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US3696409A - Finger-touch faceplate - Google Patents

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US3696409A
US3696409A US3696409DA US3696409A US 3696409 A US3696409 A US 3696409A US 3696409D A US3696409D A US 3696409DA US 3696409 A US3696409 A US 3696409A
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output
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counter
circuit
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Norman J Braaten
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRICAL DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/041Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means
    • G06F3/0416Control and interface arrangements for touch screen
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRICAL DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/041Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means
    • G06F3/044Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means by capacitive means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03KPULSE TECHNIQUE
    • H03K17/00Electronic switching or gating, i.e. not by contact-making or -braking
    • H03K17/94Electronic switching or gating, i.e. not by contact-making or -braking characterised by the way in which the control signal is generated
    • H03K17/965Switches controlled by moving an element forming part of the switch
    • H03K17/975Switches controlled by moving an element forming part of the switch using a capacitive movable element
    • H03K17/98Switches controlled by moving an element forming part of the switch using a capacitive movable element having a plurality of control members, e.g. keyboard
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M11/00Coding in connection with keyboards or like devices, i.e. coding of the position of operated keys

Abstract

A system for identifying a particular position on the face of a display device by simply touching the area with the finger. The area is a conductive pad connected to a relaxation oscillator whose frequency is lowered by the touch. The oscillator is therefore identifiable and a digital computer is enabled to perform a prescribed act such as new information transferred to the display device, dependent upon the location of the area touched.

Description

United States Patent Braaten Oct. 3, 1972 [54] FINGER-TOUCH FACEPLATE [72] Inventor: Norman J. Braaten, Rosemount,

FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,176,212 8/1964 Germany ..340/365 C Primary Examiner-Thomas B. Habecker Attorney-Thomas G. Devine and Lew Schwartz [5 7] ABSTRACT A system for identifying a particular position on the face of a display device by simply touching the area with the finger. The area is a conductive pad connected to a relaxation oscillator whose frequency is lowered by the touch. The oscillator is therefore identifiable and a digital computer is enabled to perform a prescribed act such as new information transferred to the display device, dependent upon the location of the area touched.

, 6 Claims, 13 Drawing Figures ?0 SEQUENCE coumsn o=|o23 A MASTER i CLOCK V A SECTION 8 SECTION 55 J 66 as l i l g 92; OSCILLATOR 99 l g 95 A=O g 1 J01 CLEAR P 8 8 SELECT 91 i MATRIX P COUNTER 96 ll 102 154 127 94 OSCILLATOR 105- men/u. COMPARATOR COMPARATOR l COMPARATOR NO.32

LOW .95 64 129 THUMBWHEEL MASTER o=|o23 THRESHOLD A= 4 1 150 52 105 111 121 122 125 124 125 (M55 o=|o2z s o COUNTER $880K DELAY CLOCK FLlP-FLOP 116 PATENTEDnms x972 SHEET 2 0F 6 3PM; Q

INVENTOR. NormqnJB aten Angel/g PATENTEBncra m2 v 3.696.409

sum 3 OF 6 I NVEN TOR.

Ill 1mm: Jfimaten JFw E 3 j 47' TOE/1151 PATENTED um I972 sums 0F 6 3Fm E ZERO LEVELJ SCAN OF 8 OSCILLATORS NO PAD TOUCHED THRESHOLD SCAN OF 8 OSCILLATORS 4 PAD TOUCHED) INVENTOR. [Vorman JBraalen 7 BY @W 3% HR FINGER-TOUCH FACEPLATE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Management systems and teaching systems utilizing a digital computer lend themselves very well to the use of a finger-touch faceplate. It is an excellent, simple manner of communicating with a digital computer where the interface between the operator and the computer has been the subject of much effort over the years to be made simpler.

In the prior art, there have been many efforts made to recognize a particular area on the face of a cathode ray tube display for example by touching the selected area with a conductor, with a light pen and with the finger. Using only the finger as a pointerhas presented problems which have been successfully overcome in this invention. In prior art devices, the circuitry has been extensive and complex, but most important has not been as reliable as desired. Efforts have been made to detect a position by wire grids over the face of-a display device which indicate a position when intersecting wires are pressed together to contact each other. There have also been light grids used to attempt to locate where the operators finger is placed by interrupting the circuit of a photosensitive device. Another interesting prior art approach to solving the problem is found in U.S. Pat. No. 3,382,588 in which one or more capacitors are made a part of the faceplate of the display and are intentionally of a high leakage character. When the leakage field is interrupted by the operators finger, the capacitive reactance is changed and a bridge circuit is upset. Another prior art approach is one where, in essence, a transmitter is placed in the area of the faceplate of the display device and the finger acts as an antenna. These devices are all highly complex. Additionally, it has been found that in many of the prior art devices which utilize cathode ray tubes as the display device, that the electron beam of the cathode ray tube causes an undesirable static charge on the areas of the faceplate to be touched.

It will be seen that the invention described herein substantially reduces or eliminates these problems.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A plurality of conductive pads are attached to the face of a display device forming a finger-touch faceplate. Each pad is electrically connected to an oscillator. It has been determined that the human body is basically capacitive. Therefore when a person touches one of the conductive pads, capacity is added in parallel to the capacitance in the RC charge path of a relaxation oscillator. The frequency of the oscillator output is therefore lowered. A recognition of the fact that the frequency has been lowered and of the indentity of the oscillator with which the touched pad is associated results in an exact identification of the pad and the fact that it has been touched by the operator. This knowledge in the form of electric signals can then be transmitted to a digital computer which will respond in a prescribed way. In the preferred embodiment it is ordinarily expected that new information will be presented on the face of the display device replacing that which the operator pointed to through the transparent conductive pad.

In the preferred embodiment, the capacitor in the charge path discharges through a unijunction transistor and then charges again. Electric charge collected on the pad as a result of the electron beam of a cathode ray tube, if a cathode ray tube is used, will be conducted from the pad and discharged through the unijunction transistor, thus keeping the faceplate free of charge.

An object of this invention is to provide an economical and reliable means for selecting a given area on the face of a display device.

Another object is to electronically identify a pad that has been touched by a person.

Another object is to permit a person to touch a desired word or symbol appearing on the face of a display device and have a change in the information displayed as a result of the touch.

Still another object is to prevent the buildup of electric charge on the face of the display device.

These and other objects will become more apparent in the detailed description that follows.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the system.

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the conductive pads installed on a display device and the electronics package.

