US3685972A - Catalytic converter construction - Google Patents

Catalytic converter construction Download PDF

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US3685972A
US3685972A US3685972DA US3685972A US 3685972 A US3685972 A US 3685972A US 3685972D A US3685972D A US 3685972DA US 3685972 A US3685972 A US 3685972A
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section
end
catalyst
converter
tubular
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Ted V De Palma
Albert J Brons
Martin W Perga
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Ted V De Palma
Albert J Brons
Martin W Perga
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/92Chemical or biological purification of waste gases of engine exhaust gases
    • B01D53/94Chemical or biological purification of waste gases of engine exhaust gases by catalytic processes
    • B01D53/944Simultaneously removing carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons or carbon making use of oxidation catalysts
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/08Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous
    • F01N3/10Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust
    • F01N3/24Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust characterised by constructional aspects of converting apparatus
    • F01N3/28Construction of catalytic reactors
    • F01N3/2839Arrangements for mounting catalyst support in housing, e.g. with means for compensating thermal expansion or vibration
    • F01N3/2846Arrangements for mounting catalyst support in housing, e.g. with means for compensating thermal expansion or vibration specially adapted for granular supports, e.g. pellets
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C11/00Pivots; Pivotal connections
    • F16C11/04Pivotal connections
    • F16C11/06Ball-joints; Other joints having more than one degree of angular freedom, i.e. universal joints
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N13/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus characterised by constructional features ; Exhaust or silencing apparatus, or parts thereof, having pertinent characteristics not provided for in, or of interest apart from, groups F01N1/00 - F01N5/00, F01N9/00, F01N11/00
    • F01N13/18Construction facilitating manufacture, assembly, or disassembly
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2330/00Structure of catalyst support or particle filter
    • F01N2330/08Granular material
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2450/00Methods or apparatus for fitting, inserting or repairing different elements
    • F01N2450/22Methods or apparatus for fitting, inserting or repairing different elements by welding or brazing

Abstract

A CATALYTIC CONVERTER FOR TREATING EXHAUST GAS STREAMS ADAPTED FOR ENGINE COMPARTMENT INSTALLATION AND ENCOMPASSING A DESIGN THAT WILL WITHSTAND STESSES DUE TO TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIALS WITHIN THE CONVERTER BY UTILIZING A SYMMETRICAL DESIGN WITH SLIDEABLE PARTS. IN A PREFERRED ARRANGEMENT THE CONVERTER HAS A CATALYST RESERVOIR THEREIN WHICH SERVES AS STORAGE FOR FRESH CATALYST PARTICLES THAT

FLOW INTO THE CATALYST RETAINING SECTION, REPLACING PARTICLES LOST BY ATTRITION.

Description

Aug.. 22, 1972 DE PALMA ErAL 3,685,972

CATALYTIC CONVERTER CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 18. 1969 UNTREATED EXHAUST 0 l/GASES FIGURE l TREATED EXHAUST GASES FIGURE 3 INVENTORS TED V. DE PALMA ALBERT J BRONS MARTIN W. PERGA ya/wzra/ flu/annp, yr J ail; 4.14-

A TTOKVEYS FIGURE 2 United States Patent Ofice 3,685,972 Patented Aug. 22, 1972 3,685,972 CATALYTIC CONVERTER CONSTRUCTION Ted V. De Palma, Rte. 3, Box 294, Roselle, Ill. 60172;

Albert J. Brons, 533 S. Princeton Ave., Villa Park, Ill.

60181; and Martin W. Perga, 576 Edgefield Lane, Holiman Estates, Ill. 60172 Filed Sept. 18, 1969, Ser. No. 858,917 Int. Cl. F0111 3/14; Blj 9/04 US. Cl. 23-288 F 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The present invention relates to an improved catalytic converter for use in the catalytic oxidation and conversion of exhaust gas streams and more particularly to a converter construction which incorporates a symmetrical construction of slideable parts, thus preventing structural damage due to temperature differentials within the converter.

The desirability of removing or converting the noxious compounds of vehicular exhaust gases has been generally Well established. The unavoidable incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels by a gasoline engine results in the generation of substantial quantities of unburned hydrocarbons, and undesirable products, which, as waste products, discharge into the atmosphere through the exhaust line. Such partially oxidized products, and parts or all of these components contribute to the smog problem presently facing various geographical areas of the world.

