US3691715A - Valve bag applicator machine - Google Patents

Valve bag applicator machine Download PDF

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US3691715A
US3691715A US3691715DA US3691715A US 3691715 A US3691715 A US 3691715A US 3691715D A US3691715D A US 3691715DA US 3691715 A US3691715 A US 3691715A
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Prior art keywords
bag
valve
assembly
adjacent
packaging unit
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Robert G Kelly
Louis L Legg
Walter Ruf
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Stone Container Corp
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ST Regis Paper Co
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Assigned to STONE BROWN PAPER, INC., A CORP. OF reassignment STONE BROWN PAPER, INC., A CORP. OF ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: CHAMPION INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, A CORP.OF N.Y.
Assigned to CHAMPION INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION reassignment CHAMPION INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION MERGER (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: ST. REGIS CORPORATION 1/28/85
Assigned to STONE CONTAINER CORPORATION reassignment STONE CONTAINER CORPORATION MERGER (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). EFFECTIVE DATE: MAY 20, 1987, DELAWRE Assignors: S.C.C. MERGER CORPORATION, A CORP. OF DE, (CHANGED TO), STONE CONTAINER CORPORATION, A CORP. OF IL, (MERGED INTO)
Assigned to STONE CONTAINER CORPORATION reassignment STONE CONTAINER CORPORATION MERGER (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). EFFECTIVE DATE: DECEMBER 31, 1986 Assignors: STONE BROWN PAPERS, INC., A DE CORP., (MERGED INTO)
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B65CONVEYING; PACKING; STORING; HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL
    • B65BMACHINES, APPARATUS OR DEVICES FOR, OR METHODS OF, PACKAGING ARTICLES OR MATERIALS; UNPACKING
    • B65B43/00Forming, feeding, opening or setting-up containers or receptacles in association with packaging
    • B65B43/26Opening or distending bags; Opening, erecting, or setting-up boxes, cartons, or carton blanks
    • B65B43/262Opening or distending bags; Opening, erecting, or setting-up boxes, cartons, or carton blanks opening of valve bags

Abstract

This invention relates to a bag filling machine which strips bags one at a time from a magazine feeder, opens the bag valve and places the bag on the filling tube of a valve bag packaging unit. Proper placement of the bag on the filling tube automatically starts the filling phase, and after the bag is filled it is discharged from the packaging unit. The valve bag applicator then places another bag on the filling tube and the cycle is repeated.

Description

United States Patent Kelly et al.
[54] VALVE BAG APPLICATOR MACHINE [72] Inventors: Robert G. Kelly, Central Valley, N.Y.; Louis L. Legg, Woodcliff Lake, N.J.; Walter Rut, Spring Val- [21] Appl. No.: 75,811
[52] US. Cl. ..53/3, 53/29, 53/63, 53/65, 53/188, 53/386 [51] Int. Cl ..'.....B65b 43/30, B65b 57/04 [58] Field of Search ..53/29, 183, 35, 187, 188, 3, 53/386, 63, 190, 65, 67, 69
[56] References Cited UNlTED STATES PATENTS 3,423,903 l/l969 Miller ..53/188 E. lO\ 47 /'/F 1 M 1 n a II! 11!! MW I I v I. 0
\\ I8 22 lb I1 I! 21 .in 18 A 20 "ll 51 Sept. 19, 1972 3,501,893 3/1970 Peterson ..S3/386 X 3,312,038 4/1967 Knauf ..53/386 UX FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS l,2l2,85l 3/1966 Germany ..53/187 Primary Examiner-Theron E. Condon Assistant Examiner-Eugene F. Desmond Attorney-Ward, McElhannon, Brooks 8L Fitzpatrick [5 7] ABSTRACT This invention relates to a bag filling machine which strips bags one at a time from a magazine feeder, opens the bag valve and places the bag on the filling tube of a valve bag packaging unit. Proper placement of the bag on the filling tube automatically starts the I filling phase, and after the bag is filled it is discharged from the packaging unit. The valve bag applicator then places another bag on the filling tube and the cycle is repeated.
15 Claims, 16 Drawing Figures PATENTEDSEP 19 I972 3.691; 715
sum 1 0r 7 I N VEN TORS lPoaaer G 47 By Lows 4. C666 -P fur-F 47 7O PA/EXS P'ATENTED SEP 19 m2 SHEET 2 OF 7 P'A'TENTED E I E I 3.691.715
' Sumner? [.NVENTORS 5S G kezusy,
BY Lou/s4. Cass VALVE BAG APPLICATOR MACHINE This invention relates to packaging machinery and more particularly to machinery for packaging valve type bags. While many different types of packaging machinery have been used with reasonable success heretofore, our contribution to the art is a new valve bag packaging machine which is an improvement over such prior art devices, as will become apparent as the description proceeds.
A feature of this invention resides in the provision of means for forming the valve end of the bag into a strong, square T-section which can then be easily worked with to open the bag valve. By simply reversing the top turner device the bag can be picked from either the flap side or the back side, as desired. Accordingly, the location of the bag valve is not a limiting factor.
As another feature of this invention, the bags are removed from the bag magazine by a peeling action which first separates the flap end of the bag, then the entire valve end and finally the bottom end of the bag in a manner that eliminates vacuum between the bags. In combination with this peeling action, the act of pulling the bag from shallow holders on each of the four sides of the bag positively separates the pulled bag from the magazine of bags, thereby leaving the next bag held by all four corners. As still another feature of our invention, new and improved control circuitry is provided, which is an improvement over prior art devices. In addition, the feeding magazine can be refilled with bags while the machine is in operation.
