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Magnetic core with electrical insulation

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US3686599A
US3686599A US3686599DA US3686599A US 3686599 A US3686599 A US 3686599A US 3686599D A US3686599D A US 3686599DA US 3686599 A US3686599 A US 3686599A
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Prior art keywords
core
coating
magnetic
material
electrical
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John T Lee
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SPANG & COMPANY A CORP OF
Magnetics Inc
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Magnetics Inc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F27/00Details of transformers or inductances, in general
    • H01F27/02Casings
    • H01F27/022Encapsulation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F41/00Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing or assembling magnets, inductances or transformers; Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing materials characterised by their magnetic properties
    • H01F41/005Impregnating or encapsulating

Abstract

An electrical insulating material combining resin and a solid particulate filler to obtain thixotropic properties providing more uniform coating coverage in particular at product corner surfaces. In a specific embodiment, the material provides a resilient, matte-finish for non-slip application of coil windings. The electrical insulation material is prepared with a volatile liquid vehicle for spray-on application. In a method for sealing and insulating magnetic cores, the cores are heated above about 225* F. but not above about 425* F. to expand gases within the cores and/or within core encasements and permit gas escape before sealing. Sealing is completed while the magnetic core, and encasement if any, are at an elevated temperature. Curing of the coating is carried out by heating.

Description

United States Patent Lee 1451 Aug. 22, 1972 1 1 MAGNETIC CORE WITH ELECTRICAL 3,057,746 10/1962 Edmonds ..117/1310. 6 INSULATION 3,106,769 10/1963 Goetue et a1. ..336/96X I 3,202,947 8/1965 Budouec ..336/96 [72] i valenca' 3,504,431 4/1970 Guilbaultet al. 17/1310. 6 [73] Assignee: Magnetics, Inc.

Primary Examiner-Thomas J. Kozma [22] 1970 Attorney-Shanley and O'Neil [21] Appl. No.: 32,493

Mum pllca' u n, [57] ABS Cr e Q 7 1 on v An electrical insulating material combining resin anda [62] D1v1s1on of Ser. No. 618,432, Feb. 24, 1967, solid particulate filler to obtain thixotropic properties Pat. No. 3,523,040. providing more uniform coating coverage in particular g 1 3 at product comer surfaces. In a specific embodiment, [52] U.S.'Cl ,;the.material provides a resilient, matte-finish for non- 1,511 Int. Cl...... ..i .H0l-f 2 7]0 2,, 11011 27/24; slipapplication of coil windings. The electrical insula- [58] Fidd f s h 336/96 2'19; 17 32185; DI tio riijiilatrial is prepared with a volatile liquid vehicle 6 I w if: .,ifor'spraybnapplication. In a method for sealing and a [insulating magnetic cores, the cores are heated above [56] j .R f Cited about 225:F.'-but" not above about 425 F. to expand 1 'j' gases the cores and/or within core encasements. 4 UNITED STATESfPATENTS, j and permit gas escape before sealing. Sealing'is 1 j completed while the magnetic core, and encasement if I 23l0820 2,1943 k 3 2 gany areat an elevated temperature. Curing of the 2,788,499 4/1957 Pappas 1336/96 X homing is carried outby heating. 2,990,497 6/1961 Ru ...-3,36/96X- I 1 f g 2,997,776 8/1961 Matter et al. 1...]117/132BE X 12 Claims, 6 DrawingFigures MAGNETIC CORE WITH ELECTRICAL INSULATION This application is a divisional application of a copending application of John T. Lee, Ser. No. 618,432, filed Feb. 24, 1967, now issued'as U.S. Pat. No. 3,523,040.

This invention is concerned with electrical insulation, magnetic cores and magnetic core manufacture.

Proper electrical insulation of magnetic cores, such as cores for saturable reactors and the like, prior to coil winding, has been a difficult problem and limiting factor in usage of special purpose cores. Uses for these cores are found in environments where it is increasingly difficult to prevent voltage-breakdown between the windings and the core, or the metallic enclosure for the core. For example, coil windings in some applications carry in excess of 3,000 volts and the wound core is required to operate under varying temperature conditions from minus 100 to 450 F. and higher. At 'such. high temperature and'high coil winding potentials, the difficulty is providing adequate voltage breakdown protection with athin enough coating so that core measurements are not substantially changed and coil winding area is not substantially decreased.

In the past, spray-on enamels, and the like, for both boxed and unboxed cores have not provided consistent results. Further, it has been necessary to add polyester paints and other insulators in an attempt to obtain desired voltage breakdown protection. These coatings are not able to withstand temperatures in the 425 to 450 F. range without cracking and breakdown.