In a catalytic operation, the hot gases issuing from the motor exhaust manifold are passed through a catalyst bed maintained within a conversion zone, so as to effect a more or less complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons present in the exhaust stream. It is sometimes desirable topremix the exhaust gases issuing from the exhaust manifold with a quantity of secondary or combustion air before directing the gases into the converter; however, this is no longer considered absolutely necessary in a converter system, since modern carburetion systems initially provide a supply of excess air to the engine, thus establishing surplus air in the exhaust stream in most modes of operation. The use of a catalytic method in apparatus provides for the initiation of the oxidation reaction at a lower temperature than might otherwise be possible, and its use effectively eliminates the need for an igniting means, such as a spark plug, which is generally used with most types of after burners or other apparatus which depend strictly upon thermal conditions.

One of the major problems encountered in the use of a catalytic converter in an exhaust system is the problem of structural failure induced by large thermal gradients within the converter. High temperatures are produced as a result of the exothermic oxidation reaction taking place within and around the catalyst bed. Depending upon the particular catalyst employed and the operation of the motor vehicle, that is, whether the engine is being operated under conditions of idle, accelerate, cruise, or decelerate, converter temperatures may run as high as 1200 degrees to 2000 degrees Fahrenheit. A practical catalyst converter construction that is susceptible to converter for treating an engine exhaust gas, which may cause deformation, split seams, etc., as a result of uneven thermal expansion.

A practical converter should also be arranged so that a uniform distribution of exhaust gas flow through the catalyst bed is maintained in order to achieve maximum catalyst life and maximum conversion. It is also important that the physical size of the converter be minimized, yet providing maximum catalyst volume, thus permitting the installation of the converter in the engine compartment of the automobile or, in other words, in the closest possible proximity to the engine exhaust gas manifold;

It is thus the principal object of this invention to provide for a catalytic converter construction that allows for the various components of the converter to expand and contract relative to each other as the temperature of the apparatus fluctuates. Another object of this invention is to provide for a simplified converter construction utilizing a symmetrical design.

Still another object of this invention is to provide for a catalyst converter construction that is susceptible to simplification of manufacturing techniques.

In a broad aspect, this invention provides a catalytic converter for treating an engine exhaust gas, which comprises in combination, an outer housing which has an elongated tubular body section and opposing sealed end sections, a first port means through said one end section and a second port means through the opposing section, a tapered, tubular-form, perforate section having an interior closed end and an open end, said tapered, tubularform, perforate section having its said open end connecting to said outer housing, and the remaining portion spaced within said outer housing to form a manifold section therearound, a central tubular-form perforate section having an open end and an internal end spaced centrally within said tapered tubular-form perforate section to thereby provide an annular-form catalyst retaining section for containment of said catalyst particles, the open end of said central tubular-form perforate section extending to and connecting with one of said port means, and the internal end thereof extending to and connecting slideably into said interior closed end of said tapered, tubular-form section.

Preferably, the interior closed end of the tapered tubular-form perforate section is supported by a series of spaced apart projections or other form of spacing means spaced from an end section of the converter. Thus, that end is supported in a manner permitting longitudinal expansion of the tapered section.

In a preferred embodiment, and particularly for a substantially vertically positioned converter, an enclosed reservoir section means is located at one of the ends of the tapered tubular-form perforate section to form a catalyst reservoir adjacent to the catalyst retaining section. Openings or other passageway means are then provided from the reservoir section to the catalyst retaining section. Thus, when the converter is vertically disposed, or nearly so, with the catalyst reservoir section means located above the retaining section, catalyst particles within the reservoir will flow downward through these openings into the catalyst retaining section to fill any voids created by attrition or shrinkage. The vertical positioning of this particular converter embodiment is considered a preferred arrangement, for it not only establishes catalyst particle flow from the reservoir downward through the openings into the catalyst retaining section, but, in the case where the inlet gases are introduced through the uppermost port means, the vertical positioning establishes downward exhaust gas flow through the catalyst retaining section. This downward flow of exhaust gases is generally thought to be a preferred flow pattern, i.e., the downward flow of exhaust gases through a catalytic bed generally causes catalyst particles to be packed tightly throughout the retaining section. The present converter design may well be used in a generally horizontal position, or in a vertical position with the inlet gases being introduced through the lowermost port means, thus resulting in upward flow, but an upward flow of exhaust gases will generally cause catalyst particles to float within the catalyst retaining section. Floating of catalyst particles introduces a major problem into the operation of the converter, that being the loss of catalyst particles through attrition. Since the particles are in effect floating they are moving relative to each other. This relative motion causes the particles to rub together, gradually wearing down the size of each particle. As the particles diminish in size, they eventually will be lost through the perforations in the perforate Wall sections. This loss, although relatively small in a short period of time, can affect the operation of the converter over an extended period of time. This is especially troublesome today, since it is thought that a properly designed converter may well last up to 50,000 miles of operation time.

