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Anode assembly for electrolytic cells

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US3676325A
US3676325A US3676325DA US3676325A US 3676325 A US3676325 A US 3676325A US 3676325D A US3676325D A US 3676325DA US 3676325 A US3676325 A US 3676325A
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titanium
anode
structure
assembly
channel
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Frank Smith
John Hubert Entwisle
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Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd
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Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25BELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COMPOUNDS OR NON-METALS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25B11/00Electrodes; Manufacture thereof not otherwise provided for
    • C25B11/02Electrodes; Manufacture thereof not otherwise provided for characterised by shape or form
    • C25B11/03Electrodes; Manufacture thereof not otherwise provided for characterised by shape or form perforated or foraminous

Abstract

An anode assembly for electrolytic cells comprising: a downwardly-facing, open-ended, horizontally-elongated titanium channel member having a web portion and two depending flange portions integral with the web portion; a titanium tube secured at one end to said web portion in a fluid-tight manner so that said web portion closes said end, said web portion having at least one gas escape opening therethrough located intermediate said tube and each end of said channel an aluminum current leadin rod at least partially within the tube coaxially therewith having one end friction-welded to said web portion; and a foraminate titanium structure lying in a plane parallel to said web portion and electrically connected to the lower edges of the flange portions, said foraminate structure carrying on at least a part of its surface a coating comprising an operative electrode material.

Description

United States Patent Smith et al. 51 July 11, 1972 54 ANODE ASSEMBLY FOR 3,318,792 5/1967 Cotton et al ..204/290 F ELECTROLYTIC CELLS 3,458,423 7/ 1969 Csizi 20 M290 F 3,437,579 4/1969 Smith ..204/288 [72] Inventors: Frank Smith; John Hubert Entwisle, both of Runcorn, England FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS [73] Assignee: Imperial Chemical Industries Limited, 668,618 9/1950 Great Britain ..204/284 London, England 453,750 12/1927 Germany ..204/284 [22] Filed: June 1970 Primary Examiner-John H. Mack Assistant ExaminerRegan J. Fay Attorney-Cushman, Darby & Cushman [30] Foreign Application Priority Data [57] ABSTRACT June 27, 1969 Great Britain ..32,544/69 An anode assembly for electrolytic cells comprising: a downwardly-facing, openended, horizontally-elongated [52] US. Cl ..204/288, 204/219, 204/250, titanium channel member having a web portion and two de- 204/284, 204/286, 204/290 F pending flange portions integral with the web portion; a titani- [51] Int. Cl..... ..B01k 3/04, C23g 5/68, B01r 3/04 um tube secured at one end to said web portion in a fluid-tight [58] Field of Search ..204/288, 28l, 29 F, 290 R, manner 80 that Said Web Portion Closes Said end, Said Web P 204 219 250 tion having at least one gas escape opening therethrough located intermediate said tube and each end of said channel [56] R fe e Cited an aluminum current lead-in rod at least partially within the tube coaxially therewith having one end friction-welded to UNITED STATES PATENTS said web portion; and a foraminate titanium structure lying in a plane parallel to said web portion and electrically connected 3,297,561 1/1967 Harrison et al. ..204/29OF to the lower edges of the flange ponions, Said foraminate 3409533 11/1968 '"204/221 X structure carrying on at least a part of its surface a coating 3,455,810 7/1969 Holm ..204/250 X Comprising an operative electrode material 3,511,766 5/1970 Klsner et a1. ..204/286 X 3,271,289 9/1966 Messner ..204/219 14 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures PA'TENTEDJUL 11 I972 3, 676.325

sum 2 or 3 PATENTEDJuL 1 1 m2 SHEET 3 BF 3 Fig.5

I3 (/fll ooooooi% 000000 0 O O O O 0 Fig.7

/ z r /vz/s M ANODE ASSEMBLY FOR ELECTROLYTIC CELLS The present invention relates to an anode assembly for electrolytic cells. More particularly it relates to an anode assembly which is particularly suitable for use in cells where gas is evolved at the anode.