In view of the foregoing, this invention contemplates the provision of a new and improved bag filling machine characterized by a bag magazine feeder, a packaging unit, and means for mounting a stack of empty bags in the bag magazine feeder. A pick-off assembly is provided which includes pick-off vacuum cups mounted adjacent the stack of bags for contacting and separating the flap end of a first bag, then the entire valve end of the first bag and finally the complete first bagv from the stack of bags. A bag top turner valve opener assembly folds the valve end of the bag to form a square T-section, and valve opener vacuum cups engage and open the bag valve. A gripper fingers assembly engages the sides of the bag'and rotates the bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on the packaging unit. Means are provided for moving the gripper fingers assembly from a position adjacent the magazine feeder to a position adjacent the bag packaging unit for applying the bag to the filling tube, and means are provided for discharging the bag when filled from the machine.
There has thus been outlined rather broadly the more important features of the invention in order that the detailed description thereof that follows may be better understood, and in order that the present contribution to the art may be better appreciated. There are, of course, additional features of the invention that will be described more fully hereinafter. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the conception on which this disclosure is based may readily be utilized as the basis for the designing of other structures for carrying out the several purposes of the invention. It is important, therefore, that this disclosure be regarded as including such equivalent constructions as do not depart from the spirit and scope of the invention.
One embodiment of the invention has been chosen for purposes of illustration and description, and is shown in the accompanying drawings, forming a part of the specification, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a bag filling machine constructed in accordance with the concept of this invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged side elevation of a feeder magazine showing the lift and feed mechanism;
FIGS. 3 and 4 are enlarged side elevations of the feeder magazine;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged plan view of the pick-ofi assembly showing the pick-off vacuum cups positioned in spaced relationship with respect to the bags in the magazine;
FIG. 6 is an enlarged plan view similar to FIG. 5 but showing the pick-ofi vacuum cups in engagement with the first bag in the magazine preparatory to removal of said bag;
FIGS. 7, 8 and 9 are enlarged plan views of the pickoff assembly showing the sequence of operation of the peeling of a bag from the magazine during a normal cycle of operation;
FIGS. l0, l1 and 12 are enlarged side elevations of the mechanism for opening the bag valve showing the sequence of operation during a normal bag filling cycle;
FIGS. 13 and 14 are enlarged fragmentary perspective views showing the folding over of the valve end of a bag to form a square T-section for purposes of facilitat ing the opening of the bag valve;
FIG. 15 is an enlarged perspective view showing a bag being placed on the filling tube of the packaging unit; and
FIG. 16 is a perspective 'view of the bag filling machine of FIG. 1, but showing a filled bag being discharged from the packaging unit.
In the illustrated embodiment, a bag filling machine constructed according to the invention comprises a bag magazine feeder, indicated generally at 10, FIG. 1, and a packaging unit, indicated generally at 12. This magazine feeder holds a supply 14 of bags, standing on edge with their valves 16 directed downwardly and toward the packaging unit 12. The magazine feeder has a floor which comprises a plurality of spaced rails 18 fixedly mounted on a frame 20, and a plurality of alternately spaced rails 22 which are vertically and horizontally moveable in a walking beam-like manner for raising the bags upwardly from the fixed rails and then moving them a preselected distance toward their pick-off position. This lift and feed motion is effected by means of a lift fluid piston and cylinder assembly 23, FIG. 2, which is connected to the rails 22 as by means of a linkage arrangement indicated generally at 24, and by means of a feed fluid piston and cylinder assembly 25 connected to the rails 22 as by means of a linkage arrangement, indicated generally at 26. As a bag is removed from the stack of bags 14 by a pick-off assembly indicated generally at 28, it is replaced by the action of the feeder rails. Normally, the lift and feed mechanism operates once each cycle. However, when pressure on a pressure sensing device, which includes a limit valve rod 30, FIG. 2, connected to a limit valve 32, at the front end of the feeder exceeds a set limit, action of the lift mechanism is interrupted.
The supply of bags is replenished from the rear of the machine so that there is no necessity for shutting down the machine during operation.
A bag 34 is stripped or removed from the magazine by means of the pick-off assembly 28, As best seen in FIGS. 2 and 5, pick-off vacuum cups 36 and 37 carried by the pick-off assembly 28 are shown in spaced relationship with respect to the first bag 34 in the magazine. A pick-off piston and cylinder assembly 35, FIG. 5, serves to move the pick-off assembly 28 from its remote position as seen in FIG. 5 to its engaged position as seen in FIG. 6, wherein the vacuum cups 36 and 37 engage the first bag 34 in the magazine. Suction is then applied to the vacuum cups in a manner wellknown in the art. The top of the-bag is first drawn from the magazine, FIG. 7, by means of vacuum cups 37 which are moved outwardly by means of a fluid piston and cylinder assembly 39. This lifts the top of the bag 34 over 'ashallow holder or tab41. Thereafter, the pick-off piston and cylinder assembly 35 continues to move thepick-offassembly 28 outwardly as viewed in FIG. ,8 so that the medial vacuum cups 36 lift the medial portion of the bag away from the magazine. A portion of the pick-off assembly 28 comprises a bell crank 43 which pivots about point 45 and carries a rod 47 on one arm thereof and a stop pin 49 on the other arm thereof, one pair of the vacuum cups 36 being mounted on the end of the rod 47. Movement of the pick-off piston and cylinder assembly 35 causes the bell crank 43 to pivot about its pivot point 45 so that the vacuum cups 36 mounted on the end of the rod 47 remain adjacent the magazine 14 until the pick-off assembly reaches its position as seen in FIG. 8 wherein the stop pin 49. engages its stop member as at 51. Continued movement of the pick-ofi piston and cylinder assembly 35 causes the entire pick-off assembly 28 to remove the rest of the bag 34 from the magazine 14, and at this time a spring 53 rotates the rod 47 until the bag 34 is straight as seen in FIGS. 4 and 9. It will be appreciated that the peeling action separates the flap end of the bag, then the entire valve end, and finally the bottom end in a manner that eliminates vacuum between the bags. In combination with the peeling action, the act of pulling the bag from the shallow holders or tabs 41, FIGS. 1-9, on each of the four sides of the bag positively separates the pulled bag from the magazine of bags leaving the next bag held by all four corners. This insures positive single bag pick-off.