In a preferred embodiment, the outer elongated tubular body section and the centrally located tubular-form perforate section are cylindrically shaped, and the tapered tubular-form perforate section is frusto-conically shaped. In addition, all sections of the converter are co-axially disposed about the longitudinal axis of the outer tubular body section. In other words, the axes of the end sections, as well as the axis of the tapered tubular-form perforate section and the axis tubular-form perforate section coincide with the axis of the outer elongated tubular body section. Also, when a reservoir section is embodied in the converter, that section should be co-axially disposed on the longitudinal axis of the elongated tubular body section.

Thus, a basic feature of this preferred embodiment is that any cross-sectional area taken transverse to the longitudinal axis of the outer tubular body section is symmetrical with respect to that axis. Since the average direction of flow to the catalyst retaining section is substantially parallel to this longitudinal axis, and as a direct consequence of the symmetrical cross section of the cylindrical and conical sections, an essentially uniform temperature pattern, or temperature symmetry, is obtained throughout the catalyst retaining section, and, more importantly, throughout the end sections and wall sections of the outer housing itself. In other words, an infinite number of substantially circular concentric temperature isotherms, centered on the longitudinal axis of the outer housing, exist in both of the end section members and in all other members disposed perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis, and an infinite number of peripheral, longitudinally spaced isotherms exist in the walls of the elongated outer tubular body section and in the walls of the perforate sections. Thus the temperatures at all points equidistant from the longitudinal axis will, on the average, be equal. There will, of course, usually be a substantial temperature differential between the centers of the end sections, but the rate of change of temperature with path length in proceeding therebetween along the surface of the housing and the perforate sections is quite small, and the temperature profile of all minimum distance path lengths between the centers of the end sections will be substantially identical. Such temperature symmetry means that the thermal stress pattern within the sections will also be symmetrical so that excessive differential stresses within the structural members of the converter are avoided. This feature, in addition to the feature of slidable perforate sections, will thus avoid any structural problems due to temperature differentials within the system.

The converter may well be used in either an "in-to-out flow arrangement or an out-to-in flow arrangement. In the latter arrangement, it is desirous that the open end of the tapered tubular-form perforate section be the wider end thereof. Thus, the manifold section circumventing that perforate section will decrease in crosssectional area in the direction of flow. Assuming that the centrally located tubular-form perforate section is cylindrically shaped, the catalyst retaining section will increase in cross-sectional area in the direction of flow. Both these conditions or limitations of cross-sectional areas will establish an ideal flow pattern through the retaining section.

Preferably, in the former or in-to-out fiow arrangement, the open end of the tapered tubular-form perforate section is the narrower end thereof. This again establishes a catalyst retaining section of increasing cross-sectional area in the direction of flow, assuming however, that the centrally located tubular-form section is cylindrically shaped. To establish an ideal sized manifold section around the tapered tubular-form perforate section. The elongated tubular body section is tapered to effect an increase in cross-sectional area of the manifold section from a location laterally adjacent the open or narrower end of the tapered perforate section to a location laterally adjacent the interior closed end. In other words the manifold, in this case serving as the outlet manifold section, will increase in cross-sectional area in the direction of flow.

In a preferred arrangement the end sections have outwardly facing flanged portions, and the outer diameters of these end sections coincide with the interior diameters of the tubular body section. They are thereby adapted to be disposed concurrently within the tubular body section with their open ends facing outwardly. This type of connection will permit the utilization of various production methods to permanently or temporarily seal the end sections to the tubular body section.