Fluidized coating of boxed cores, described in the patent to Goethe et al., U.S. Pat. No. 3,148,346, requires relatively high capital investment 'for equipment and has a number of inherent difficulties. These include holding the core during dipping, recoating steps to cover grip points, and a requirement for heavy coating thicknesses in order to obtain reasonable voltage breakdown projection. Further, fluidized coatings produce a hard finish which does not provide the desired support for coil windings. Neither the paint methods of prior practice nor the fluidized coating method provide adequate cornerprotection without increasing the average coating thickness such that loss of substantial coil winding space results.

It is an object of the present invention to provide electrically insulating coating for magnetic cores which can provide in excess of 3,000 volt breakdown protection, can be applied using liquid spray techniques, is tough enough to resist pressures exerted by winding heavy copper wire on the core and still not crack, chip, or peel, provides a non-slip, resilient matte-finish for ease of handling and toroidal winding and exhibits good adhesion properties without brittleness. In addition the electrical insulating material of the present invention provides good edge coverage without excessive buildup of coating thickness on core flat surfaces, provides desired voltage breakdown protection from minus 100 F. and below to above 450 F. without physical or electrical degradation, is impervious to common solvents, acid, and alkali solutions, and is capable of sealing a core to prevent entrance of potting-compounds and varnishes during vacuum impregnation.

Prior art coatings have a hard, glossy finish which do not effectively hold the coil windings within desired sectors. For example, when attempting to make coil windings in a 90 arc of a toroidal core, the windings spread out easily to a greater are because of slippage on the hard, glossy finish. Also, while coatings of the prior art are. adequate for flat surfaces they do not maintain coating thickness on corners as required. Corner coverage with these coatings is usually less than 50 percent of the coating thickness on the flat surfaces of the core.

An important contribution of the present invention for overcoming these problems has been development of a coating material exhibiting high thixotropic properties which permit economical spray-on techniques while at the same time providing product corner coverage of a thickness approaching that of the product flat surface coverage. The desired thixotropic properties are developed by a selection of a solid particulate material which is carried in colloidal suspension in the spray-on insulating material. This solid particulate material, in developing desired thixotropic properties, contributes to the formation of a matte-finish which provides for non-slip winding of coil windings. Also, because of these properties, corner coverage provided is at least percent of the average coating thickness on flat surfaces of a product.

The solid particulate material, referred to herein as a filler, should be inert, electrically insulating, temperature stable to at least 500 F., and have a particle size which develops desired thixotropic properties. One such suitable filler is silica, i.e., substantially pure silicon dioxide, amorphous in structure, with a particle size less than 0.02 micron in diameter or cross-sectional length.

In addition to carrying a solid filler as described above, provision is made for carrying pigmentation to color an insulating coating for coding, core identification, and appearance purposes. The invention teaches the use of a solid, pulverized, inorganic pigment which is temperature stable to 500 F. or higher. By temperature stable here is meant that the pigment remains solid and has color retention, i.e., does not oxidize at temperatures below 500 F. Examples of suitable pigments are molybdate orange mercadmium red.

Selection of a suitable base for the solid filler and pigment is an important teaching of the invention. The base must be a fluid and temperature stable to about 500 F. Suitable synthetic resins include silicones, alkyds, epoxies, and silicone-modified alkyds and epoxies. Silicones or silicone modified high temperature resins are preferred because of the liklihood of silicone contamination of external surfaces of a boxed core. With silicones or silicone-modified resins, silicone contamination on a product does not inhibit bonding.

Silicone-fortified epoxy resin about 30% Silica filler about Molybdate orange pigment about Xylol thinner about 45% The mixture should have a viscosity within the range of 200-500 centipoises when measured immediately after thorough agitation of the mixture.

In further explanation of the invention, reference will be had to the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a sectional view of a boxed core,

FIG. 2 is an expanded sectional view of a portion of a boxed core showing the effects of gas expansion on electrical insulation applied in accordance with the prior art,

FIG. 3 is a sectional view of a portion of a boxed core sealed in accordance with the present invention,

FIG. 4 shows a cross-sectional view of a boxed core insulated in accordance with the present invention,

FIG. 5 shows a cross-sectional view of an unboxed core partially sealed in accordance with the present invention, and I FIG. -6 shows sectional view of a portion of the core of FIG. 5 sealed in accordance with the teachings of the present invention.

The boxed core of FIG. 1 includes a trough-like, nonmagnetic, metallic container 12 which can be toroidal, rectangular, or other configuration. The open end of the trough-like container 12 is covered with closure means 14 resting on shelf means 16 and 18. Closure means 14 is held to the trough-like container 12, for example by deforrning portions of the container 20 and 22, i.e., by folding over lip portions of the metal. Where closure means 14 meets trough-like container 12 an external juncture is formed at 24 and 26 between these two portions of the core encasement.