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the relaxation oscillators used in the invention.

7 FIG. 3A, FIG. 3B and FIG. 3C illustrate waveforms as seen on the face of an oscilloscope at various points within the oscillator of FIG. 3.

FIG. 4 is a logic diagram of an AND circuit made up of a NAND circuit and an inverter.

FIG. 5 is a logic diagram of a typical counter used in this invention.

FIG. 6 illustrates the use of a flip-flop circuit in conjunction with a counter, as typically used throughout this invention.

FIG. 7 is a logic diagram of the selectmatrix of FIG. 1.

FIG. 8 is a logic diagram of the digital comparator of FIG. 1.

FIG. 9 is an analog representation of the output of eight oscillators with none of the associated pads touched and of the output of eight oscillators with one of the pads touched.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the system. The preferred embodiment has 32 touchplates and therefore 32 oscillators. Oscillator 1 and oscillator 32 are shown with respective outputs 33 and 64 connected to select matrix 91. Oscillators 2 through 31 and connections 34 through 63 are not shown to avoid confusion. The select matrix 91 has outputs 92, 93, 94 and 95 which terminate in AND circuit 96.

The system has a master clock 65 whose output 66 is connected to AND circuit 68 which has .additional input line 67 and output line 69 which is an input to the A section 71 of the sequence counter 70. An output 72 of the A section 71 is an input to AND circuit 73, which has additional inputs 87 and 88. The output 89 of AND circuit 73 is an input to B section 90 of sequence counter 70. Output lines 74 and from the B section serving as inputs to select matrix 91 are shown. Output lines 75 through 84 from the B section 90 are not shown for the sake of simplicity.

Referring again to AND circuit 68, it can be seen that an additional output line 86 terminates in AND circuit 100 which has additional input line 99. AND circuit 100 has an output line 101 which is connected to P counter 98. The output of AND circuit 96 is line 97 which serves as an input to the P counter 98., Digital comparator 103 has an input 102 from P counter 98 and an input 104 from thumb-wheel threshold 105. Digital comparator 103 has an output 106 connected to output line 107 which serves as one input to AND circuit 110, the other inputs being line 108 and line 109. The output 111 of AND circuit 110 serves' as theclear input of delay flip-flop 1 12.

Referring back to .digital comparator 103, it can be seen that its output 106 also is connected to input line 134 of inverter127 whose output line 128 is connected to AND circuit 130'. AND circuit 130 has additional inputs 129, 131 and 132, and has an output line 133 which is a clear input to Q counter 115 which has an additional input 1 16.

With reference to delay flip-flop 112, it is-apparent that the clear output line 1 14 terminates at AND circuit 119 which has another input line 117 which is an output of Q counter 115. AND circuit 119 has an output line 118 that terminates in the output gate 120 which has inputs 121 through 125 and output lines 126.

FIG. 2 illustrates a typical display device 200 having a screen 197. Attached to screen 197 are transparent, conductive touchplates 133 through 164. The

touchplates are typically comprised of metal oxide,

well-known in the art and cemented to the face of the display device with transparent cement, also well known. To each of the touchplates is connected a conductor. For example, conductor 165 is connected to touchplate 133, conductor 180 is connected .to touchplate 148, conductor 181 is connected to touchplate 149, and conductor 196 is connected to touchplate 164. There is a conductor attached to each of the other touchplates which are not shown. Each conductor is connected to a separate oscillator. For example, conductor 165 is connected to oscillator 1, conductor 180 is connected to oscillator 32. Conductors 165 through 196 are shown generally as entering chassis 198- Chassis 198 contains printed circuit boards 199, 201, 202 and 203. All of the oscillators and other components (not shown) are mounted on the printed circuit boards 199, 201, 202 and 203. The chassis 198 need not be remote from the display device 200.

FIG. 3 is the schematic diagram of oscillator 1 of FIG. 1. It is identical to the other 31 oscillators of the preferred embodiment. Except for the value of capacitor 210 and the deletion of touchplate 133 and conductor 165, it is also identical to master clock 65 of FIG. 1. The transparent,gc0nductive touchplate 133 is connected to the oscillator through conductor 165 at point A. Delaying capacitor 210 is connected through conductor 211 to point A and from its other plate connected to ground through conductor 212. Unijunction transistor 226 has its emitter connected through con ductor 225 to paint A. Its base 2 is connected to a positive voltage source through conductor 222, conductor 220, resistor 219, conductor 218, conductor 230 and conductor 231. Its base 2 is also connected to coupling capacitor 224v through conductor 221. Its base 1 is connected to ground through conductor 227, resistor 228 and conductor 229. Variable resistor 216 is connected to the positive voltage source at one side through conductors 217, 230 and 231. At its other. end, resistor 216 is connected to resistor 214 through conductor 215.

The other side of resistor 214 is connected to point A 1 through conductor 213. The combination of resistors 216 and 214, together with capacitor 210 form the delay circuit for the oscillator.

The other plate of capacitor 224 is connected through conductor 223 to point B. The base of transistor 236 is connected to the positive voltage source through conductors 235 and234, and through resistor 233 and conductors 232 and 231. The emitter of transistor 236 is connected through conductor 238 to ground. The collector'of transistor 236 is connected to the positive voltage source through conductor 237, resistor 239, conductor 240-and conductor 231. The output from transistor 238 is'taken from its collector through conductor 241 to point C and out on conductor 243. Point C is kept at a specified positive voltage by diode 245 connected at its anode to point C through conductor 242 and at its cathode through conductor 244 to a positive voltage source. a

'FIG. 3A is a representation of the voltage waveform at point A of FIG. 3. The waveform 246 is a plot of voltage in the Y direction versus time in the X direction.

FIG. 3B is a representation of the voltage waveform at point B of FIG. 3. Waveform 247 is representative of voltage in the Y direction and time in the X direction.

FIG. 3C is representative of the voltage at point C of FIG. 3. Wave 248 represents voltage in the Y direction and time in the X direction, illustrating the pulse output of the relaxation oscillator of FIG. 3.

Throughout this discussion, the AND circuit is discussed. In practice, the NAND circuit is more readily available in integrated circuits. FIG. 4 illustrates AND circuit 68 having NAND circuit 205 with inputs A, B and C and output D. When A, B andC are all up, D is down, mathematically expressed as a Boolean equation:

A simple inverter 206 whose input is D and whose outputis E is connected to the NAND circuit 205 in series. When D is up, E is down and vice versa. Expressed mathematically in Boolean form:

This is readily understood to be a design choice in the use of integrated circuits. FIG. 4 shows a simple AND circuit which is comprised of a NAND circuit,and an inverter. All of the AND circuits referred to herein are of similar configuration.

