khashoggi Industries Methods for the manufacture of sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5614307A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-03-25 E. Khashoggi Industries Sheets made from moldable hydraulically settable compositions
US5453310A (en) * 1992-08-11 1995-09-26 E. Khashoggi Industries Cementitious materials for use in packaging containers and their methods of manufacture
US5631052A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-05-20 E. Khashoggi Industries Coated cementitious packaging containers
US5631097A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-05-20 E. Khashoggi Industries Laminate insulation barriers having a cementitious structural matrix and methods for their manufacture
US5641584A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-06-24 E. Khashoggi Industries Highly insulative cementitious matrices and methods for their manufacture
US5654048A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-08-05 E. Khashoggi Industries Cementitious packaging containers
US5658603A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-08-19 E. Khashoggi Industries Systems for molding articles having an inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5800756A (en) * 1992-08-11 1998-09-01 E. Khashoggi Industries, Llc Methods for manufacturing containers and other articles from hydraulically settable mixtures
US5660903A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-08-26 E. Khashoggi Industries Sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5665439A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-09-09 E. Khashoggi Industries Articles of manufacture fashioned from hydraulically settable sheets
US5665442A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-09-09 E. Khashoggi Industries Laminated sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5676905A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-10-14 E. Khashoggi Industries Methods for manufacturing articles of manufacture from hydraulically settable mixtures
US5679381A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-10-21 E. Khashoggi Industries Systems for manufacturing sheets from hydraulically settable compositions
US5691014A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-11-25 E. Khashoggi Industries Coated articles having an inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5702787A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-12-30 E. Khashoggi Industries Molded articles having an inorganically filled oragnic polymer matrix
US5705238A (en) * 1992-08-11 1998-01-06 E. Khashoggi Industries Articles of manufacture fashioned from sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5705239A (en) * 1992-08-11 1998-01-06 E. Khashoggi Industries Molded articles having an inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5709913A (en) * 1992-08-11 1998-01-20 E. Khashoggi Industries Method and apparatus for manufacturing articles of manufacture from sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5928741A (en) * 1992-08-11 1999-07-27 E. Khashoggi Industries, Llc Laminated articles of manufacture fashioned from sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5720913A (en) * 1992-08-11 1998-02-24 E. Khashoggi Industries Methods for manufacturing sheets from hydraulically settable compositions
US5879722A (en) * 1992-08-11 1999-03-09 E. Khashogi Industries System for manufacturing sheets from hydraulically settable compositions
US5830548A (en) * 1992-08-11 1998-11-03 E. Khashoggi Industries, Llc Articles of manufacture and methods for manufacturing laminate structures including inorganically filled sheets
US5766525A (en) * 1992-08-11 1998-06-16 E. Khashoggi Industries Methods for manufacturing articles from sheets of unhardened hydraulically settable compositions
US5660904A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-08-26 E. Khashoggi Industries Sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5800647A (en) * 1992-08-11 1998-09-01 E. Khashoggi Industries, Llc Methods for manufacturing articles from sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5849155A (en) * 1993-02-02 1998-12-15 E. Khashoggi Industries, Llc Method for dispersing cellulose based fibers in water
US5714217A (en) * 1993-02-17 1998-02-03 E. Khashoggi Industries Sealable liquid-tight containers comprised of coated hydraulically settable materials
US5543186A (en) * 1993-02-17 1996-08-06 E. Khashoggi Industries Sealable liquid-tight, thin-walled containers made from hydraulically settable materials
US5738921A (en) * 1993-08-10 1998-04-14 E. Khashoggi Industries, Llc Compositions and methods for manufacturing sealable, liquid-tight containers comprising an inorganically filled matrix
FR2754838A1 (en) * 1996-10-18 1998-04-24 Tisseau Michel Hollow twin-wall plastic extrusion, e.g. for partitions or ceilings
EP1202941A4 (en) * 2000-04-25 2004-07-21 United States Gypsum Co Gypsum compositions and related methods
EP1202941A1 (en) * 2000-04-25 2002-05-08 United States Gypsum Company Gypsum compositions and related methods
US6387172B1 (en) * 2000-04-25 2002-05-14 United States Gypsum Company Gypsum compositions and related methods
US6481171B2 (en) 2000-04-25 2002-11-19 United States Gypsum Company Gypsum compositions and related methods

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Publication number Publication date Type
DE7103969U (en) 1971-07-08 grant
DE2104993A1 (en) 1971-11-04 application

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