As best seen in FIGS. 10, 11 and 12, a bag top turner and valve opener assembly, indicated generally at 38, works in conjunction with both the pick-off assembly 28 and a gripper fingers assembly, indicated generally at 40. The bag top turner includes a foldover angle bar 42. A turner arm 44 is pivotally mounted, as at 46, and a turner piston and cylinder assembly 48 serves to move the arm through an arc to engage the valve end 16 of the bag, thereby moving the valve end'from its position as seen in FIGS. 10 and 13, over the foldover angle bar 42 to its position as seen in FIGS. 11 and 14. This makes the valve end of the bag and the body portion of the bag into a strong square T-section which can be easily worked on by the bag valve opening device, as will be pointed out more fully hereinafter. By reversing the top turner device the bag can be picked from'either the flap side or the back side, and hence the bag valve may be located in various positions.
The top turner turns the bag so that a flat surface 50, FIGS. 11 and 12, is exposed to valve opener vacuum cups 52 which move down and attach themselves thereto. The valve opener opens the bag valve while the gripper fingers assembly 40 swings the bag into line with the packaging unit 12.
As seen in FIGS. 10, 11 and 16, the gripper fingers assembly 40, with open fingers, swings into the transfer position and grips the bag from both sides. This assembly includes gripper fingers 54 mounted on gripper arms 56 which are carried by a gripper fingers carriage 58. After the last bag has been filled and discharged from the packaging unit 12, the vacuum pick-off cups 36 and 37 are released and the gripper fingers arms 56 swing the next bag from its position as seen in FIG. 16 into its position as seen in FIG. 1, wherein it is in line with a filling tube 60 in the packaging unit 12. That is, gripper fingers arm piston and cylinder assembly 65, FIG. 16, extends, causing the gripper fingers assembly with the empty bag to move into position in line with the packaging unit filling tube. Then, in a short linear motion the gripper fingers carriage 58 moves along carriage slide shafts 62 by means of a carriage piston and cylinder assembly 64, FIG. 15, to its position as'seen in FIG. 15, wherein the bag is applied to the filling tube 60 of the packaging unit 12. It will be appreciated that if there is excessive resistance to the normal movement of the gripper fingers arm and carriage assembly as it moves to apply the bag onto the filling tube, such as because of a bag being upside down, or the prior bag was not properly ejected from the machine or was jammed in the machine, for example, valve 57, FIG. 15, senses the resistance and starts a reject cycle; whereby the bag 34 is dropped and the machine starts a second cycle. As seen in FIG. 15, there is a plate 59, which is carried by the gripper fingers carriage assembly. This plate engages valve 61 for purposes of starting the filling machine. The plate is mounted and positioned by spring means so that when there is no bag in the gripper fingers assembly, the plate is retracted and cannot engage the valve 61 and, hence, the filling machine will not start. In addition, a valve 63 is engaged substantially simultaneously with the valve 61 when the gripper fingers carriage assembly reaches the end of its stroke. However, there is a time delay in the circuit of valve 63 which gives the filling machine time to start if valve 61 has function in its normal manner. If valve 61 operates to start the filling cycle then valve 63 will perform no further function, but if the filling cycle fails to start because there is no bag, for example, then the valve 63 starts a reject sequence. A second cycle is started and if the bag is properly applied during this second cycle, normal operation continues, but if the second bag still does not go on the filling tube properly, the entire machine shuts down. The valve 57, in effect, overrides the valve 61, so that whenever it is engaged it always starts the reject sequence. After the bag has been applied to the filling tube of the packaging unit and the unit has started, the vacuum cups 52 and the gripper fingers 54 release the bag. The gripper fingers carriage 58 returns to its transfer position where it engages a shock absorber 66, FIG. 15, in preparation for another cycle of operation. When the bag has been completely filled, the bag seat 68, FIG. 16, is tilted by means of a piston and cylinder assembly 70, thereby to discharge the bag from the machine.
In normal operation, after a start button 68, FIG. 1, has been depressed momentarily, the following sequence of operation occurs: the bag magazine feeder rails 22 move the bags toward their pickoff position. The pick-off assembly 28 contacts the bag in the magazine and vacuum is applied to the pick-off vacuum cups 36 and 37. The bag is peeled off the magazine and moved to its transfer position. The gripper fingers 54 grab the bag,FlG. 11. The bag top turner assembly 38 turns the bag top, FIGS. 'and (Vacuum is applied to the bag ,valve openercups 52, FIG. 12. The vacuum cups 36 and 37 of the pick-off assembly 28 are vented to atmosphere, thereby releasing the bag. The bag is rotated to a position wherein the bag valve is, in line with the filling tube 60 of the packaging unit 12 and the opening cups open the bag. Then the gripper fingers carriage 58 moves along carriage slide shaft 62 until it reaches its position as seen in FIG. 15 wherein the bag is applied to the filling tube 60 of the packaging unit. Thereafter, the packaging unit starts to fill the bag and at this time the bag valve opener vacuum cups 52 and the gripper fingers 54 release the bag. The carriage 58 returns to its transfer position. Also, at the same time, the bag top turner arm 44 is reset and the gripper fingers carriage assembly 58 is retracted and the shock absorber 66, FIG. 15, is depressed in preparation for another cycle of operation. When the bag has been completely filled, the bag seat is tilted and the bag slides off and is discharged. The cycle then repeats itself.
It will be appreciated that the machine according to this invention is also adapted for use with a bag'of the extended sleeve type. When operating with this type of bag it has been found desirable to place a spot of glue under the sleeve in order to prevent the valve opener vacuum cups 52 from closing the valve and preventing application onto the filling tube 60.
It will thus be seen that the present invention does indeed provide an improved valve bag packaging machine which is superior in simplicity, economy and efficiency as compared to prior art such devices.
Although a particular embodiment of the invention is herein disclosed for purposes of explanation, various modifications thereof, after study of this specification, will be apparent to those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains.