It is noted that in accordance with the requirements of symmetry set forth herein before, that the transverse section of the chamber may assume other than cylindrical forms, as for example an oval or a polygon of n sides; however, the desired form is cylindrical because of its absolute symmetry and the ease of fabrication. The design and construction of the present improved converter, as well as other advantageous features in connection therewith, are better set forth and explained by reference to the accompanying diagrammatic drawing and the following description thereof.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a sectional elevational view through a preferred embodiment of this converter best suited for outto-in flow.

FIG. 2 is a partial, sectional elevational view through an embodiment of this converter which embodies an alternate form of support for the tubular-form perforate section.

FIG. 3 is a simplified schematical representation of a modified embodiment of the present converter which is best suited for in-to-out flow.

With reference to the drawing, and particularly to FIG. 1, the converter is shown to include an outer housing 1 which has an elongated outer tubular body section 2, to which are connected end closure sections 3 and 4 respectively, thereby forming an enclosed chamber of circular cross section having a central longitudinal axis a-a.

In this present embodiment, which is best suited for out-to-in flow, the upper and lower end sections are provided with flanged portions 5 and 16, and the outer diameters of these sections coincide with the interior diameters of the tubular body section. Thus, there are provided peripheral surfaces 6 and 7 for abutting the interior of tubular section 2 at 8 and 9 respectively. It is noted that the type of connection resulting from the use of end sections 3 and 4 will permit the utilization of various production techniques to seal the connection either permanently or temporarily. For example, such an arrangement will permit the use of welding, either by establishing edge joint welds at and 11, or the use of resistance welding to establish a joint at 12 and 13. It is also contemplated that this connection be sealed by use of a clamping device either temporarily or permanently. Still further, the connection may be sealed by turning and rolling the two mating surfaces inwardly or outwardly to produce a tin can type joint construction. 0n the other hand, it is contemplated that end sections 3 and 4 may be flat plates, thus permitting a simple weld connection to section 2. It is also contemplated that section 2 may be flanged to facilitate various types of connections.

To maintain the symmetrical construction, a conduit or other suitable port means, which in this particular arrangement serves as the inlet conduit, is located along axis a-a and communicates with the interior of the body section 2 via opening 17. Likewise a conduit 18 or other suitable port means is disposed along axis a-a at the lower end of the converter and an opening 19 is provided in the lower end section 4 to establish communication to the interior of the body section 2. This particular conduit serves as the outlet conduit in the preferred utilization of this embodiment.

A tapered tubular-form perforate section 20, in this case being conically shaped, is attached at its open, wide end to the interior of section 2 of the housing at zone 21. Apertures or slotted openings 22 are provided in the walls of conically shaped member 20, thereby establishing communication into the annularly shaped catalyst bed or retaining section 23, formed by the conically shaped section and an axially positioned central tubular-form section 24. Being conically shaped, section 20 establishes a resulting tapered annular manifold section 25. Also, since the central tubular-form perforate section 24 is cylindrically shaped, the annularly shaped catalyst retaining section 23 has a resulting cross section that increases in the downward direction or in the preferred direction of flow.

It may be pointed out that radial flow through an annular form of bed catalyst is of particular advantage in fluid-solids contacting, in that it provides a substantially uniform flow through a relatively large surface area. However, where a relatively high velocity gaseous stream is introduced into a converter and diverted radially through a uniformly thick annular-form catalyst bed, there tends to be a non-uniform flow along the axis of such bed. Particularly with a high mass flow rate through a uniform depth of annular bed, there is a tendency for a major portion of the gas stream to bypass the upstream end portion of the bed and to flow radially through the downstream end portion. Actually, as portions of the total gas flow pass through the bed, the velocity of the remaining gas flow within the inlet manifold is reduced to result in a decreased velocity head and an increased static head from the upstream to the downstream end of the inlet zone. This differential static head gradient causes an increased flow through the bed, when moving from the upstream to the downstream end of the unit, and this inequality of flow becomes progressively less as the total flow rate increases.

Thus, by utilizing a tapering annular bed or retaining section, creating greater particle depth in the downstream end of the unit, a greater pressure drop through that portion will be established, and there will be a tendency to balance the higher static head at such portion. The result is a decreased flow rate through the retaining section at the downstream end and a more uniform flow through the entire annular-form catalyst retaining section. It is therefore seen that this particular embodiment is best suited for out-to-in flow.