Within the encasement shown, a tape-wound magnetic core 28 is supported by cushioning material 30.

FIG. 2 shows an expanded portion of a core, such as that shown in FIG. 1, at the juncture line 26 of that core. To the core of FIG. 1, an insulating coating 32, applied in accordance with the prior art, has been added. Typical bubble or pinhole formation in the coating of prior art cores is shown at 34 above juncture 26. Such bubbles or pinholes are formed during curing of the prior art cores, when the cores are subjected to a higher curing temperature than that existing at the time of coating the cores. They are caused primarily by expanding gas escaping along a juncture line between the closure means of the metallic container. Similar defects occur due to expanding gas from interstitial portions of unboxed cores. The result of such defects is a nonsealed or poorly sealed core for vacuum impregnation purposes and also a likely shorting path for voltage breakdown between coil windings and the magnetic core or its metallic enclosure.

FIG. 3 is a sectional view of a portion of a core in a rigid container. Core 34 is formed by placing electrically insulated magnetic sheet material in overlapping contact. The core is placed within non-magnetic metallic container 36 and is supported by cushioning material 38. Closure means 40 covers the open end of container 36 to provide a rigid encasement for core 34.

In carrying out the teachings of the invention the encased core is heated above about 225 F. but not higher than about 425 F. In a specific embodiment of the invention, the core is heated to a temperature such that a temperature of 275, plus or minus 5, is maintained at the time of subsequent coating and curing. Heating of the uncoated boxed core expands gases within the core box permitting escape of gases before the first seal coating has begun to solidify.

While the core is in a heated condition, as described above, junctures between closure means 40 and metallic container 36 on the exterior of the encasement are coated by spraying on electrical insulating material.

In practice, the electrical insulating material is partial curing, i.e., solidification of the spray coating 42 at a temperature above about 225 F. but not significantly higher than the temperature of the core when sprayed. By this is meant not heating to a temperature such that a sufficiently high pressure would result internally causing bubble or pinhole formation in the coating. Solidification of the sprayed-on coating seals the cores and the sealed cores are held in the above temperature range for approximately one-half hour after which the sealer coat will have cured sufficiently to prevent escape of any expandable gases within the container. The core is then raised to a temperature of about 300 F. to insure that the sealer coat is properly cured to withstand subsequent heating and cooling cycles.

The cores are turned after removal from a 300 F. oven and the remainder of the boxed core issprayed with coating 44, as shown in FIG. 4. This coating is solidified as described above. Plural coating can be applied with intermediate partial curing of previous coatings.

After all coatings are applied to the cores, the cores are returned to an oven between 425 F. and 500 F. for about one-half hour. This is the final hardening cure which bonds all coats together and prevents softening of the coatings if the part is heated to elevated temperatures during use.

Referring to FIG. 5, the coating of unboxed cores is similar to the coating of boxed cores except that sealing on a plurality of surfaces is required. Coating applied to unboxed core 52 seals the interstitial openings at the upper end of the core between edge portions of the magnetic material and covers comer surfaces at the upper end of the core. At the same time, coating 50 can be extended to inner diameter 54 and outer diameter 56. In a preferred embodiment, coating 50 is applied in a plurality of layers with intermediate partial curing of each layer as previously described. After partial curing of coating 50 the cores are turned. The cores are termediate curing, depending on the desired final coating thickness. The coating is cured at a final curing temperature between 425 F. and 500 F. for the purposes previously mentioned.

Whereas prior coating methods such as the fluidized coating method normally require coating thicknesses of 0.015 inch or greater, the present invention provides voltage breakdown protection in excess of 1,000 volt potential with a coating thickness no greater than 0.007 to 0.010 inch.

In coating unboxed tape wound cores, the tape of the core should be wound tightly with a quality weld holding the inner and outer lap to the remainder of the core.

With the preheating temperatures and curing described above escape of gases from interstitial portions of a core will be avoided during the application of the coating. Curing of the coating, prevents any later escape of gases. A single coating layer of the abovedescribed insulation material of an average thickness of V 0.004 inch will provide voltage breakdown protection of at least 500 volts.

The teachings of the invention are also applicable to applying voltage breakdown protection to other than tape wound cores such as powder metal cores. The procedures for preheating of the core and curing of the coatings described above are followed in coating such cores so that expandable gases from interstitial portions of the core do not impair the properties of the finish.