What is claimed and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
l. Bag applicator apparatus comprising a bag magazine feeder and a packaging unit, means for mounting a stack of empty bags in said bag magazine feeder, a pick-off assembly including pick-off vacuum cups mounted adjacent said stack of bags for contacting and separating the flap end of a first bag, then the entire valve end of said first bag and finally the complete first bag from said stack of bags, a bag top turner valve opener assembly for folding the valve end of said bag to form a square T-section, valve opener vacuum cups disposed adjacent said valve end of the bag to engage and open the bag valve, a gripper fingers assembly for engaging the sides of said bag, and rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, means for moving said gripper fingers assembly from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube,.and means I for discharging said bag when filled from the machine, said means for mounting a stack of empty bags in said bag, magazine feeder comprising a frame, a floor having a plurality of spaced rails fixedly mounted on said frame, a plurality of alternately spaced rails, fluid piston and cylinder means for movingsaid spaced rails vertically and horizontally for raising said stack of empty bags upwardly from the fixed rails and moving them forward towards said pick-off assembly.
2. Bag applicator apparatus according to claim 1 further comprising a limit valve, a limit valve rod connected to said limit valve and being mounted at the front end of the rails to interrupt the movement of said moveable rails when pressure against said valve rod exceeds a predetennined limit. 3. Bag applicator apparatus comprising a bag magazine feeder and a packaging unit, means for mounting a stack of empty bags in said bag magazine feeder, a pick-off assembly including pick-off vacuum cups mounted adjacent said stack of bags for contacting and separating the flap endof a first bag, then the entire valve end of said first bag and finally the complete first bag from said stack of bags, a bag top turner valve opener assembly for folding the valve end of said bag to form a square T-section, valve opener vacuum cups disposed adjacent said valve end of the bag to engage and open the bag valve, a gripper fingers assembly for engaging the sides of said bag, and rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, means for moving said gripper fingers assembly from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube, and means for discharging said bag when filled from the machine, said pick-ofi assembly comprising a first pair of vacuum cups for engaging the fiat end of said first bag, fluid piston and cylinder means for moving said first pair of vacuum cups, a second pair of vacuum cups for engaging a medial portion of said first bag and a third pair of vacuum cups for engaging a bottom portion of said first bag.
4. Bag applicator apparatus according to claim 3 wherein said pick-off assembly further comprises a bell crank having two arms, a rod being mounted on one of said arms, said third pair of vacuum cups being mounted towards the end of said rod, a stop pin being mounted on the other of said rods, a second fluid piston and cylinder assembly for moving said pick-off assembly away from said magazine.
5. Bag applicator apparatus comprising a bag magazine feeder and a packaging unit, means for mounting a stack of empty bags in said bag magazine feeder, a pick-off assembly including pick-off vacuum cups mounted adjacent said stack of bags for contacting and separating the flap end of a'first bag, then the entire valve end of said first bag and finally the complete first bag from said stack of bags, a bag top turner valve opener assembly for folding the valve end of said bag to form a square T-section, valve opener vacuum cups disposed adjacent said valve end of the bag to engage and open the bag valve, a gripper fingers assembly for engaging the sides of said bag, and rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, means for moving said gripper fingers assembly from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube, and means for discharging said bag when filled from the machine, said bag top turner valve opener assembly comprising a foldover angle bar, a turner arm, a turner piston and cylinder assembly for pivoting said turner arm through an arc to engage the valve end of said bag, and to fold said end over the angle bar to form said square T-section.
6. Bag applicator apparatus comprising a bag magazine feeder and a packaging unit, means for mounting a stack of empty bags in said bag magazine feeder, apick-off assembly including pick-ofi vacuum cups mounted adjacent said stack of bags for contacting and separating the flap end of a first bag, then the entire valve end of said first bag and finally the complete first bag from said stack of bags, a bag top turner valve openerassembly for folding the valve end of said bag to form a square T-section, valve opener vacuum cups disposed adjacent said valve. end of the bag to engage and open the bag valve, a gripper fingers assembly for engaging the sides of said bag, and rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, means for moving said gripper fingers assembly from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube, and means for discharging said bag when filled from the machine,
said gripper fingers assembly comprising a gripper carriage, gripper arms mounted on said gripper carriage, and gripper fingers mounted on said gripper arms for engaging the sides of said bag, said gripper fingers assembly having a gripper fingers arm piston and cylinder assembly for rotating said carriage and the bag to said position in line with the filling tube mounted on the packaging unit.
7."Bag applicator apparatus according to claim 6 wherein said means for moving said gripper fingers assembly from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube comprises carriage slide shafts,'said gripper carriage being mounted on said slide shafts, a carriage piston and cylinder assembly for moving said carriage.
8. Bag applicator apparatus according to claim 7 further comprising a limit valve engageable by said carriage when said carriage is in its position adjacent said packaging unit for initiating a reject sequence.
9. Applicator apparatus according to claim 8 further comprising valve means actuatable by said carriage when said carriage is in its position adjacent said packaging unit for initiating a filling operation of said bag, said limit valve having a time delay means for overriding said reject sequence when said valve means is activated.
10. Bag applicator apparatus according to claim 7 further comprising valve means for sensing the resistance to the movement of said gripper carriage towards said packaging unit and for initiating a reject sequence when said resistance is in excess of a predetermined quantity.
11. Bag applicator apparatus comprising a bag magazine feeder and a packaging unit, means for mounting a stack of empty bags in said bag magazine feeder, apick-off assembly including pick-off vacuum cups mounted adjacent said stack of bags for contacting and separating the flap end of a first bag, then the entire valve end of said first bag and finally the complete first bag from said stack of bags, a bag top turner valve opener assembly for folding the valve end of said bag to form a square T-section, valve opener vacuum cups disposed adjacent said valve end of the bag to engage and open the bag valve, a gripper fingers assembly for engaging the sides of said bag, and rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, means for moving said gripper fingers assembly from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube, and means for discharging said bag when filled from the machine,
said means for discharging said bag when filled from the machine comprisinga bag seat for said for said bag when in its filling position, piston and cylinder assembly means for tilting .saidbag seat to discharge the bag when filled from the machine.