It is to be noted also that by incorporating the tapered annular manifold section 25 as the inlet manifold section for the distribution of the exhaust gas stream flow within the interior of the converter, that the effect of the velocity head of the exhaust stream upon the catalyst is further minimized. The reduction in the cross-sectional area of the manifold of the gas flow together with the increasing cross-sectional area of the catalyst bed 23 in the downward direction provides for a substantially uniform flow or driving force across the catalyst bed at any one point.

In addition to being defined by perforate sections 20 and 24, the catalyst retaining section 23 is further defined by the lower end section 4 and by the interior closed end 30 of tapered tubular-form perforate section 20. Interior end 30 may be an imperforate plate section with a groove or pocket portion in its central position; however, in this present embodiment, the portion 31 is a hollow cylinder or pocket with its axis located concurrently on axis aa. Its inner diameter is approximately the same diameter as the outer diameter of perforate section 24. Thus, section 24 is supported in a slideable manner by the indented portion 31 of imperforate plate 30. This particular construction permits the perforate section 24 to expand longitudinally within the space 32 provided by portion 31. Therefore, space 32 between the end of section 24 and the end of grooved section 31 should be designed to a sufficient size to allow for the calculated longitudinal expansion. As mentioned previously, any lateral expansion is compensated for by its design being basically symmetrical about axis a-a.

In a simplified arrangement imperforate plate 30 would not have any openings therein. However, this illustrated arrangement embodies a catalyst reservoir section means 35, which in this particular instance is formed by an additional hollow, frustro-conically shaped imperforate member 36 attached to perforate section 20 at 37. With the use of reservoir 35 the plate 30 is provided with openings or other suitable passageway means 38 to in turn provide communication into the catalyst retaining section 23. Of course, openings 38 must be of suflicient size to pass catalyst particles therethrough.

An alternate arrangement for supporting section 24 is illustrated in FIG. 2. There section 24 is shown being supported slideably by an opening 31 centrally located in interior closed end 30'. Since section 24 is free to expand longitudinally, and since under normal operating conditions its temperature will be higher than that of conically shaped section 20, it will expand greater than section 20. This relative motion will tend to transfer pressure to the catalyst particles within reservoir section 35 and thus force the particles through the opening 38 into the catalyst retaining section 23.

It is to be noted that the internal components of the converter of FIG. 1 are only fixed permanently at 21 and at 39 at the lower end of the converter. The upper portion of these components are not supported in any fixed manner to the outer sections. They are, however, supported in a slideable manner by transverse projections or other suitable spacing means 40 spaced around the circumference of the interior of section 2 and spaced from the top end section 3. The projections of the present embodiment have been shown to be formed by a stamping operation; however, this particular form of fabrication should not be considered limiting for other forms of spacers are considered to be within the scope of the present designs. For instance, the projections may be formed by welding separate pieces of material to the interior walls of body section 2. It should also be recognized that the number of projections used for the purpose of supporting the upper end of the inner components should not be limiting upon this invention. However, the number should not be so great as to block flow of incoming exhaust gases. Typically, three or four such projections spaced equidistant around the inner walls of section 2 will provide adequate guide and support for the internal components. It is to be noted, that similar to the support construction of section 24, this particular construction allows for free longitudinal expansion of section 20 within the converter body. Alternatively, of course, the spacing means may be connected 7 to the interior components of the converter; e.g., member 36, thus obtaining the slideable support through the free contact with the interior of body section 2.

Within the space 23, defining the catalyst retaining section, are located subdivided catalyst particles 41, and, for most efiicient converter operations, the catalyst retaining section should be filled to capacity. This is the reason for locating a reservoir section means 35 above the converter bed section.

With regard to the catalyst, it is not intended to limit this improved type of catalytic converter to any one particular type of oxidation catalyst, inasmuch as there are various known effective and efficient catalyst compositions. Suitable oxidation catalysts include the metals of groups 1, 5, 6, 7, and 8 of the Periodic Table, particularly chromium, copper, nickel, and platinum. These components may be used singularly, or in combinations of two or more, etc., and will generally be composited with an inorganic refractory oxide support material, such as alumina, silicaalumina, silica-alumina-zirconia, silica-thoria, silica-boria, or the like. It is also noted that in some instances the catalyst retaining section may be reinforced with stiffening members, bridging the space between the perforate partitions 20 and 24.