FIG. 5 is a logic diagram of a well-known counter, old in the art. Flip-flops 309, 310, 311 and 312 have set inputs from circuits 301, 303, 305 and 307 respectively. They have "clear inputs from circuits 302, 304, 306 and 308 respectively. This counter is indicated generally as A section 71 of FIG. 1. Outputs are in dicated at 317, 318, 319 and 320 in ascending order. The flip-flops are provided with force-set inputs indicated as 313, 314, 315 and 316. The flip-flops also have force-clear inputs indicated at 322,323, 324 and 325. The input signal coming from AND circuit 67 of FIG. 1 enters through amplifier 300.

FIG. 6 is a logic diagram showing the B section 90 (FIG. 1) of the sequence counter 70. The lower four stages of the B section are configured exactly the same as the four stages of the A section 71 shown in detail in FIG. 5. The uppermost stage of the B section is comprised of AND circuit 330, whose inputs are the lower section outputs 326, 327, 328 and 329, and flip-flop 333, whose inputs are AND circuit 331 and on the set side, AND circuit 332 on the clear side and terminal 334 which conditions flip-flop 333. The set output of flip-flop 333 is shown at terminal 335.,

Referring now to FIG. 7, the select matrix 91 of FIG. 1 is shown in logic form. Decoder 350 has as its inputs the highest order bit (B on line 72 and the next highest bit (B on line 73 and an enable on line 351 which permits the decoder to operate when t he A ecti on of the sequence counter 70 of FIG. 1 is 0, l, 14 or 15. Decoder 350 has four outputs, line 352 which is connected to multiplexer 356, line 353 which is connected to multiplexer 357, line 354 which is connected to multiplexer 358, and line 355 which is connected to multiplexer 359. The three remaining lower order bits of the B section (B B and B are connected to each of the four multiplexers. The inputs are shown at lines 74, 75 and 76 of multiplexer 356; lines 77, 78 and 79 of multiplexer 357; lines 80, 81 and 82 of multiplexer 358; lines 83, 84 and 85 of multiplexer 359. The output line from each of the oscillators 1 through 32 of FIG. 1 are shown as lines 33 through 64, eight being an input to each of the four multiplexers.

Each of the multiplexers has an output through which the output of a selected oscillator passes. The operation will be described later. Multiplexer 356 has an output66, multiplexer 357 has an output 67, multiplexer 358 has an output 68 and multiplexer 359 has an output 69. The outputs are connected as the inputs to OR circuit 96 of FIG. 1 whose output is line 97. An OR circuit is. simply one that is responsive to any one of a multiplicity of inputs.

The P counter 98 of FIG. 1 is made the of a pair of counters in identical configuration with the sequence counter 70 except that not as many counter stages are used. The operation will be fully described later.

The thumb-wheel threshold 105 of FIG. 1 is a simple rotary thumb-wheel switch, old in the art. In the preferred embodiment, the thumb-wheel threshold 105 has five outputs each of which is adjustable to ground or an open circuit. Line 104 of FIG. 1 represents the five outputs of thumb-wheel threshold 105. In similar fashion, line 102 of FIG. 1 represents five outputs from P counter 98.

FIG. 8 is a detailed logic diagram of digital comparator 103 of FIG. 1. It is well-known in the art and therefore will not be described in detail. Its inputs from the P counter 98 are shown as P P P P and P The lowest stage of P is not used in this application. Its inputs from the thumb-wheel threshold 105 and shown as TW,, TW,, Tw TW and TW,. The stages are shown generally as 375, 374, 373, 372 and 371. In each stage the inputs are compared to each other and at the output 370 it can be determined whether P is less than TW, whether P equals TW or whether P is greater than TW. In the preferred embodiment, only the output indicated as P is greater than TW is used.

FIG. 9 is of interest only as a graphic illustration of an analog representation of eight of the oscillators. The

output of the P counter 98 is run into a digital-toanalog converter (not shown) and the pulse train from each of the eight pads shown scanned may then be viewed on an oscilloscope as an amplitude rather than a frequency. This is old in the art and is only for purposes of illustration.

' FIG. 9A shows the resultant amplitude output of eight oscillators with no touchplate (referred to as pa in this figure) being touched. FIG. 9B shows the pad for oscillator No. 4 being touched and its representation of frequency now as an amplitude is shown being quite low and below a threshold frequency set by the thumb-wheel threshold switches of thumb-wheel threshold 105.

The delay flip-flop 112 of FIG. 1 is identical to the flip-flop 333 of FIG. 6. It also is old in the art and need not be shown in detail. The Q counter 115 of FIG. 1 is made up of counters identical to the configuration of the sequence counter 70 and therefore need not be described in detail.

The output gate of FIG. 1 is simply five AND circuits which have been described in FIG. 4. Outputs 126 of output gate 120 are available as inputs to any desired device. Typically, the application is to the buffer register of a digital computer. The output is of course not limited to such an application.

MODE OF OPERATION FIG. 3 is a detailed schematic diagram of the oscillators 1 through 32 of FIG. 1 as well as master clock oscillator 65 of FIG. 1. As indicated earlier, the difference between the master clock oscillator 65 and all other oscillators 1 through 32 is that the capacitor 210 is of a higher capacitance and-there is no touchplate 133 or conductor 165. The relaxation oscillator here shown is of itself old in the art, particularly with reference to the master clock oscillator 65.

Simply stated, in the case of the master clock oscillator 65, adjustable resistor 216, resistor 214 and capacitor 210 form a charging path for capacitor 210. When capacitor 210 is charged ,to a critical value, the potential thereby appearing at paint A causes the unijunction transistor 226 to conduct providing a discharge path through the unijunction transistor 226, resistor 228, back to the other plate of capacitor 210. The discharge is rapid, dropping the potential at point A resulting in the cutoff of unijunction transistor 226. The charge cycle starts again, resulting in capacitor 210 again becoming charged to cause the conduction of unijunction transistor 226 permitting a discharge path through resistor 228. This is a typical relaxation oscillator. The charge and discharge of capacitor 210 results in the waveform of point A shown in FIG. 3A.