12. Bag applicator apparatus comprising a bag magazine feeder and a packaging unit, said bag magazine feeder including a frame, a floor having a plurality of spaced rails fixedly mounted on said frame, a plurality of alternately spaced rails fluid piston and cylinder assembly means for moving said spaced rails vertically and horizontally for raising a supply of bags upwardly from the fixed rails and moving them forward; a pick-off assembly including pick-ofivacuum cups mounted adjacent said supply of bags for contacting and separating the flap end of a first bag, then the entire valve end of said first bag and finally the complete first bag from said supply of bags, a bag top turner valve opener assembly including a foldover angle bar, a turner arm, a turner piston and cylinder assembly for pivoting said turner arm through an arc to engage the valve end of said bag, and to fold said end over said angle bar to form a square T-section, valve opener vacuum cups disposed adjacent said valve end of the bag to engage and openthe bag valve, a gripper fingers assembly including a gripper carriage, gripper arms mounted on said gripper carriage, and gripper fingers mounted on said gripper arms for engaging the sides of said bag, said gripper fingers assembly having a gripper fingers arm piston and cylinder assembly for rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, carriage slide shafts, said gripper carriage being mounted on said slide shafts, a carriage piston and cylinder assembly for moving said carriage assembly from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube, and means 4 for discharging said bag when filled from the machine.
13. Bag applicator apparatus comprising a bag magazine feeder and a packaging unit, said bag magazine feeder including a frame, a floor having a plurality of spaced rails fixedly mounted on said frame, a plurality of alternately spaced rails, fluid piston and cylinder assembly means for moving said spaced rails vertically and horizontally for raising a supply of bags upwardly from the fixed rails and moving them forward, a limit valve, a limit valve rod connected to said limit valve and being mounted at the front end of the rails to interrupt the movement of said moveable rails when pressure against said valve rod exceeds a predetermined limit; a pick-off assembly including pick-off vacuum cups mounted adjacent said rails for contacting and separating the flap end of a first bag, then the entire valve end of said first bag and finally the complete first bag from said supply of bags, a bag top turner valve opener assembly including a foldover angle bar, a turner arm, a turner piston and cylinder assembly for pivoting said turner arm through an arc to engage'the valve end of said bag, and to fold said end over said angle bar to form a square T-section, valve opener vacuum cups disposed adjacent said valve end of the bag to engage and open the bag valve, a gripper fingers assembly including a gripper carriage, gripper arms mounted on said gripper carriage, and gripper fingers mounted on said gripper arms for engaging the sides of said bag, said gripper fingers assembly having a gripper fingers arm piston and cylinder assembly for rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, carriage slide shafts, said gripper carriage being mounted on said slide shafts, a carriage piston and cylinder assembly for moving said carriage from a piston adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube, a limit valve engageable by said carriage when said carriage is in its position adjacent said packaging unit for initiating a reject sequence, a shock absorber engageable by said carriage when in its position adjacent said magazine feeder, a bag seat for said bag when in its filling position, piston and cylinder assembly means for tilting said bag seat to discharge the bag when filled from the machine.
14. Method of taking a bag from a magazine feeder and applying it to a packaging unit comprising the steps of mounting a stack of empty bags in said magazine feeder, peeling off the flap end of a first bag from said magazine feeder, peeling off the entire valve end of said first bag from said magazine feeder, and peeling off the remaining portion of said first bag from said magazine feeder, folding over the valve end of said bag to form a square T-section, applying vacuum cups to the valve end of said bag to open the bag valve, engaging the' sides of said bag with a gripper fingers assembly, rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, moving said bag from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit, applying said bag to said filling tube, filling said bag, and discharging the filled bag from the packaging unit, said method including the additional step of sensing the resistance of movement of said bag from its position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for initiating a reject sequence.
15. Method of taking a bag from a magazine feeder and applying it to a packaging unit comprising the steps of mounting a stack of empty bags in said magazine feeder, peeling off the flap end of a first bag from said magazine feeder, peeling off the entire valve end of said first bag from said magazine feeder, and peeling off the remaining portion of said first bag from said magazine feeder, folding over the valve end of said bag to form a square T-section, applying vacuum cups to the valve end of said bag to open the bag valve, engaging the sides of said bag with a gripper fingers assembly, rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, movmg said bag from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit, applying said bag to said filling tube, filling said bag, and discharging the filled bag from the packaging unit, said method including the additional step of sensing the movement of said bag from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for initiating a reject sequence when said step of filling the bag fails to materialize.

Claims (15)

1. Bag applicator apparatus comprising a bag magazine feeder and a packaging unit, means for mounting a stack of empty bags in said bag magazine feeder, a pick-off assembly including pick-off vacuum cups mounted adjacent said stack of bags for contacting and separating the flap end of a first bag, then the entire valve end of said first bag and finally the complete first bag from said stack of bags, a bag top turner valve opener assembly for folding the valve end of said bag to form a square T-section, valve opener vacuum cups disposed adjacent said valve end of the bag to engage and open the bag valve, a gripper fingers assembly for engaging the sides of said bag, and rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, means for moving said gripper fingers assembly from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube, and means for discharging said bag when filled from the machine, said means for mounting a stack of empty bags in said bag magazine feeder comprising a frame, a floor having a plurality of spaced rails fixedly mounted on said frame, a plurality of alternately spaced rails, fluid piston and cylinder means for moving said spaced rails vertically and horizontally for raising said stack of empty bags upwardly from the fixed rails and moving them forward towards said pick-off assembly.
2. Bag applicator apparatus according to claim 1 further comprising a limit valve, a limit valve rod connected to said limit valve and being mounted at the front end of the rails to interrupt the movement of said moveable rails when pressure against said valve rod exceeds a predetermined limit.