In the operation of the converter, as best shown in FIG. 1, the exhaust gases issuing from the exhaust manifold of the automobile engine are preferably directed into conduit and through opening 17 provided in the end plate 3 of the converter to impinge upon the end part of the reservoir section 36 near the center portion thereof. The gases are then deflected fairly uniformly around the ends of the reservoir section down into the annular tapered manifold section 25. Passing down through the manifold section, the high gas velocity eventually develops into a fairly uniform pressure head, because of the tapered cross-sectional area of the manifold section 25. The gases are then directed through perforations 22 of tapered tubular-form perforate section into the catalyst retaining section 23. Because of the increasing size of the catalyst retaining bed in the direction of flow, the effect of high pressure head at the downstream end of the catalyst retaim'ng section will be further reduced, therefore establishing uniformity and a resulting highly efficient converter. The unburned components in the exhaust gases are oxidized within the catalyst section to form generally harmless components therein. After oxidation, the gases are passed into central tubular-form perforate section 24 through perforations 22' down through the space defined by section 24 and out through conduit 18, which is adapted to be connected to the exhaust pipe of the automobile.

FIG. 3 is a simplified schematical representation of a modified embodiment of the present improvement, which is best suited for in-to-out flow. It is shown without a reservoir section, which should not be limiting, for it is contemplated that a reservoir section be positioned above the catalyst bed or retaining section to maintain the latter in a filled state. This particular embodiment has an outer housing 1' which has an elongated tubular body section 2' and opposing sealed end sections 3' and 4. As was the case in the embodiment of FIG. 1, there are provided conduits or other suitable port means 15' and 18 into the housing 1'. Conduit 15' senves as the inlet conduit into this particular converter. A tapered, tubular-form perforate section 20 is affixed at its open narrower end to end section 3 of the housing. Section 20' has an interior closed end 30 having a grooved or pocket portion 31 which is sized to slideably support the central tubular-form perforate section 24. The other open end of section 24' is connected to port 15'. Thus, the perforate sections 20' and 24 form a tapered annularly shaped catalyst retaining section 23 which increases in cross-sectional area in the preferred direction of flow. As set forth hereinbefore, this increase in cross-sectional area will effectuate a more uniform flow through the catalyst particles 41. To further improve the flow characteristics of this converter, the elongated tubular body section 2 is tapered in the region defined by numeral 50 to thereby affect an increase in cross-sectional area, in the preferred direction of flow, of the manifold 25' formed around section 20. Since manifold 25 serves as the outlet manifold in this particular embodiment, an increase in area in the direction of flow will aid in establishing uniform flow through the retaining section 23'. Of course, spacing means may be provided to slideably support tapered tubular-form section 20'.

'From the foregoing description, it is seen that this particular invention is of such a construction that damage due to temperature differentials will be eliminated or minimized. The slideable or expansible nature of the fit of the perforate sections to their supporting pieces, in addition to the fact that the preferred embodiment is designed to be symmetrical about axis a-a, will prevent expansion problems from developing. The converter also manifests a construction that is relatively inexpensive especially in the case of mass production techniques. The tubular and cylindrical shapes of the components enables the manufacturer to use techniques of stamping, blanking, and relatively simple metal forming operation.

It is noted, as heretofore mentioned, that the circular shape of the outer housing 1 should not be limiting upon this present improvement, for, although this circular shape has proven to be the most convenient form, other shapes are contemplated as being within the scope of this invention. Preferably, however, the shape should be symmetrical about axis aa. The symmetrical shape is considered an aspect of this invention, however, it is not considered an exclusive aspect thereof. Other shapes, symmetrical or nonsymmetrical, are considered to be within the scope of this present invention.

It is desirable that these components be made of a lightweight relatively thin gauge material, whether of ordinary steel or an alloy, such that the assembly is relatively lightweight and such that the temperature effects may also be accommodated by some material fiexure without causing breakage of seams and joints. The material used should also be of a character that is able to withstand the high temperatures resulting from the operation of the converter.