The use of silicone resins or other high temperature silicone-modified resins in the electrical insulating material described above provides better adherence to external surfaces of the core box materials which are ordinarily contaminated with silicone prior to the time of coating.

in preparing the electrical insulating material the fluid resin, pulverized pigment and sub-micron size filler are mixed with a vehicle, typically an aromatic hydrocarbon. A high boiling point solvent is included in the vehicle for spraying heated products in order to avoid drying of the spray-on material before proper coverage is obtained. The thixotropic properties provided by the filler maintain corner coverage without the running of the coating prior to curing experienced with prior art coatings. After curing, the material can have, by weight, about 5-8 percent filler, about 35-40 percent pigment, and the balance resin.

' Other products and other materials than those specifically described above can be used in carrying the method of the invention in the light of the above teachings;

for example, one of the conventional coatings set forth earlier can be applied to a product after sealing as taught above. Therefore in determining the scope of the present invention reference will be had to the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. A magnetic core with external surfaces of the magnetic core sealed with an electrical insulating material, the electrical insulating material comprising resin with approximately 5 to 8 percent by weight suspended solid particulate filler of sub-micron cross-sectional particle size and presenting a matte-f nish, the resin and filler being temperature stable to a temperature of at least 2. The magnetic core of claim 1 in which the average maximum coating tllickn ss of tine electrical insulating material on externa su aces o the magnetic core 15 not in excess of .012 inch.

3. The magnetic core of claim 2 in which the coating thickness of the electrical insulating material on corner portions of the magnetic core is not substantially less than percent of the average maximum coating thickness on flat surfaces of the magnetic core.

4. The magnetic core of claim 1 in which the solid particulate filler suspended in the electrical insulating material is silicon dioxide having a cross-sectional particle size of less than .02 micron.

5. The magnetic core of claim 1 in which the resin is selected from the group consisting of silicones, alkyds, epoxies, and silicone-modified alkyds and epoxies.

6. The magnetic core of claim 1 in which the electrical insulating material comprises by weight: approximately 58percent particulate silicon dioxide as the filler, approximately 35-40 percent pulverized solid pigment selected from the group consisting of molybdate orange and mercadmium red, and

the balance is a resin selected from the group consisting of silicones, alkyds, epoxies, and siliconemodified alkyds and epoxies.

7. A magnetic core in a rigid encasement including a non-magnetic metallic trough-like container and closure means for the container, with external surfaces of the encasement coated with an electrical insulating material soas to seal the encasement, the electrical insulating material comprising resin with approximately 5 to 8 percent by weight suspended solid particulate filler of sub-micron cross-sectional particle size and presenting a matte-finish, both the resin and the particulate filler being temperature stable to a temperature of at least 500 F.

8. The encased magnetic core of claim 7 in which the average maximum coating thickness of the electrical insulating material on external surfaces of the encased magnetic core is not in excess of .012 inch.

9. The encased core of claim I in which the coating thickness of the electrical insulating material on corner portions of the encasement is not substantially less than 80 percent of the average maximum coating thickness on flat surfaces of the encasement.

10. The encased core of claim 9 in which the solid particulate filler is silicon dioxide having a cross-sectional particle of size less than .02 micron.

11. The encased core of claim 9 in which the resin is selected from the group consisting of silicones, alkyds, epoxies, and silicone-modified alkyds and epoxies.

12. The encased core of claim 9 in which the electrical insulating material comprises by weight:

5-8 percent particulate silicon dioxide as the filler,

35-40 percent solid pulverized pigment selected from the groups consisting of molybdate orange and mercadmium red, and

the balance selected from the group consisting of silicones, alkyds, epoxies, and silicone-modified alkyds and epoxies.

Claims (11)