In recent years it has been proposed to employ as anodes, particularly in cells electrolyzing aqueous alkali metal chloride solutions, structures in which a layer of a platinum group metal or metals and/or the oxides thereof constitutes the working anode surface and is carried on a support made of a film-forming metal, usually titanium. The anode conductor leading the current to the anode within the cell may also be constructed of titanium since this metal is resistant to electrochemical attack under the severe anodic conditions ruling in the cell, but in order to reduce capital expenditure and running costs it is desirable to use as far as possible a cheaper and better conducting metal. It has therefore been proposed to use as the current lead-in a composite structure in which a core of copper, steel or aluminum is protected from electrochemical attack by a casing or sheath of titanium. Aluminum is generally the most desirable core metal on the basis of cost/weight for adequate electrical conductivity but such a structure presents the problem of making a mechanically strong and low-resistance electrical connection between the aluminum core and the titanium of the casing or the titanium support member of the anode structure. This is important because the current carried principally by the good-conducting aluminum core must pass in some region across an interface between the aluminum of the core and the titanium of the casing or the anode structure itself in order to reach the working anode surface. I

it has been proposed to solve this problem by melting and alloying an aluminum core inside a titanium casing and by soldering an aluminum core into a titanium casing after coating the juxtaposed surfaces of the core and casing with a solderable metal. Melting and alloying is a high temperature process which can cause distortion. Soldering introduces problems of shrinkage between the core and the casing on cooling and is expensive in labor because of the pre-coating operations that are needed.

The present invention overcomes these problems by providing a friction-welded joint between an aluminum current leadin and a titanium member which supports the anode structure proper. Other advantageous features of the invention will appear hereinafter.

According to the present invention we provide an anode assembly for electrolytic cells which comprises a titanium tube having a flat titanium closure attached in fluid-tight manner across one end, an aluminum current lead-in at least partially within the tube and coaxial therewith having one end frictionwelded to the titanium closure, and a foraminate titanium structure carrying on at least a part of its surface a coating comprising an operative electrode material, the said foraminate titanium structure lying in a plane parallel to the said titanium closure and being electrically connected thereto by titanium members which together with the said closure define an inverted channel shape.

in this specification by titanium" we mean titanium alone or an alloy based on titanium and having anodic polarization properties comparable to those of titanium.

The operative electrode material may be any material which is active in transferring electrons from an electrolyte to the underlying titanium structure of the anode assembly and which is resistant to electrochemical attack under the conditions ruling in the cell where the anode is to be used. For use in very corrosive media, for instance in chloride electrolytes, the operative electrode material may suitably consist of one or more platinum group metals i.e. platinum, rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, osmium and palladium, and/or oxides thereof, or another metal or a compound which will function as an anode and which is resistant to electrochemical dissolution in the cell, for instance rhenium, rhenium trioxide, magnetite, titanium nitride, the borides, phosphides or silicides of the platinum group metals, or an oxidic semiconducting compound. The

coating comprising an operative electrode material may also contain electronically non-conducting oxides, particularly oxides of the film-forming metals such as titanium, as is known in the art, to anchor the operative electrode material more securely to the supporting titanium structure and to increase its resistance to dissolution in the working cell. A preferred coating comprising an operative electrode material for anodes that are to be used in mercury-cathode cells electrolyzing alkali metal chloride solutions consists of at least one oxide of at least one platinum group metal, particularly ruthenium dioxide, as the operative electrode material, and titanium dioxide.

When ananode assembly according to the invention is installed in a cell, the titanium tube passes through sealing means in thecell casing, for instance the cover of the cell, so that the aluminum current lead-in rod is protected from contact with the cell contents. In general the aluminum current lead-in rod is made of sufficient length to protrude from the titanium tube for easy connection of an electrical bus-bar to the end of the rod outside the cell.

In preferred embodiments of the invention the titanium closure and the titanium members together defining an inverted channel shape are fabricated from one integral piece of titanium metal. Furthermore, the inverted channel shape may extend both laterallyand longitudinally well beyond the limits defined by the cross-section of the end of the titanium tube to which the base of the channel forms a closure, and usually will so extend, in order to support a coated foraminate titanium structure of sufficient area to provide the desired working anode area when installed in the cell. Such embodiments are illustrated in the accompanying drawings FlG. 1-7, which are not to scale and in which like parts are numbered alike.