It is also considered as within the scope of this present improved design and construction to provide for a covering of the outer walls of the converter with a suitable insulation material, such as asbestos, mineral wool, or the like, in order to maintain the maximum amount of heat within the catalyst retaining section. It may be understood that various minor modifications in the design and or location of the various portions of this converter may be made without diverting from the scope of the present invention. For example, there may be variations in the shape and spacing of the various sections from that as indicated on the drawing, or in locating and designing the port means. The apertures 22 and 22' located on the perforate sections will of course be sized in relation to the size of the catalyst particles which are to be maintained within the apparatus. The physical shape for catalyst particles may be such that they are in the form of spheres, cylinders, or pellets, typically having a dimension of one sixteenth to one quarter inch, although particles of larger or smaller dimensions may be employed where desirable. Mixed sizes of catalysts may also be well utilized, especially as a means to provide for a low temperature catalytic oxidation process.

We claim as our invention:

1. In a catalytic converted for containing subdivided catalyst particles therein for treating an engine exhaust gas, the combination comprising:

an outer housing which has an elongated tubular body section and opposing sealed end sections;

a first port means through said one end section, and a second port means through the opposing end section;

a tapered, tubular-form, perforate section having an interior closed end and an open end, said tapered, tubular-form perforate section having its said open end connecting to said outer housing; and the remaining portion spaced within said outer housing to form a manifold section therearound;

a central tubular-form perforate section having an open end and an internal closed end spaced centrally within said tapered tubular-form perforate section to thereby provide an annular-form catalyst retaining section for containment of said catalyst particles, the open end of said central tubular-form perforate section extending to and connecting with one of said port means, said interior closed end of said tapered, tubular form section having a central support means therein for said internal closed end of said central tubular-form perforate section comprising a centrally located opening therein sized to slideably encompass and support the internal end of said centrally located tubular-form perforate section, a catalyst reservoir means adjacent said closed end of said tapered, perforate section, and a passageway means from said reservoir means to said catalyst retaining section to permit flow from said reservoir means to said catalyst retaining sections responsive to expansion of said central tubular-form section.

2. The converter of claim 1 further characterized in that the longitudinal axis of said converter is substantially vertically disposed with the catalyst reservoir section means located above said catalyst retaining section to thereby permit the catalyst particles stored in said reservoir section means to [flow downward as further induced by gravity through said passageway means into said catalyst retaining section to fill voids therein.

3. The converter of claim 1 further characterized in that there is provided spacing means spaced from one of said end sections, for support of the closed interior end of said tapered tubular-form, perforate wall section.

4. The converter of claim 1 further characterized in, that the open end of said tapered, tubular-form, perforate section is the wider end thereof.

5. The converter of claim 1 further characterized in that the outer elongated tubular body section and the tubular-form perforate section are cylindrically shaped and the tapered, tubular-form perforate section is conically shaped, and in that said sections are co-axially disposed about the longitudinal axis of said tubular body section, whereby temperature movement stresses are equalized in the radial direction.

6. The converter of claim 1 further characterized in that the elongated tubular body section is symmetrically formed about the longitudinal axis thereof, the tapered tubular-form perforate section is conically shaped, and the tubular-form perforate section is cylindrically shaped, and in that said sections are co-axially disposed about the longitudinal axis of said tubular body section, whereby temperature movement stresses are equalized in the radial direction.

7. The converter of claim 1 further characterized in that the end sections have flanged portions and the exterior dimensions thereof coincide with the interior dimensions of said tubular body section to thereby be adapted to be disposed co-axially within said tubular body section.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,166,382 1/1965 Purse et a1. 23288.3 F 3,413,096 11/1968 Britt 23-2883 F 3,485,319 12/1969 Ballufi 181-35 JAMES H. TAYMAN, 111., Primary Examiner

US3685972A 1969-09-18 1969-09-18 Catalytic converter construction Expired - Lifetime US3685972A (en)

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US (1) US3685972A (en)
JP (1) JPS5014283B1 (en)
DE (2) DE7034675U (en)
FR (1) FR2062334A5 (en)
GB (1) GB1313739A (en)