3. Bag applicator apparatus comprising a bag magazine feeder and a packaging unit, means for mounting a stack of empty bags in said bag magazine feeder, a pick-off assembly including pick-off vacuum cups mounted adjacent said stack of bags for contacting and separating the flap end of a first bag, then the entire valve end of said first bag and finally the complete first bag from said stack of bags, a bag top turner valve opener assembly for folding the valve end of said bag to form a square T-section, valve opener vacuum cups disposed adjacent said valve end of the bag to engage and open the bag valve, a gripper fingers assembly for engaging the sides of said bag, and rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, means for moving said gripper fingers assembly from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube, and means for discharging said bag when filled from the macHine, said pick-off assembly comprising a first pair of vacuum cups for engaging the flat end of said first bag, fluid piston and cylinder means for moving said first pair of vacuum cups, a second pair of vacuum cups for engaging a medial portion of said first bag and a third pair of vacuum cups for engaging a bottom portion of said first bag.
4. Bag applicator apparatus according to claim 3 wherein said pick-off assembly further comprises a bell crank having two arms, a rod being mounted on one of said arms, said third pair of vacuum cups being mounted towards the end of said rod, a stop pin being mounted on the other of said rods, a second fluid piston and cylinder assembly for moving said pick-off assembly away from said magazine.
5. Bag applicator apparatus comprising a bag magazine feeder and a packaging unit, means for mounting a stack of empty bags in said bag magazine feeder, a pick-off assembly including pick-off vacuum cups mounted adjacent said stack of bags for contacting and separating the flap end of a first bag, then the entire valve end of said first bag and finally the complete first bag from said stack of bags, a bag top turner valve opener assembly for folding the valve end of said bag to form a square T-section, valve opener vacuum cups disposed adjacent said valve end of the bag to engage and open the bag valve, a gripper fingers assembly for engaging the sides of said bag, and rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, means for moving said gripper fingers assembly from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube, and means for discharging said bag when filled from the machine, said bag top turner valve opener assembly comprising a foldover angle bar, a turner arm, a turner piston and cylinder assembly for pivoting said turner arm through an arc to engage the valve end of said bag, and to fold said end over the angle bar to form said square T-section.
6. Bag applicator apparatus comprising a bag magazine feeder and a packaging unit, means for mounting a stack of empty bags in said bag magazine feeder, a pick-off assembly including pick-off vacuum cups mounted adjacent said stack of bags for contacting and separating the flap end of a first bag, then the entire valve end of said first bag and finally the complete first bag from said stack of bags, a bag top turner valve opener assembly for folding the valve end of said bag to form a square T-section, valve opener vacuum cups disposed adjacent said valve end of the bag to engage and open the bag valve, a gripper fingers assembly for engaging the sides of said bag, and rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, means for moving said gripper fingers assembly from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube, and means for discharging said bag when filled from the machine, said gripper fingers assembly comprising a gripper carriage, gripper arms mounted on said gripper carriage, and gripper fingers mounted on said gripper arms for engaging the sides of said bag, said gripper fingers assembly having a gripper fingers arm piston and cylinder assembly for rotating said carriage and the bag to said position in line with the filling tube mounted on the packaging unit.
7. Bag applicator apparatus according to claim 6 wherein said means for moving said gripper fingers assembly from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube comprises carriage slide shafts, said gripper carriage being mounted on said slide shafts, a carriage piston and cylinder assembly for moving said carriage.
8. Bag applicator apparatus according to claim 7 further comprising a limit valve engageable by said carriage when said carriage is in its position adjacent said packaging unit for initiAting a reject sequence.
9. Applicator apparatus according to claim 8 further comprising valve means actuatable by said carriage when said carriage is in its position adjacent said packaging unit for initiating a filling operation of said bag, said limit valve having a time delay means for overriding said reject sequence when said valve means is activated.
10. Bag applicator apparatus according to claim 7 further comprising valve means for sensing the resistance to the movement of said gripper carriage towards said packaging unit and for initiating a reject sequence when said resistance is in excess of a predetermined quantity.
11. Bag applicator apparatus comprising a bag magazine feeder and a packaging unit, means for mounting a stack of empty bags in said bag magazine feeder, a pick-off assembly including pick-off vacuum cups mounted adjacent said stack of bags for contacting and separating the flap end of a first bag, then the entire valve end of said first bag and finally the complete first bag from said stack of bags, a bag top turner valve opener assembly for folding the valve end of said bag to form a square T-section, valve opener vacuum cups disposed adjacent said valve end of the bag to engage and open the bag valve, a gripper fingers assembly for engaging the sides of said bag, and rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, means for moving said gripper fingers assembly from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube, and means for discharging said bag when filled from the machine, said means for discharging said bag when filled from the machine comprising a bag seat for said for said bag when in its filling position, piston and cylinder assembly means for tilting said bag seat to discharge the bag when filled from the machine.
12. Bag applicator apparatus comprising a bag magazine feeder and a packaging unit, said bag magazine feeder including a frame, a floor having a plurality of spaced rails fixedly mounted on said frame, a plurality of alternately spaced rails, fluid piston and cylinder assembly means for moving said spaced rails vertically and horizontally for raising a supply of bags upwardly from the fixed rails and moving them forward; a pick-off assembly including pick-off vacuum cups mounted adjacent said supply of bags for contacting and separating the flap end of a first bag, then the entire valve end of said first bag and finally the complete first bag from said supply of bags, a bag top turner valve opener assembly including a foldover angle bar, a turner arm, a turner piston and cylinder assembly for pivoting said turner arm through an arc to engage the valve end of said bag, and to fold said end over said angle bar to form a square T-section, valve opener vacuum cups disposed adjacent said valve end of the bag to engage and open the bag valve, a gripper fingers assembly including a gripper carriage, gripper arms mounted on said gripper carriage, and gripper fingers mounted on said gripper arms for engaging the sides of said bag, said gripper fingers assembly having a gripper fingers arm piston and cylinder assembly for rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, carriage slide shafts, said gripper carriage being mounted on said slide shafts, a carriage piston and cylinder assembly for moving said carriage assembly from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube, and means for discharging said bag when filled from the machine.