FIG. 1 and FIG. 2 show vertical sections at right angles to each other through the center of an electrode assembly. In these figures the center part of an inverted titanium channel 1 forms a fluid-tight closure across the lower end of titanium tube 2 by virtue of a peripheral weld around the end of the tube indicated as 3. (Other suitable forms, not shown, for the weld 3 are electrical resistance welding and friction welding). An aluminum current lead-in rod 4 has its lower end attached to the center of the channel 1 by a friction weld indicated at 5. The edges of the channel 1 are welded at intervals as indicated at 6 to a horizontally-disposed foraminate titanium structure 7 which carries on at least a part of its surface a coating (not shown) comprising an operative electrode material as defined hereinbefore. The foraminate titanium structure 7 may suitably be a multi-holed titanium sheet, for instance a sheet of expanded titanium metal. Alternatively the foraminate structure may be built up from longitudinally-extended titanium members spaced apart with their long axes parallel to each other, each one being welded to both bottom edges of the inverted channel. These members may be for instance flat strips. rods, hemicylindrical channels which are convex upwards or convex downwards or channels of U-shaped or inverted U- shaped, the closed end of the U being optionally flattened. Yet again, an arrangement approximating to the said built-up structure of longitudinally-extending members spaced apart with their long axes parallel to each other may be produced by pressing from a titanium sheet by means of a slotting and forming tool, whereby a structure with pressed-out louvres is obtained. The. louvre slats so obtained may suitably be turned at right angles to the original plane of the titanium sheet or they mayhave each of their edges rolled round to form approximately hemicylindrical members which alternate with the slots from which the metal forming them has been pressed out. FIG. 3 shows an anode assembly in which the foraminate titanium structure is built up from parallel-spaced titanium strips 8, which each have one long edge welded to both bottom edges of the inverted titanium channel 1 as again indicated at 6. The other parts of FIG. 3 correspond to those of FIG. 2. When the foraminate titanium structure is built up in this manner, at least half of the coating thereon comprising an operative electrode material may suitably be carried on the faces of the strips 8 (the vertical surfaces in the configuration in the drawing), as taught for instance in British Patent Specification No. 1,076,973 for coatings of the platinum group metals on anode surfaces formed from titanium ribs.

If desired, within the scope of the invention the titanium tube which surrounds the aluminum current lead-in may be provided with a flange at its lower end, the fluid-tight joint between the titanium tube and the inverted titanium channel then being made by welding the flange to the channel. Likewise each of the sides of the inverted channel may be terminated by a flange, the foraminate titanium structure carrying the coating comprising an operative electrode material then being welded to these flanges. An anode assembly incorporating these optional features is illustrated in FIG. 4, with the flange 8 and weld 9 replacing the weld 3 of FIG. 1 and the flanges l and welds ll replacing the welds 6 of FIG. 1.

In FIG. 1-4 the aluminum current lead-in rod 4 is shown substantially filling the cross-section of titanium tube 2. In general we prefer this arrangement, in which only sufficient clearance is provided between the rod and the tube for easy assembly of these parts, so as to obtain the lowest electrical resistance in the aluminum rod commensurate with the diameter of the tube employed. It is not, however, essential for the rod to be a close fit within the tube and a wider gap may be provided between these two members if desired.

An anode assembly according to the invention is very suitable for use in a cell wherein gas is evolved at the anode, with the working anode structure of coated foraminate titanium arranged parallel to a substantially horizontal cathode, e.g. a flowing mercury cathode, since gas evolved beneath the current lead-in can pass freely upwards through the foraminate structure into the space beneath the inverted titanium channel. The gas may be allowed to flow out from under the ends of the inverted channel or, if desired, one or more openings to assist the escape of gas may be provided in the top of the channel between the centrally disposed titanium tube and each end of the channel. Suitable arrangements of opening are shown in FIG. 57, which are plan views showing only the titanium channel-shaped member 1 and the current lead in 4 with its surrounding titanium tube 2. In the arrangement of FIG. 5 there is one large opening 12 provided towards each end of the channel. In the arrangement of FIG. 6 there is a plurality of small openings 13 towards each end of the channel and in the arrangement of FIG. 7 the channel is cut away at each end in approximately a V-shape 14 to assist the escape of gas.