The output of base 2 of unijunction transistor 226 is coupled to point B via capacitor 224 and is shown in FIG. 3B as it appears at point B of FIG. 3. That waveform is inverted and amplified in NPN transistor 236. The output waveform is shown at FIG. 3C which is the collector output at point C of transistor 236. The diode 245 conducts when point C tends to go beyond +5 volts, resulting in a shaped waveform of FIG. 3C. The frequency of the pulsesof FIG. 3C may be varied by varying the charge path of capacitor 210 by changing the resistance of variable resistor 216.

The oscillators 1 through 32 are each provided with a touchplate and a conductor as an input. In FIG. 3 the touchplate 133 is connected to the circuit through conductor 165.

It has been determined that the human body. is basically capacitive. The capacitance varies with the size of the body-but not significantly. When a person touches touchplate 133, capacitance is added in parallel with capacitor 210. This added capacitance results in a larger RC time constant in the charge path. A preselected frequency of output pulses as shown .in FIG. 3C is thereby lowered with the addition of capacitance at touchplate 133. The operation as described above for the master clock oscillator 65 is identical to that of oscillators 1 through 32 except that the frequency is lowered by adding capacitance in the latter case. Recognizing the oscillator (and therefore the touchplate) and the fact that its frequency is lowered, is at the heart of this invention.

Referring to FIG. 1, sequence counter 70, P counter 98, and Q counter 115 are shown. In the preferred embodiment, the A section 71 of sequence counter 70 has four binary stages and the B section 90 of sequence counter 70 has five binary stages. The P counter 98 has six binary stages and the Q counter 115 has nine binary stages. As is well-known in the art, each binary stage can be represented by two different voltage amplitudes. An arbitrary selection can be made assigning, for example, a one to a voltage and a zero to a ground potential. If all four stages are one the binary number represented is 1 ll 1, but for simplicity it will be referred to in its decimal equivalent as 15. Likewise the B section when filled is 31, the P counter when filled is 63 and the Q counter when filled is 1023. The Q counter 115 is ordinarily set at 1023 because its input 1 l6 depends upon amtput from the master clock 65 and the fact that Q=l023.

The master clock 65 produces pulses as shown in FIG. 3C in a manner described above at a rate of 4X10 PPS in this preferred embodiment. These pulses are transmitted over output line 66 to the AND circuit 68. AND circuit 68 is shown in FIG. 4 with the Boolean expressions set out above. When there is a pulse out of master clock 65 on line 66 and when Q=l023 on line 67 the output of the AND circuit 68 on line 69 is active only when both of such inputs are present. Determining that Q=l023 is simply done by appropriate AND circuits logically arrayed in one of a variety of possible configurations; well known in the prior art. Another output 86 of AND circuit 68 goes to AND circuit 100 which has another input 99 requiring that A= in order for the output line 101 to be activated which is a clear input to P counter 98.

FIG. shows the A section 71 of sequence counter 70 in logic detail. The signal coming in on line 69 is amplified through amplifier 300 and sets the first stage of the counter, defined as circuits 301 and 302,. to receive the inputs and flip-flop 309 whose output A, is shown at 317. The reception of another pulse through amplifier 300 toggles the first stage and sets the second stage whose output A is shown at 318. Another input pulse sets the first stage so that output A; is again A,. Another pulse toggles the first and second stage and sets the third stage whose one output at A is shown at 319. In like manner the stages are toggled back and forth until all four are ls. When A=l5 (filled) line 72 is activated. AND circuit 73 receives an input from AND circuit 68 anda signal that the digital comparator 103 is high as shown on line 88. This will be explained later. Assuming that line 88 has a signal present and assuming that line 87 has a clock pulse, then AND circuit 73 passes a pulse on line 89 to the B section 90 of sequence counter 70. This is merely an extension of the A section 71.

The B section 90 is shown is greater detail in FIG. 6. The four lower order bits of the Bsection are identical to the configuration of the A section 71 of FIG. 5 and need not be shown. A fifth stage is supplied by a flipflop 333. The flip-flop 333 is well-known inthe prior art. It is conditioned at terminal 334 from line 336 when the lower four stages of the B section 90 are filled (IS-=15), then the four inputs to AND circuit 330 are activated and the last stage 333 is toggled to a 1 state.

However, prior to the toggling of any of the stages in the B section 90, when B=0, output lines 74 through 85 convey that fact to select matrix 91.

Select matrix 91 is shown in logical detail in FIG. 7. Decoder 350 is a device well-known in the prior art which simply provides the fourpossible combinations for two binary signals. When B=0, then B on input line 72 equals 0 and B on input line 73 equals 0. The four possible outputs are B5B. B5B}, B5B, and With B =0 and B =0 then line 355 is activated as an enable input to multiplexer 359. Multiplexer 359 has inputs B B and B on input lines 83, 84 and 85 respectively.

- The multiplexer 359 is a device well known in the prior art which takes three control inputs and combines those three inputs in the eight possible gating combinations to gate as an output one of the eight inputs. Additionally, the enable input on line 355 is also placed on all eight outputs 57 through 64. The eight possible combinations of B B and B are as follows:

When B=0 output 64 carrying the function B B,- Ba'BgBfiS activated. This permits the oscillator connected to line 64 to send its pulses through the multiplexer and on line 69 to OR circuit 96, out on line 97. The selection of line 64 has been shown for illustrative purposes. Multiplexers 356 through 359 operate in identical fashion on each of the eight inputlines except that the conditioning signals from decoder 350 are different. In each case, one line of any one multiplexer can be selected thereby selecting a specific oscillator.

Referring to FIG. 1, P counter 98 accepts the pulses from the selected oscillator from line 97 to P counter and begins counting the pulses from the selected oscillator. The time period during which the pulses are counted is measured by the counting of the clock pulses by the A section 71. 7

It hasbeen determined that approximately pulses counted in the P curve 98 (high count capacity. 63) is very workable in the preferred embodiment. The master clock operates at 4X10 PPS those pulses being transmitted into the A section 71. However, various counts of A are not available for measuring the time of counting in the P counter 98. When A=0, the P counter 98 is cleared. When A=l4, the output of digital comparator 103 is gated out at AND circuit 110 and AND circuit 130. When A=l5, AND circuit 73 is enabled, permitting a pulse to go through line 89 into the B section 90. Therefore, the time period measured by the A section 71 is from A=2 to A=l 3, a count of 12 clock pulses.