  1. 2. The magnetic core of claim 1 in which the average maximum coating thickness of the electrical insulating material on external surfaces of the magnetic core is not in excess of .012 inch.
  2. 3. The magnetic core of claim 2 in which the coating thickness of the electrical insulating material on corner portions of the magnetic core is not substantially less than 80 percent of the average maximum coating thickness on flat surfaces of the magnetic core.
  3. 4. The magnetic core of claim 1 in which the solid particulate filler suspended in the electrical insulating material is silicon dioxide having a cross-sectional particle size of less than .02 micron.
  4. 5. The magnetic core of claim 1 in which the resin is selected from the group consisting of silicones, alkyds, epoxies, and silicone-modified alkyds and epoxies.
  5. 6. The magnetic core of claim 1 in which the electrical insulating material comprises by weight: approximately 5-8 percent particulate silicon dioxide as the filler, approximately 35-40 percent pulverized solid pigment selected from the group consisting of molybdate orange and mercadmium red, and the balance is a resin selected from the group consisting of silicones, alkyds, epoxies, and silicone-modified alkyds and epoxies.
  6. 7. A magnetic core in a rigid encasement including a non-magnetic metallic trough-like container and closure means for the container, with external surfaces of the encasement coated with an electrical insulating material so as to seal the encasement, the electrical insulating material comprising resin with approximately 5 to 8 percent by weight suspended solid particulate filler of sub-micron cross-sectional particle size and presenting a matte-finish, both the resin and the particulate filler being temperature stable to a temperature of at least 500* F.
  7. 8. The encased magnetic core of claim 7 in which the average maximum coating thickness of the electrical insulating material on external surfaces of the encased magnetic core is not in excess of .012 inch.
  8. 9. The encased core of claim I in which the coating thickness of the electrical insulating material on corner portions of the encasement is not substantially less than 80 percent of the average maximum coating thickness on flat surfaces of the encasement.
  9. 10. The encased core of claim 9 in which the solid particulate filler is silicon dioxide having a cross-sectional particle of size less than .02 micron.
  10. 11. The encased core of claim 9 in which the resin is selected from the group consisting of silicones, alkyds, epoxies, and silicone-modified alkyds and epoxies.
  11. 12. The encased core of claim 9 in which the electrical insulating material comprises by weight: 5-8 percent particulate silicon dioxide as the filler, 35-40 percent solid pulverized pigment selected from the groups consisting of molybdate orange and mercadmium red, and the balance selected from the group consisting of silicones, alkyds, epoxies, and silicone-modified alkyds and epoxies.
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5767758A (en) * 1994-09-14 1998-06-16 Toyodenso Kabushiki Kaisha Plug cap incorporated type ignition coil
US20140176059A1 (en) * 2012-12-26 2014-06-26 Hyundai Motor Company Magnetic connector apparatus for charging electric vehicle
US20150069287A1 (en) * 2012-03-23 2015-03-12 Merck Patent Gmbh Thermally conductive, plate-shaped pigment coated with aluminium oxide

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2310820A (en) * 1941-03-08 1943-02-09 Western Electric Co Magnetic core
US2788499A (en) * 1956-05-23 1957-04-09 New York Transformer Co Inc Transformer construction
US2990497A (en) * 1959-06-04 1961-06-27 Deluxe Coils Inc Power pack encapsulation
US2997776A (en) * 1958-05-26 1961-08-29 Gen Motors Corp Electrical apparatus and method of making same
US3057746A (en) * 1959-12-28 1962-10-09 Phillips Petroleum Co Coating method and article produced thereby
US3106769A (en) * 1958-08-01 1963-10-15 Westinghouse Electric Corp Magnetic cores hermetically sealed within metal core boxes
US3202947A (en) * 1961-02-16 1965-08-24 Jefferson Electric Co Epoxy insulated transformer having tris-beta-chloroethylphosphate and hydrated alumina in the insulation
US3504431A (en) * 1966-09-27 1970-04-07 Gen Electric Method of manufacturing insulated electrical members

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2310820A (en) * 1941-03-08 1943-02-09 Western Electric Co Magnetic core
US2788499A (en) * 1956-05-23 1957-04-09 New York Transformer Co Inc Transformer construction
US2997776A (en) * 1958-05-26 1961-08-29 Gen Motors Corp Electrical apparatus and method of making same
US3106769A (en) * 1958-08-01 1963-10-15 Westinghouse Electric Corp Magnetic cores hermetically sealed within metal core boxes
US2990497A (en) * 1959-06-04 1961-06-27 Deluxe Coils Inc Power pack encapsulation
US3057746A (en) * 1959-12-28 1962-10-09 Phillips Petroleum Co Coating method and article produced thereby
US3202947A (en) * 1961-02-16 1965-08-24 Jefferson Electric Co Epoxy insulated transformer having tris-beta-chloroethylphosphate and hydrated alumina in the insulation
US3504431A (en) * 1966-09-27 1970-04-07 Gen Electric Method of manufacturing insulated electrical members

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5767758A (en) * 1994-09-14 1998-06-16 Toyodenso Kabushiki Kaisha Plug cap incorporated type ignition coil
US20150069287A1 (en) * 2012-03-23 2015-03-12 Merck Patent Gmbh Thermally conductive, plate-shaped pigment coated with aluminium oxide
US20140176059A1 (en) * 2012-12-26 2014-06-26 Hyundai Motor Company Magnetic connector apparatus for charging electric vehicle
US9409489B2 (en) * 2012-12-26 2016-08-09 Hyundai Motor Company Automotive inductive charger with insertable magnetic core

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