What we claim is:

1. An anode assembly for electrolytic cells which comprises a titanium tube having a fiat titanium closure attached in fluidtight manner across one end, an aluminum current lead-in rod at least partially within the tube and coaxial therewith having one end friction-welded to the titanium closure, and a foraminate titanium structure carrying on at least a part of its surface a coating comprising an operative electrode material, the said foraminate titanium structure lying in a plane parallel to the said titanium closure and being electrically connected thereto by titanium members which together with the said closure define an inverted channel shape.

2. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the said titanium members and the titanium closure which together define an inverted channel shape have been fabricated from one integral piece of titanium metal.

3. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the edges of the titanium channel shape are welded at intervals to the foraminate titanium structure.

4. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the foraminate titanium structure is a sheet of expanded titanium metal.

5. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the foraminate titanium structure has been built up from longitudinally-extending titanium members spaced apart with their long axes parallel to each other.

6. An anode assembly according to claim 5, wherein the longitudinally-extending titanium members are flat strips which each have one long edge welded to the edges of the titanium channel shatlge.

7. An anode assem ly according to claim 6, wherein at least half the coating comprising an operative electrode material is carried on the faces of the said flat strips.

8. An'anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the foraminate titanium structure is louvred structure formed by pressing a series of of louvre slats from a titanium sheet.

9. An anode assembly according to claim 8, wherein the louvre slats have been turned at right angles to the original plane of the titanium sheet.

10. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the foraminate titanium structure comprises a titanium sheet having a plurality of louvre slats pressed out so as to form a plurality of corresponding slots, the slats having rolled edges so as to form a series of approximately hemicylindrical members which alternate with the slots.

11. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the operative electrode material in selected from the group consisting of platinum group metals and oxides thereof.

12. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the coating comprising an operative electrode material consists of at least one oxide of at least one platinum group metal as the operative electrode material and titanium dioxide.

13. An anode assembly according to claim 12, wherein the said operative electrode material is ruthenium dioxide.

14. An anode assembly for electrolytic cells comprising:

a downwardly-facing, open-ended, horizontally-elongated titanium channel member having a web portion and two depending flange portions integral with the web portion;

a titanium tube secured at one end to said web portion in a fluid-tight manner so that said web portion closes said end, said web portion having at least one gas escape opening therethrough located intermediate said tube and each end of said channel;

an aluminum current lead-in rod at least partially within the tube coaxially therewith having one end friction-welded to said web portion; and

a foraminate titanium structure lying in a plane parallel to said web portion and electrically connected to the lower edges of the flange portions, said foraminate structure carrying on at least a part of its surface a coating comprising an operative electrode material.

Claims (13)

  1. 2. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the said titanium members and the titanium closure which together define an inverted channel shape have been fabricated from one integral piece of titanium metal.
  2. 3. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the edges of the titanium channel shape are welded at intervals to the foraminate titanium structure.
  3. 4. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the foraminate titanium structure is a sheet of expanded titanium metal.
  4. 5. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the foraminate titanium structure has been built up from longitudinally-extending titanium members spaced apart with their long axes parallel to each other.
  5. 6. An anode assembly according to claim 5, wherein the longitudinally-extending titanium members are flat strips which each have one long edge welded to the edges of the titanium channel shape.
  6. 7. An anode assembly according to claim 6, wherein at least half the coating comprising an operative electrode material is carried on the faces of the said flat strips.
  7. 8. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the foraminate titanium structure is louvred structure formed by pressing a series of of louvre slats from a titanium sheet.
  8. 9. An anode assembly according to claim 8, wherein the louvre slats have been turned at right angles to the original plane of the titanium sheet.
  9. 10. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the foraminate titanium structure comprises a titanium sheet having a plurality of louvre slats pressed out so as to form a plurality of corresponding slots, the slats having rolled edges so as to form a series of approximately hemicylindrical members which alternate with the slots.
  10. 11. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the operative electrode material in selected from the group consisting of platinum group metals and oxides thereof.
  11. 12. An anode assembly according to claim 1, wherein the coating comprising an operative electrode material consists of at least one oxide of at least one platinum group metal as the operative electrode material and titanium dioxide.
  12. 13. An anode assembly according to claim 12, wherein the said operative electrode material is ruthenium dioxide.
  13. 14. An anodE assembly for electrolytic cells comprising: a downwardly-facing, open-ended, horizontally-elongated titanium channel member having a web portion and two depending flange portions integral with the web portion; a titanium tube secured at one end to said web portion in a fluid-tight manner so that said web portion closes said end, said web portion having at least one gas escape opening therethrough located intermediate said tube and each end of said channel; an aluminum current lead-in rod at least partially within the tube coaxially therewith having one end friction-welded to said web portion; and a foraminate titanium structure lying in a plane parallel to said web portion and electrically connected to the lower edges of the flange portions, said foraminate structure carrying on at least a part of its surface a coating comprising an operative electrode material.
US3676325A 1969-06-27 1970-06-08 Anode assembly for electrolytic cells Expired - Lifetime US3676325A (en)