13. Bag applicator apparatus comprising a bag magazine feeder and a packaging unit, said bag magazine feeder including a frame, a floor having a plurality of spaced rails fixedly mounted on said frame, a plurality of alternately spaced rails, fluid piston and cylinder assembly means for moving said spaced rails vertically and horizontally for raiSing a supply of bags upwardly from the fixed rails and moving them forward, a limit valve, a limit valve rod connected to said limit valve and being mounted at the front end of the rails to interrupt the movement of said moveable rails when pressure against said valve rod exceeds a predetermined limit; a pick-off assembly including pick-off vacuum cups mounted adjacent said rails for contacting and separating the flap end of a first bag, then the entire valve end of said first bag and finally the complete first bag from said supply of bags, a bag top turner valve opener assembly including a foldover angle bar, a turner arm, a turner piston and cylinder assembly for pivoting said turner arm through an arc to engage the valve end of said bag, and to fold said end over said angle bar to form a square T-section, valve opener vacuum cups disposed adjacent said valve end of the bag to engage and open the bag valve, a gripper fingers assembly including a gripper carriage, gripper arms mounted on said gripper carriage, and gripper fingers mounted on said gripper arms for engaging the sides of said bag, said gripper fingers assembly having a gripper fingers arm piston and cylinder assembly for rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, carriage slide shafts, said gripper carriage being mounted on said slide shafts, a carriage piston and cylinder assembly for moving said carriage from a piston adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for applying said bag to said filling tube, a limit valve engageable by said carriage when said carriage is in its position adjacent said packaging unit for initiating a reject sequence, a shock absorber engageable by said carriage when in its position adjacent said magazine feeder, a bag seat for said bag when in its filling position, piston and cylinder assembly means for tilting said bag seat to discharge the bag when filled from the machine.
14. Method of taking a bag from a magazine feeder and applying it to a packaging unit comprising the steps of mounting a stack of empty bags in said magazine feeder, peeling off the flap end of a first bag from said magazine feeder, peeling off the entire valve end of said first bag from said magazine feeder, and peeling off the remaining portion of said first bag from said magazine feeder, folding over the valve end of said bag to form a square T-section, applying vacuum cups to the valve end of said bag to open the bag valve, engaging the sides of said bag with a gripper fingers assembly, rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, moving said bag from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit, applying said bag to said filling tube, filling said bag, and discharging the filled bag from the packaging unit, said method including the additional step of sensing the resistance of movement of said bag from its position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for initiating a reject sequence.
15. Method of taking a bag from a magazine feeder and applying it to a packaging unit comprising the steps of mounting a stack of empty bags in said magazine feeder, peeling off the flap end of a first bag from said magazine feeder, peeling off the entire valve end of said first bag from said magazine feeder, and peeling off the remaining portion of said first bag from said magazine feeder, folding over the valve end of said bag to form a square T-section, applying vacuum cups to the valve end of said bag to open the bag valve, engaging the sides of said bag with a gripper fingers assembly, rotating said bag to a position in line with a filling tube mounted on said packaging unit, moving said bag from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit, applying said bag to said filling tube, filling said bag, and discharging the filled bag from the packaging unit, said method including the aDditional step of sensing the movement of said bag from a position adjacent said magazine feeder to a position adjacent said packaging unit for initiating a reject sequence when said step of filling the bag fails to materialize.
US3691715D 1970-09-28 1970-09-28 Valve bag applicator machine Expired - Lifetime US3691715A (en)

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Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3953020A (en) * 1975-01-27 1976-04-27 St. Regis Paper Company Bag aligner machine
DE2825918A1 (en) * 1977-06-10 1978-12-21 Unicem BAG FEEDING DEVICE FOR PACKAGING POWDERED BAGS
EP0097415A2 (en) * 1982-06-17 1984-01-04 MacFarlane, John L. Automatic valve bag placer
US4548243A (en) * 1983-11-04 1985-10-22 General Portland, Inc. Apparatus for automatically placing bags
US4577454A (en) * 1984-05-31 1986-03-25 Douglas & Lomason Company Valve bag placing machine and method
EP0343472A1 (en) * 1988-05-26 1989-11-29 BEHN MASCHINENFABRIK GmbH & Co KG Apparatus for filling and palletizing valve bags, and use of this apparatus
US5054275A (en) * 1989-06-23 1991-10-08 Firma Haver & Boecker Apparatus for supplying valved sacks to a filling nozzle
DE4229963A1 (en) * 1992-09-08 1994-03-10 Haver & Boecker Fitting single valve sacks onto filling pipes - involves swivel guide plates and vertically movable suction cup to open out valve sack base
DE4229964A1 (en) * 1992-09-08 1994-03-10 Haver & Boecker Empty sack magazine for storing valve sacks for filling machines - has locally fixed stop strip and movable alignment strip either side of horizontal conveyor belt for even storage of different sized sacks
EP0751067A1 (en) * 1995-06-30 1997-01-02 Sigma Coatings B.V. Automatic filling machine for valve bags
US5802817A (en) * 1996-04-25 1998-09-08 Hood; Charles T. Method and apparatus for opening a mesh bag
US20030071413A1 (en) * 2001-10-11 2003-04-17 Card-Casinos Austria R& D-Casinos Austria Forschungs- Und Entwicklungsges, M.B.H. Card shuffler
US20040221551A1 (en) * 2001-07-13 2004-11-11 Germunson & Main Llc Method for automated produce bag loading
US20060162291A1 (en) * 2005-01-22 2006-07-27 Gates Anthony H Method and apparatus for handling pouches
US20080256905A1 (en) * 2007-04-23 2008-10-23 Michael Graf Valve bag placing system and method
US20090127258A1 (en) * 2007-11-20 2009-05-21 Gates Anthony H Pouch container and method
CN101875407A (en) * 2009-04-29 2010-11-03 克劳迪亚斯·彼得斯技术有限责任公司 The bushing device that is used for the valve bag
US20110136639A1 (en) * 2009-12-08 2011-06-09 Haver & Boecker Ohg Device and method for processing of film tubes to open-mouthed bags and for filling same with bulk materials
US20120192527A1 (en) * 2011-01-31 2012-08-02 Vincent Rody Manzon Methods, apparatus and systems for the handling of empty, flat folded storage bags in preparation for filling with a flowable material
CN103482094A (en) * 2013-08-28 2014-01-01 苏州国衡机电有限公司 Valve bag padding packing machine
CH709346A1 (en) * 2014-03-10 2015-09-15 Ferag Ag A method for automatically opening a carrying bag, as well as apparatus for carrying out the method.