Where T= period F frequency Total time (l2 pulses) Total time Total time Since 60 pulses is a good number for counting in the P counter, a minimum frequency is required to provide at least 60 pulses within the count period time of 3X10 3 seconds. The period (T) of one of 60 pulses equals the total time available divided by the number of pulses; therefore:

The oscillators must be able to provide a minimum of 20,000 pulses per second to meetthe design requirements of this system. 1

As stated before, the oscillators 1 through 32 have been designed to produce 20Xl0 PPS in this preferred embodiment.

Keeping in mind that the A section 71 counts 16 pulses, the actual time spent for counting the pulses of each oscillator is 3X10" for the actual count and 1X10 3 seconds for housekeeping details between counts.

Actual scan time 32X4Xl0 128x10 seconds System Frequency (lXl /128) 7.8 cycles per second As those skilled in the art well know, these parameters are merely indicative of the preferred embodiment but are subject to wide variation dependent upon the components and specific circuit embodied.

Referring again to FIG. 1, the thumb-wheel threshold is set to represent 40 pulses. In the preferred embodiment, thumb-wheel threshold 105 has only five bits and therefore the binary equivalent of 40 cannot be set but the lowest order bit of the binary equivalent of 40 is ignored and the other bits are transmitted into digital comparator 103. Digital comparator 103 is shown in FIG. 8 and the signals from thumb-wheel threshold 105 come in at TW TW TW TW and TW,.

As the pulses from the selected oscillator are being counted in P counter 98, the count from the P counter is continually transmitted to digital comparator 103. The P counter has six bits, but only the upper five are used because of the fivebit digital comparator 103. The inputs from the P counter enter the digital comparator 103 as P P P P and P In FIG. 8 it can be seen that three outputs are available:

In the preferred embodiment, only the P TW output is used. That is, when the count of the P counter, when A=l4, is greater than the count of the thumb-wheel threshold 105, line 106 has a positive pulse present. Assuming that the selected oscillator had not been touched and its frequency remained therefore at 20 l0 PPS, 60 pulses would have been counted in the prescribed time in the P counter, such a count being higher than the thumb-wheel threshold setting of 40 resulting in a comparator high signal out on line 106. This condition would result in a signal present on line 107 to AND gate enabled by the master clock at 109 and by A=l4 at 108. The output of AND circuit 110 is 111 and is a clear input to delay flip-flop 1 12 resulting in a clear output on line 114 into AND circuit 119.

Referring again to output 106 of digital comparator 103, when the comparator is high, a signal is presented through line 134 to inverter 127 which then presents a ground level to line 128 which does not permit enabling of AND circuit 130 and therefore Q counter 1 15 is not clear" but remains at a count 1023. The output 117 of 0 counter is enabled only when Q=m and therefore is not enabled in this situation. Therefore AND circuit 1 19 does not present a signal to output gate 120 over line 118. As a result, there are no output signals permitted through the output lines 126.

Now assume a person touches the touchplate of the selected oscillator. The operation is identical to that described above except that now the capacitance of the body of the person touching'the touchplate is added in parallel to the capacitance210 of FIG. 3. As described earlier, this results in a reduced frequency output from the selected oscillator. Under such circumstances, when A=l4, the count from the P counter will be less than 40 which has been set into the digital comparator 103 from the thumb-wheel threshold 105. When that occurs, the output on line 106 from digital comparator 103 will be grounded and the ground will be present on line 107 to AND circuit 110 thereby disenabling that AND circuit. However, the ground voltage presents itself on line 134 to inverter 127 which inverts that signal to a positive voltage. The positive pulse presents itself to AND circuit 130 which is further conditioned by the master clock at input 129, A=l4 at input 132 and Q=1023 at input 131. Therefore, AND circuit 130 is enabled and the clear Q output 133 is enabled clearing the Q counter 115. The delay flip-flop 112 is still cleared at this time and therefore line 114 has a positive voltage present. Line 117 now has a positive voltage present and Q=0. Output gate 120 is enabled through line 118 and the appropriate location as indicated by the B section 90 of sequence counter 70 is transmitted to a buffer through output lines 126. The appropriate location or address from the B section 90 comes in through B B B B and B on input lines.

121, 122, 123, 124 and ofoutput gate 120.

Q counter 115 immediately begins to count back to 1023 as a result of input 116 which requires only a pulse from master clock 65 and Q=W2 3. When Q=1022, delay flip-flop 112 is set through input 113. The clear output 114 is disabled, disabling AND circuit 119. If the person touching the touchplate does not remove his finger after the cycle has been completed, it is assumed that he did not intend touching the same touchplate twice. The preferred embodiment is designed to preclude the possibility of sending the same information through output lines 126 in a successive cycle. Referring to FIG. 1, AND circuit 73 is disabled because the comparator is low and therefore input 88 to AND circuit 73 is disabled. Therefore, the B section 90 count remains the same. As the finger is kept on the touchplate for another cycle, the digital comparator remains low and Q counter 115 is again cleared as described earlier. However,- output line 111 from AND circuit 110 is not enabled and therefore clear output 114 remains disabled, AND circuit 119 remains disabled and output gate 120 remains disabled. When the operators finger is removed and A=l4, then once again the output of digital comparator 103 on line 106 will be high, AND circuit 110 will be enabled, line 111 will be enabled clearing delay flip-flop 112. Clear output-line.1l4 will be enabled conditioning AND circuit 119 to be enabled when Q=1023. When this happens, outputgate 120 is once more enabled permitting information to pass through output lines 126 to the buffer.

There are many ways to implement this invention. For example, discrete components could be used throughout rather than the integrated circuits used in the preferred embodiment. There are many, many possible select matrixes available. There are also many different kindsv of counters which could be used. This invention is not reliant on any one design choice.

What is claimed is:

l. A touchplate identification system for identifying one of a plurality of touchplates which has bee touched by a human being, comprising:

a. a plurality of oscillators, each having a frequency of oscillation controlled by capacitance and resistance connected to the oscillator;

b. a .plurality of conductors, each separately connected to the capacitance of an associated oscillator at one end and to an associated touchplate at the other end, the touchplate being adapted to be touched by a human being to changethe frequency of oscillation by changing the capacitance;

c. means for sequentially generating an address signal for each of said oscillators;

d. a select matrix operatively connected to said oscillators and said address signal means for selecting one of said oscillators in response to a particular address signal;

e. a counter, for counting the oscillations of said selected oscillator;

f. threshold means'for indicating a specified number of oscillations;

g. comparator means, electrically connected to the counter and to the threshold means for comparing the count of oscillations from the counter with the threshold count for a specified time and indicating which is higher;

h. timing means, connected to the comparator means for setting a specified time period; and

i. output means responsive to the comparator means for providing the address signal as an output signal when the oscillation count of the counter is lower than the threshold count.