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Cited By (25)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2408392A1 (en) * 1973-02-21 1974-08-22 Ici Ltd Anodes for electro-chemical process
US3900384A (en) * 1972-11-24 1975-08-19 Ppg Industries Inc Method of assembling a bipolar electrode having friction welded conductor/connector means and bipolar electrode formed thereby
US3912616A (en) * 1973-05-31 1975-10-14 Olin Corp Metal anode assembly
US3951767A (en) * 1973-05-29 1976-04-20 Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft Method and apparatus for the electrolysis of alkali metal chlorides
US3953316A (en) * 1973-11-05 1976-04-27 Olin Corporation Metal anode assembly
US3981788A (en) * 1974-08-23 1976-09-21 Kureha Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Caustic alkali producing multiple vertical diaphragm type electrolytic cell admitting of easy assembly
US3988220A (en) * 1974-01-04 1976-10-26 Ppg Industries, Inc. Process for electrolyzing brine in a bipolar electrolytic diaphragm cell having friction welded conductor connector means
US4013525A (en) * 1973-09-24 1977-03-22 Imperial Chemical Industries Limited Electrolytic cells
US4022679A (en) * 1973-05-10 1977-05-10 C. Conradty Coated titanium anode for amalgam heavy duty cells
US4069130A (en) * 1975-01-29 1978-01-17 Kerr-Mcgee Chemical Corporation Bipolar electrode and method for constructing same
US4085016A (en) * 1976-07-20 1978-04-18 Noranda Mines Limited Method and apparatus for the oxidation of organic material present in concentrated sulfuric acid
US4323438A (en) * 1979-04-10 1982-04-06 Bayer Aktiengesellschaft Anode for alkali metal chloride electrolysis
US4391695A (en) * 1981-02-03 1983-07-05 Conradty Gmbh Metallelektroden Kg Coated metal anode or the electrolytic recovery of metals
US4457811A (en) * 1982-12-20 1984-07-03 Aluminum Company Of America Process for producing elements from a fused bath using a metal strap and ceramic electrode body nonconsumable electrode assembly
USRE32561E (en) * 1981-02-03 1987-12-15 Conradty Gmbh & Co. Metallelektroden Kg Coated metal anode for the electrolytic recovery of metals
US4784735A (en) * 1986-11-25 1988-11-15 The Dow Chemical Company Concentric tube membrane electrolytic cell with an internal recycle device
EP0686455A1 (en) * 1994-06-06 1995-12-13 Heraeus Elektrochemie Gmbh Method for joining an electrode for electrolytical purposes and a current conducting stud, and joint assembly
US5584975A (en) * 1995-06-15 1996-12-17 Eltech Systems Corporation Tubular electrode with removable conductive core
WO1998024490A1 (en) * 1996-12-05 1998-06-11 Entremed, Inc. Improved electrodes and method of use
US20030059945A1 (en) * 2001-02-21 2003-03-27 Dzekunov Sergey M. Apparatus and method for flow electroporation of biological samples
US20030073238A1 (en) * 2001-08-22 2003-04-17 Dzekunov Sergey M. Apparatus and method for electroporation of biological samples
US20030119685A1 (en) * 2001-09-26 2003-06-26 The Procter & Gamble Company Personal cleansing compositions comprising silicone resin-containing adhesives
US20040115784A1 (en) * 2002-09-30 2004-06-17 Maxcyte, Inc. Apparatus and method for streaming electroporation
US6773669B1 (en) 1995-03-10 2004-08-10 Maxcyte, Inc. Flow electroporation chamber and method
US20050282200A1 (en) * 2004-05-12 2005-12-22 Maxcyte, Inc. Methods and devices related to a regulated flow electroporation chamber