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3846979A (en) * 1971-12-17 1974-11-12 Engelhard Min & Chem Two stage combustion process
JPS5159708U (en) * 1974-11-02 1976-05-11
US3989471A (en) * 1975-04-14 1976-11-02 Tenneco Inc. Radial flow catalytic converter having thermal expansion compensating means
US4005576A (en) * 1975-01-20 1977-02-01 Toyota Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Internal combustion engine exhaust manifold with cylindrical built-in catalyst container
US4096691A (en) * 1975-06-04 1978-06-27 Toyota Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Catalyst container for use in exhaust manifold
US4124357A (en) * 1977-04-28 1978-11-07 Toyota Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Catalytic converter of a radial flow type
US4203950A (en) * 1977-12-27 1980-05-20 United Technologies Corporation Steam reforming reactor designed to reduce catalyst crushing
US4208374A (en) * 1977-10-31 1980-06-17 General Motors Corporation Catalytic converter
US5108717A (en) * 1987-09-21 1992-04-28 Degussa Aktiengesellchaft Apparatus for the catalytic conversion of waste gases
US5484575A (en) * 1991-05-02 1996-01-16 Scambia Industrial Developments Aktiengesellschaft Catalytic converter for the catalytic treatment of exhaust gas
US6730273B1 (en) * 1999-12-02 2004-05-04 Xerox Corporation Catalytic converter unit with dirt pre-filter
US20090266040A1 (en) * 2007-06-15 2009-10-29 Schramm Eric J Diesel particulate filter assembly
US20100132343A1 (en) * 2008-07-18 2010-06-03 Hyun Tae Kim Filter device for reducing automobile exhaust fume
US9821253B2 (en) 2013-11-19 2017-11-21 Motor Components, Llc Axially compact fuel filter

Families Citing this family (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2723532C3 (en) * 1977-05-25 1980-04-03 Zeuna-Staerker Kg, 8900 Augsburg
FR2451455A1 (en) * 1979-03-14 1980-10-10 Exfin Sa Catalytic exhaust cleaning reactor for IC engine - has concentric cylindrical construction to minimise space requirements
GB9119442D0 (en) * 1991-09-12 1991-10-23 Hollingworth Ian J Catalytic exhaust converter

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3846979A (en) * 1971-12-17 1974-11-12 Engelhard Min & Chem Two stage combustion process
JPS5159708U (en) * 1974-11-02 1976-05-11
JPS5439530Y2 (en) * 1974-11-02 1979-11-22
US4005576A (en) * 1975-01-20 1977-02-01 Toyota Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Internal combustion engine exhaust manifold with cylindrical built-in catalyst container
US3989471A (en) * 1975-04-14 1976-11-02 Tenneco Inc. Radial flow catalytic converter having thermal expansion compensating means
US4096691A (en) * 1975-06-04 1978-06-27 Toyota Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Catalyst container for use in exhaust manifold
US4124357A (en) * 1977-04-28 1978-11-07 Toyota Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Catalytic converter of a radial flow type
US4208374A (en) * 1977-10-31 1980-06-17 General Motors Corporation Catalytic converter
US4203950A (en) * 1977-12-27 1980-05-20 United Technologies Corporation Steam reforming reactor designed to reduce catalyst crushing
US5108717A (en) * 1987-09-21 1992-04-28 Degussa Aktiengesellchaft Apparatus for the catalytic conversion of waste gases
US5484575A (en) * 1991-05-02 1996-01-16 Scambia Industrial Developments Aktiengesellschaft Catalytic converter for the catalytic treatment of exhaust gas
US6730273B1 (en) * 1999-12-02 2004-05-04 Xerox Corporation Catalytic converter unit with dirt pre-filter
US20090266040A1 (en) * 2007-06-15 2009-10-29 Schramm Eric J Diesel particulate filter assembly
US8029592B2 (en) * 2007-06-15 2011-10-04 Fram Group Ip Llc Diesel particulate filter assembly
US20100132343A1 (en) * 2008-07-18 2010-06-03 Hyun Tae Kim Filter device for reducing automobile exhaust fume
US8444738B2 (en) * 2008-07-18 2013-05-21 Alantum Corporation Filter device for reducing automobile exhaust fume
US9821253B2 (en) 2013-11-19 2017-11-21 Motor Components, Llc Axially compact fuel filter

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
DE7034675U (en) 1974-03-07 grant
GB1313739A (en) 1973-04-18 application
FR2062334A5 (en) 1971-06-25 application
DE2046125A1 (en) 1971-04-22 application
JPS5014283B1 (en) 1975-05-27 grant

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