2. A digital computer input-output system including a display device, having afaceplate, connected to the digital computer, comprising:

a. a plurality of transparent, conductive touchplates attached to the faceplate of the display device;

b. a plurality of oscillators, each having a frequency of oscillation controlled by capacitance and resistance connected to the oscillator;

c a plurality of conductors, each separately connected to the capacitance of an associated oscillator at one end and to an associated touchplate at the other end, the touchplate being adapted to be touched by a human being to change the frequency of oscillation by changing the capacitance;

d. means for sequentially generating an address signal for each of said oscillators;

e. a select matrix operatively connected to said oscillators and said address-signal means for selecting one of said oscillators in response to a particular address signal;

f. a counter, for counting the oscillations of said selected oscillator;

g. threshold means for indicating a specified number of oscillations;

h. comparator means, electrically connected to the counter and to the threshold means for comparing thecount of oscillations from the counter with the threshold count for a specified time and indicating which is higher;

. timing means, connected to the comparator means for setting a specified time period; and

j. output means responsive to the comparator means for providing the address signal as an output signal when the oscillation count of the counter is lower than the threshold count.

3. The system of claim 1, wherein the touchplates are transparent and conductive.

4. The system of claim 1, wherein the oscillators are relaxation oscillators each having a capacitor in an RC charge circuit at the input. stage and wherein the associated conductor is connected to the input of the oscillator so that any added capacitance is added in parallel to theinput capacitor.

5. The system of claim l, further including a display device having a faceplate wherein the .touchplates are transparent and conductive and are attached to the faceplate of the display device.

6. The system of claim 1 wherein each of the plurality of oscillators has essentially the same free-run frequency.

Powwow UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE (5/6" mum1'91time 0F 'CORRECTIUN Patent No. 696,409 Dated ctober 3, 1972 lnventofl's) Norman J. Braaten It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

ASSIGNEE: "Linquist QVenngm 'L shouldbe Lindquist & vennum".

Column 3, Line 61 "paint: should be --point-i-.,

Column 5,, Line 1], "FIG should be E LG .lV:.. p I v U V, m.

I Column 5, Line 41 "made the" should be made up,'.

Column 6, Line 44 "paint" should be -point--.

Column 8, LJEDE ::B3-B2'Bl B3 B2 B1" h l be 3 2.El EL Column 8, Line +2 B .B B3 B2 Should be "3 .3 E13 3 Column 8, Line 43 13 -13 B 3 .13 B should be -B B B 'l3 19 Column 8, Line 44 vB -B B B -B -B should be B -B B E -B -B -u Column 8, Line 47 "13 B4" should bee-5 5 Column 8, Line 48 "B B B should. be 5 B Column 9, Column 9 Line 28 (3xlO Should be Column 9 Line 30 "(l/5)XlO should be -l/5xlO Column 9 Line 42 (lxlO /l28) should be --1X10 /128--.

Column 11, Line 12 "disabled," should be --disabled.--.

Signed and sealed this 8th day of May 1973, I

- (SEAL) t Attest:

EDWARD M. FLETCHER,JR. ROBERT GOTTSCHALK Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents

Claims (6)

1. A touchplate identification system for identifying one of a plurality of touchplates which has been touched by a human being, comprising: a. a plurality of oscillators, each having a frequency of oscillation controlled by capacitance and resistance connected to the oscillator; b. a plurality of conductors, each separately connected to the capacitance of an associated oscillator at one end and to an associated touchplate at the other end, the touchplate being adapted to be touched by a human being to change the frequency of oscillation by changing the capacitance; c. means for sequentially generating an address signal for each of said oscillators; d. a select matrix operatively connected to said oscillators and said address signal means for selecting one of said oscillators in response to a particular address signal; e. a counter, for counting the oscillations of said selected oscillator; f. threshold means for indicating a specified number of oscillations; g. comparator means, electrically connected to the counter and to the threshold means for comparing the count of oscillations from the counter with the threshold count for a specified time and indicating which is higher; h. timing means, connected to the comparator means for setting a specified time period; and i. output means responsive to the comparator means for providing the address signal as an output signal when the oscillation count of the counter is lower than the threshold count.
2. A digital computer input-output system including a display device, having a faceplate, connected to the digital computer, comprising: a. a plurality of transparent, conductive touchplates attached to the faceplate of the display device; b. a plurality of oscillators, each having a frequency of oscillation controlled by capacitance and resistance connected to the oscillator; c. a plurality of conductors, each separately connected to the capacitance of an associated oscillator at one end and to an associated touchplate at the other end, the touchplate being adapted to be touched by a human being to change the frequency of oscillation by changing the capacitance; d. means for sequentially generating an address signal for each of said oscillators; e. a select matrix operatively connected to said oscillators and said address signal means for selecting one of said oscillators in response to a particular address signal; f. a counter, for counting the oscillations of said selected oscillator; g. threshold means for indicating a specified number of oscillations; h. comparator means, electrically connected to the counter and to the threshold means for comparing the count of oscillations from the counter with the threshold count for a specified time and indicating which is higher; i. timing means, connected to the comparator means for setting a specified time period; and j. output means responSive to the comparator means for providing the address signal as an output signal when the oscillation count of the counter is lower than the threshold count.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein the touchplates are transparent and conductive.
4. The system of claim 1, wherein the oscillators are relaxation oscillators each having a capacitor in an RC charge circuit at the input stage and wherein the associated conductor is connected to the input of the oscillator so that any added capacitance is added in parallel to the input capacitor.
5. The system of claim 1, further including a display device having a faceplate wherein the touchplates are transparent and conductive and are attached to the faceplate of the display device.
6. The system of claim 1 wherein each of the plurality of oscillators has essentially the same free-run frequency.
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Cited By (41)