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US3312038A (en) * 1963-04-29 1967-04-04 Stamicarbon Machine for filling valve bags
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US3312038A (en) * 1963-04-29 1967-04-04 Stamicarbon Machine for filling valve bags
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Cited By (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3953020A (en) * 1975-01-27 1976-04-27 St. Regis Paper Company Bag aligner machine
FR2298479A1 (en) * 1975-01-27 1976-08-20 St Regis Paper Co Apparatus for aligning bags upstream of a filling machine
DE2825918A1 (en) * 1977-06-10 1978-12-21 Unicem BAG FEEDING DEVICE FOR PACKAGING POWDERED BAGS
FR2393730A1 (en) * 1977-06-10 1979-01-05 Unicem Emiliane Augusta Spa BAG FEEDER FOR POWDERED MATERIALS BAGGER
US4179868A (en) * 1977-06-10 1979-12-25 UNICEM-Unione Cementerie Marchino, Emiliane e di Augusta, S.p.A. Bag feeding apparatus for powder material packaging
EP0097415A2 (en) * 1982-06-17 1984-01-04 MacFarlane, John L. Automatic valve bag placer
US4442874A (en) * 1982-06-17 1984-04-17 John L. Macfarlane Automatic valve bag placer
EP0097415A3 (en) * 1982-06-17 1984-12-27 MacFarlane, John L. Automatic valve bag placer
US4548243A (en) * 1983-11-04 1985-10-22 General Portland, Inc. Apparatus for automatically placing bags
US4577454A (en) * 1984-05-31 1986-03-25 Douglas & Lomason Company Valve bag placing machine and method
EP0343472A1 (en) * 1988-05-26 1989-11-29 BEHN MASCHINENFABRIK GmbH & Co KG Apparatus for filling and palletizing valve bags, and use of this apparatus
US5054275A (en) * 1989-06-23 1991-10-08 Firma Haver & Boecker Apparatus for supplying valved sacks to a filling nozzle
DE4229963A1 (en) * 1992-09-08 1994-03-10 Haver & Boecker Fitting single valve sacks onto filling pipes - involves swivel guide plates and vertically movable suction cup to open out valve sack base
DE4229964A1 (en) * 1992-09-08 1994-03-10 Haver & Boecker Empty sack magazine for storing valve sacks for filling machines - has locally fixed stop strip and movable alignment strip either side of horizontal conveyor belt for even storage of different sized sacks
DE4229963C2 (en) * 1992-09-08 1998-03-19 Haver & Boecker Attachment device for isolated valve bags
EP0751067A1 (en) * 1995-06-30 1997-01-02 Sigma Coatings B.V. Automatic filling machine for valve bags
US5802817A (en) * 1996-04-25 1998-09-08 Hood; Charles T. Method and apparatus for opening a mesh bag
US20040221551A1 (en) * 2001-07-13 2004-11-11 Germunson & Main Llc Method for automated produce bag loading
US20030071413A1 (en) * 2001-10-11 2003-04-17 Card-Casinos Austria R& D-Casinos Austria Forschungs- Und Entwicklungsges, M.B.H. Card shuffler
US6880310B2 (en) 2002-09-24 2005-04-19 Yakima Packaging Automation, Inc. Method for automatic bale bag loading
US20060162291A1 (en) * 2005-01-22 2006-07-27 Gates Anthony H Method and apparatus for handling pouches
US7363753B2 (en) * 2005-01-22 2008-04-29 Gates Automation, Inc. Method for removing a pouch from a plurality of pouches including bending and pulling of the pouch
US20080256905A1 (en) * 2007-04-23 2008-10-23 Michael Graf Valve bag placing system and method
US7950205B2 (en) * 2007-11-20 2011-05-31 Gates Anthony H Method for removing a pouch from a pouch container
US20090127258A1 (en) * 2007-11-20 2009-05-21 Gates Anthony H Pouch container and method
CN101875407A (en) * 2009-04-29 2010-11-03 克劳迪亚斯·彼得斯技术有限责任公司 The bushing device that is used for the valve bag
CN101875407B (en) * 2009-04-29 2015-11-25 克劳迪亚斯·彼得斯工程有限责任公司 For the bushing device of valve bag
US20110136639A1 (en) * 2009-12-08 2011-06-09 Haver & Boecker Ohg Device and method for processing of film tubes to open-mouthed bags and for filling same with bulk materials
US20120192527A1 (en) * 2011-01-31 2012-08-02 Vincent Rody Manzon Methods, apparatus and systems for the handling of empty, flat folded storage bags in preparation for filling with a flowable material
US8272409B2 (en) * 2011-01-31 2012-09-25 Target Products Ltd. Methods, apparatus and systems for the handling of empty, flat folded storage bags in preparation for filling with a flowable material
CN103482094A (en) * 2013-08-28 2014-01-01 苏州国衡机电有限公司 Valve bag padding packing machine
CH709346A1 (en) * 2014-03-10 2015-09-15 Ferag Ag A method for automatically opening a carrying bag, as well as apparatus for carrying out the method.

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Effective date: 19870515