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JPS5418086Y2 (en) * 1973-05-28 1979-07-10
JPS52115848U (en) * 1976-02-29 1977-09-02
DE2949495C2 (en) * 1979-12-08 1983-05-11 Heraeus-Elektroden Gmbh, 6450 Hanau, De
US4657652A (en) * 1986-02-28 1987-04-14 Pennwalt Corporation Electrolytic cell and anode for brine electrolytes

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Cited By (33)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3900384A (en) * 1972-11-24 1975-08-19 Ppg Industries Inc Method of assembling a bipolar electrode having friction welded conductor/connector means and bipolar electrode formed thereby
DE2408392A1 (en) * 1973-02-21 1974-08-22 Ici Ltd Anodes for electro-chemical process
US4022679A (en) * 1973-05-10 1977-05-10 C. Conradty Coated titanium anode for amalgam heavy duty cells
US3951767A (en) * 1973-05-29 1976-04-20 Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft Method and apparatus for the electrolysis of alkali metal chlorides
US3912616A (en) * 1973-05-31 1975-10-14 Olin Corp Metal anode assembly
US4013525A (en) * 1973-09-24 1977-03-22 Imperial Chemical Industries Limited Electrolytic cells
US3953316A (en) * 1973-11-05 1976-04-27 Olin Corporation Metal anode assembly
US3988220A (en) * 1974-01-04 1976-10-26 Ppg Industries, Inc. Process for electrolyzing brine in a bipolar electrolytic diaphragm cell having friction welded conductor connector means
US3981788A (en) * 1974-08-23 1976-09-21 Kureha Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Caustic alkali producing multiple vertical diaphragm type electrolytic cell admitting of easy assembly
US4069130A (en) * 1975-01-29 1978-01-17 Kerr-Mcgee Chemical Corporation Bipolar electrode and method for constructing same
US4085016A (en) * 1976-07-20 1978-04-18 Noranda Mines Limited Method and apparatus for the oxidation of organic material present in concentrated sulfuric acid
US4323438A (en) * 1979-04-10 1982-04-06 Bayer Aktiengesellschaft Anode for alkali metal chloride electrolysis
US4391695A (en) * 1981-02-03 1983-07-05 Conradty Gmbh Metallelektroden Kg Coated metal anode or the electrolytic recovery of metals
USRE32561E (en) * 1981-02-03 1987-12-15 Conradty Gmbh & Co. Metallelektroden Kg Coated metal anode for the electrolytic recovery of metals
US4457811A (en) * 1982-12-20 1984-07-03 Aluminum Company Of America Process for producing elements from a fused bath using a metal strap and ceramic electrode body nonconsumable electrode assembly
US4784735A (en) * 1986-11-25 1988-11-15 The Dow Chemical Company Concentric tube membrane electrolytic cell with an internal recycle device
EP0686455A1 (en) * 1994-06-06 1995-12-13 Heraeus Elektrochemie Gmbh Method for joining an electrode for electrolytical purposes and a current conducting stud, and joint assembly
US6773669B1 (en) 1995-03-10 2004-08-10 Maxcyte, Inc. Flow electroporation chamber and method
US20050019311A1 (en) * 1995-03-10 2005-01-27 Holaday John W. Flow electroporation chamber and method
US5584975A (en) * 1995-06-15 1996-12-17 Eltech Systems Corporation Tubular electrode with removable conductive core
US6090617A (en) * 1996-12-05 2000-07-18 Entremed, Inc. Flow electroporation chamber with electrodes having a crystalline metal nitride coating
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
FR2063122A1 (en) 1971-07-09 application
BE752433A (en) 1970-12-24 grant
FI57446B (en) 1980-04-30 application
GB1304518A (en) 1973-01-24 application
BE752433A1 (en) grant
FI57446C (en) 1980-08-11 grant
FR2063122B1 (en) 1973-01-12 grant
JPS4815146B1 (en) 1973-05-12 grant

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