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US3846791A (en) * 1972-10-02 1974-11-05 R Foster Solid state keyboard
US3876977A (en) * 1972-07-25 1975-04-08 Lenkradwerk Gustav Petri Aktie Proximity switch arrangement for horn circuit in steering wheel
FR2287066A1 (en) * 1974-10-01 1976-04-30 Ibm Key pad
US3958239A (en) * 1972-03-24 1976-05-18 Green Robert E Capacitive transistorized signaling device
US3974472A (en) * 1974-04-04 1976-08-10 General Motors Corporation Domestic appliance control and display panel
US4056699A (en) * 1975-11-13 1977-11-01 Essex International, Inc. Touch plate assembly
US4071691A (en) * 1976-08-24 1978-01-31 Peptek, Inc. Human-machine interface apparatus
FR2389943A1 (en) * 1977-05-06 1978-12-01 Tektronix Inc
US4145748A (en) * 1977-12-23 1979-03-20 General Electric Company Self-optimizing touch pad sensor circuit
US4205418A (en) * 1978-07-28 1980-06-03 Burroughs Corporation Method of making a curved electrode plate
US4302011A (en) * 1976-08-24 1981-11-24 Peptek, Incorporated Video game apparatus and method
FR2487093A1 (en) * 1980-07-18 1982-01-22 Interaction Syst Inc Terminal screen has contact for information processing system
FR2511796A1 (en) * 1981-08-24 1983-02-25 Interaction Syst Inc A display device as a detection contact and method for locating a capacitive touch
WO1985003820A1 (en) * 1984-02-16 1985-08-29 Antikidis Jean Pierre Method for scanning a keyboard with capacitive keys and keyboard provided with means for scanning a keyboard according to this method
US4550221A (en) * 1983-10-07 1985-10-29 Scott Mabusth Touch sensitive control device
FR2566209A1 (en) * 1984-02-16 1985-12-20 Louis Frederic Method for scanning a keyboard with capacitive keys, and keyboard endowed with means for scanning this keyboard according to this method
US4571577A (en) * 1982-01-27 1986-02-18 Boussois S.A. Method and apparatus for determining the coordinates of a point on a surface
FR2577365A2 (en) * 1985-02-11 1986-08-14 Antikidis Jean Pierre Method of investigating a keyboard with capacitive keys and keyboard combined with means of investigating this keyboard according to this method
US4622437A (en) * 1984-11-29 1986-11-11 Interaction Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus for improved electronic touch mapping
US4682159A (en) * 1984-06-20 1987-07-21 Personics Corporation Apparatus and method for controlling a cursor on a computer display
US4686332A (en) * 1986-06-26 1987-08-11 International Business Machines Corporation Combined finger touch and stylus detection system for use on the viewing surface of a visual display device
EP0257775A2 (en) * 1986-08-26 1988-03-02 Tektronix, Inc. Touch panel with automatic frequency control
WO1991012592A1 (en) * 1990-02-19 1991-08-22 Mors Device forming tactile screen of the capacitive type
US5648642A (en) * 1992-06-08 1997-07-15 Synaptics, Incorporated Object position detector
US5796355A (en) * 1996-05-13 1998-08-18 Zurich Design Laboratories, Inc. Touch switch
US5854625A (en) * 1996-11-06 1998-12-29 Synaptics, Incorporated Force sensing touchpad
US5861583A (en) * 1992-06-08 1999-01-19 Synaptics, Incorporated Object position detector
US5880411A (en) * 1992-06-08 1999-03-09 Synaptics, Incorporated Object position detector with edge motion feature and gesture recognition
US5889236A (en) * 1992-06-08 1999-03-30 Synaptics Incorporated Pressure sensitive scrollbar feature
US6028271A (en) * 1992-06-08 2000-02-22 Synaptics, Inc. Object position detector with edge motion feature and gesture recognition
US6184871B1 (en) * 1996-10-25 2001-02-06 Asulab S.A. Identification device of a manual action on a surface, in particular for a timeplace
US6239389B1 (en) 1992-06-08 2001-05-29 Synaptics, Inc. Object position detection system and method
US6380929B1 (en) 1996-09-20 2002-04-30 Synaptics, Incorporated Pen drawing computer input device
US20030067451A1 (en) * 1994-11-14 2003-04-10 James Peter Tagg Capacitive touch detectors
US6642837B1 (en) * 1999-10-19 2003-11-04 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method and apparatus for touch-activated identification and information transfer
US20050062732A1 (en) * 2001-03-30 2005-03-24 Microsoft Corporation Capacitance touch slider
US20050129267A1 (en) * 1998-07-03 2005-06-16 New Transducers Limited Resonant panel-form loudspeaker
US20070162233A1 (en) * 2006-01-06 2007-07-12 Robert Schwenke Printable sensors for plastic glazing
US20070194216A1 (en) * 2006-02-21 2007-08-23 Exatec, Llc Printable controls for a window assembly
GB2475735A (en) * 2009-11-27 2011-06-01 Gpeg Internat Ltd Detecting touches with an oscillator with a frequency dependent on the capacitance of a touch sensor
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Cited By (65)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3958239A (en) * 1972-03-24 1976-05-18 Green Robert E Capacitive transistorized signaling device
US3876977A (en) * 1972-07-25 1975-04-08 Lenkradwerk Gustav Petri Aktie Proximity switch arrangement for horn circuit in steering wheel
US3846791A (en) * 1972-10-02 1974-11-05 R Foster Solid state keyboard
US3974472A (en) * 1974-04-04 1976-08-10 General Motors Corporation Domestic appliance control and display panel
FR2287066A1 (en) * 1974-10-01 1976-04-30 Ibm Key pad
US4056699A (en) * 1975-11-13 1977-11-01 Essex International, Inc. Touch plate assembly
US4302011A (en) * 1976-08-24 1981-11-24 Peptek, Incorporated Video game apparatus and method
US4071691A (en) * 1976-08-24 1978-01-31 Peptek, Inc. Human-machine interface apparatus
FR2389943A1 (en) * 1977-05-06 1978-12-01 Tektronix Inc
US4145748A (en) * 1977-12-23 1979-03-20 General Electric Company Self-optimizing touch pad sensor circuit
US4205418A (en) * 1978-07-28 1980-06-03 Burroughs Corporation Method of making a curved electrode plate
FR2487093A1 (en) * 1980-07-18 1982-01-22 Interaction Syst Inc Terminal screen has contact for information processing system
DE3127686A1 (en) * 1980-07-18 1982-04-08 Interaction Syst Inc "Screen-terminal"
US4374381A (en) * 1980-07-18 1983-02-15 Interaction Systems, Inc. Touch terminal with reliable pad selection
FR2511796A1 (en) * 1981-08-24 1983-02-25 Interaction Syst Inc A display device as a detection contact and method for locating a capacitive touch
US4476463A (en) * 1981-08-24 1984-10-09 Interaction Systems, Inc. Display device having unpatterned touch detection
US4571577A (en) * 1982-01-27 1986-02-18 Boussois S.A. Method and apparatus for determining the coordinates of a point on a surface
US4550221A (en) * 1983-10-07 1985-10-29 Scott Mabusth Touch sensitive control device
WO1985003820A1 (en) * 1984-02-16 1985-08-29 Antikidis Jean Pierre Method for scanning a keyboard with capacitive keys and keyboard provided with means for scanning a keyboard according to this method
FR2566209A1 (en) * 1984-02-16 1985-12-20 Louis Frederic Method for scanning a keyboard with capacitive keys, and keyboard endowed with means for scanning this keyboard according to this method
US4924222A (en) * 1984-02-16 1990-05-08 Antikidis Jean Pierre Capacitive keyboard operable through a thick dielectric wall
US4682159A (en) * 1984-06-20 1987-07-21 Personics Corporation Apparatus and method for controlling a cursor on a computer display
US4622437A (en) * 1984-11-29 1986-11-11 Interaction Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus for improved electronic touch mapping
FR2577365A2 (en) * 1985-02-11 1986-08-14 Antikidis Jean Pierre Method of investigating a keyboard with capacitive keys and keyboard combined with means of investigating this keyboard according to this method
US4686332A (en) * 1986-06-26 1987-08-11 International Business Machines Corporation Combined finger touch and stylus detection system for use on the viewing surface of a visual display device
EP0257775A2 (en) * 1986-08-26 1988-03-02 Tektronix, Inc. Touch panel with automatic frequency control
EP0257775A3 (en) * 1986-08-26 1989-01-11 Tektronix, Inc. Touch panel with automatic frequency control
WO1991012592A1 (en) * 1990-02-19 1991-08-22 Mors Device forming tactile screen of the capacitive type
FR2658675A1 (en) * 1990-02-19 1991-08-23 Techniphone Device forming a touch screen of the capacitive type.
EP0443944A1 (en) * 1990-02-19 1991-08-28 Mors Composants Capacitive type touch screen device
US5432671A (en) * 1990-02-19 1995-07-11 Mors Composants Device forming tactile screen of the capacitive type
US6380931B1 (en) 1992-06-08 2002-04-30 Synaptics Incorporated Object position detector with edge motion feature and gesture recognition
US5648642A (en) * 1992-06-08 1997-07-15 Synaptics, Incorporated Object position detector
US5841078A (en) * 1992-06-08 1998-11-24 Synaptics, Inc. Object position detector
US20040178997A1 (en) * 1992-06-08 2004-09-16 Synaptics, Inc., A California Corporation Object position detector with edge motion feature and gesture recognition
US5861583A (en) * 1992-06-08 1999-01-19 Synaptics, Incorporated Object position detector
US5880411A (en) * 1992-06-08 1999-03-09 Synaptics, Incorporated Object position detector with edge motion feature and gesture recognition
US6414671B1 (en) 1992-06-08 2002-07-02 Synaptics Incorporated Object position detector with edge motion feature and gesture recognition
US6028271A (en) * 1992-06-08 2000-02-22 Synaptics, Inc. Object position detector with edge motion feature and gesture recognition
US7109978B2 (en) 1992-06-08 2006-09-19 Synaptics, Inc. Object position detector with edge motion feature and gesture recognition
US6750852B2 (en) 1992-06-08 2004-06-15 Synaptics, Inc. Object position detector with edge motion feature and gesture recognition
US6610936B2 (en) 1992-06-08 2003-08-26 Synaptics, Inc. Object position detector with edge motion feature and gesture recognition
US5889236A (en) * 1992-06-08 1999-03-30 Synaptics Incorporated Pressure sensitive scrollbar feature
US6239389B1 (en) 1992-06-08 2001-05-29 Synaptics, Inc. Object position detection system and method
US20030067451A1 (en) * 1994-11-14 2003-04-10 James Peter Tagg Capacitive touch detectors
US5796355A (en) * 1996-05-13 1998-08-18 Zurich Design Laboratories, Inc. Touch switch
US6380929B1 (en) 1996-09-20 2002-04-30 Synaptics, Incorporated Pen drawing computer input device
US6184871B1 (en) * 1996-10-25 2001-02-06 Asulab S.A. Identification device of a manual action on a surface, in particular for a timeplace
US5854625A (en) * 1996-11-06 1998-12-29 Synaptics, Incorporated Force sensing touchpad
USRE45559E1 (en) 1997-10-28 2015-06-09 Apple Inc. Portable computers
USRE46548E1 (en) 1997-10-28 2017-09-12 Apple Inc. Portable computers
US20050129267A1 (en) * 1998-07-03 2005-06-16 New Transducers Limited Resonant panel-form loudspeaker
US7174025B2 (en) * 1998-07-03 2007-02-06 New Transducers Limited Resonant panel-form loudspeaker
US6642837B1 (en) * 1999-10-19 2003-11-04 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method and apparatus for touch-activated identification and information transfer
US6879930B2 (en) * 2001-03-30 2005-04-12 Microsoft Corporation Capacitance touch slider
US20050062732A1 (en) * 2001-03-30 2005-03-24 Microsoft Corporation Capacitance touch slider
US20070046651A1 (en) * 2001-03-30 2007-03-01 Microsoft Corporation Capacitance touch slider
US7812825B2 (en) 2001-03-30 2010-10-12 Microsoft Corporation Capacitance touch slider
US7050927B2 (en) 2001-03-30 2006-05-23 Microsoft Corporation Capacitance touch slider
US7158125B2 (en) 2001-03-30 2007-01-02 Microsoft Corporation Capacitance touch slider
US7567183B2 (en) 2006-01-06 2009-07-28 Exatec Llc Printable sensors for plastic glazing
US20070162233A1 (en) * 2006-01-06 2007-07-12 Robert Schwenke Printable sensors for plastic glazing
US20070194216A1 (en) * 2006-02-21 2007-08-23 Exatec, Llc Printable controls for a window assembly
GB2475735A (en) * 2009-11-27 2011-06-01 Gpeg Internat Ltd Detecting touches with an oscillator with a frequency dependent on the capacitance of a touch sensor
WO2011064551A2 (en) 2009-11-27 2011-06-03 Gpeg International Ltd Capacitive touch sensor, display or panel

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