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US3663345A - Fire retardant carpet - Google Patents

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Publication number
US3663345A
US3663345A US3663345DA US3663345A US 3663345 A US3663345 A US 3663345A US 3663345D A US3663345D A US 3663345DA US 3663345 A US3663345 A US 3663345A
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Prior art keywords
backing
compound
carpet
primary
hydrate
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Gul G Jaisinghani
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National Acceptance Co of California
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National Acceptance Co of California
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B5/00Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts
    • B32B5/22Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed
    • B32B5/24Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed one layer being a fibrous or filamentary layer
    • B32B5/26Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed one layer being a fibrous or filamentary layer another layer next to it also being fibrous or filamentary
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B5/00Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts
    • B32B5/02Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by structural features of a fibrous or filamentary layer
    • B32B5/024Woven fabric
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS, OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M11/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with inorganic substances or complexes thereof; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment, e.g. mercerising
    • D06M11/32Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with inorganic substances or complexes thereof; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment, e.g. mercerising with oxygen, ozone, ozonides, oxides, hydroxides or percompounds; Salts derived from anions with an amphoteric element-oxygen bond
    • D06M11/36Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with inorganic substances or complexes thereof; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment, e.g. mercerising with oxygen, ozone, ozonides, oxides, hydroxides or percompounds; Salts derived from anions with an amphoteric element-oxygen bond with oxides, hydroxides or mixed oxides; with salts derived from anions with an amphoteric element-oxygen bond
    • D06M11/45Oxides or hydroxides of elements of Groups 3 or 13 of the Periodic System; Aluminates
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06NWALL, FLOOR OR LIKE COVERING MATERIALS, e.g. LINOLEUM, OILCLOTH, ARTIFICIAL LEATHER, ROOFING FELT, CONSISTING OF A FIBROUS WEB COATED WITH A LAYER OF MACROMOLECULAR MATERIAL; FLEXIBLE SHEET MATERIAL NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06N7/00Flexible sheet materials not otherwise provided for, e.g. textile threads, filaments, yarns or tow, glued on macromolecular material, e.g. fibrous top layer with resin backing, plastic naps or dots on fabrics
    • D06N7/0063Floor covering on textile basis comprising a fibrous top layer being coated at the back with at least one polymer layer, e.g. carpets, rugs, synthetic turf
    • D06N7/0071Floor covering on textile basis comprising a fibrous top layer being coated at the back with at least one polymer layer, e.g. carpets, rugs, synthetic turf characterised by their backing, e.g. pre-coat, back coating, secondary backing, cushion backing
    • D06N7/0073Floor covering on textile basis comprising a fibrous top layer being coated at the back with at least one polymer layer, e.g. carpets, rugs, synthetic turf characterised by their backing, e.g. pre-coat, back coating, secondary backing, cushion backing the back coating or pre-coat being applied as an aqueous dispersion or latex
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2471/00Floor coverings
    • B32B2471/02Carpets
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS, OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M2200/00Functionality of the treatment composition and/or properties imparted to the textile material
    • D06M2200/30Flame or heat resistance, fire retardancy properties
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06NWALL, FLOOR OR LIKE COVERING MATERIALS, e.g. LINOLEUM, OILCLOTH, ARTIFICIAL LEATHER, ROOFING FELT, CONSISTING OF A FIBROUS WEB COATED WITH A LAYER OF MACROMOLECULAR MATERIAL; FLEXIBLE SHEET MATERIAL NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06N2201/00Chemical constitution of the fibres, threads or yarns
    • D06N2201/04Vegetal fibres
    • D06N2201/042Cellulose fibres, e.g. cotton
    • D06N2201/045Lignocellulosic fibres, e.g. jute, sisal, hemp, flax, bamboo
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06NWALL, FLOOR OR LIKE COVERING MATERIALS, e.g. LINOLEUM, OILCLOTH, ARTIFICIAL LEATHER, ROOFING FELT, CONSISTING OF A FIBROUS WEB COATED WITH A LAYER OF MACROMOLECULAR MATERIAL; FLEXIBLE SHEET MATERIAL NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06N2205/00Condition, form or state of the materials
    • D06N2205/10Particulate form, e.g. powder, granule
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06NWALL, FLOOR OR LIKE COVERING MATERIALS, e.g. LINOLEUM, OILCLOTH, ARTIFICIAL LEATHER, ROOFING FELT, CONSISTING OF A FIBROUS WEB COATED WITH A LAYER OF MACROMOLECULAR MATERIAL; FLEXIBLE SHEET MATERIAL NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06N2209/00Properties of the materials
    • D06N2209/06Properties of the materials having thermal properties
    • D06N2209/067Flame resistant, fire resistant
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06NWALL, FLOOR OR LIKE COVERING MATERIALS, e.g. LINOLEUM, OILCLOTH, ARTIFICIAL LEATHER, ROOFING FELT, CONSISTING OF A FIBROUS WEB COATED WITH A LAYER OF MACROMOLECULAR MATERIAL; FLEXIBLE SHEET MATERIAL NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06N2211/00Specially adapted uses
    • D06N2211/12Decorative or sun protection articles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/23907Pile or nap type surface or component
    • Y10T428/23993Composition of pile or adhesive

Abstract

A carpet in which the pile fibers are fixed to the primary backing by a compound comprising a latex binding material combined with an aluminum hydrate. The compound may be placed on the primary backing with sufficient thickness so that when the secondary backing is applied, no air pockets exist between the backings. Pressure rollers and/or a wetting or dispersion agent may be used to ensure that the primary backing is permeated by the compound.

Description

United States Patent J aisinghani 5] May 16, 1972 54 FIRE RETARDANT CARPET 3,189,513 6/1965 Calderwood et a1 ..16l/403 3,462,339 8/1969 Poms ..l61/403 [72] Inventor: Gul G. Jaislnghani, Bell, Calif.

[73] Assignee: National Acceptance Company of Callfor- Primary Examiner wiuiam Y Bale" in, Beverly Hills Attorney-Smyth, Roston & Pavltt [22] Filed: Mar. 2, 1970 [21] Appl. No.: 15,677 [57] ABSTRACT A carpet in which the pile fibers are fixed to the primary [52] US. Cl ..l61/64, 161/67, 161/403, backing by a compound comprising a latex binding material 117/137 combined with an aluminum hydrate. The compound may be [51 Int. Cl ..B32b 7/04 placed on the primary backing with sufficient thickness so that [58] Field of Search ..161/403, 64, 67; 117/136, 137, when the secondary backing is applied, no air pockets exist 117/138 between the backings. Pressure rollers and/or a wetting or dispersion agent may be used to ensure that the primary [56] References Cited backing is permeated by the compound.

UNlTED STATES PATENTS 1 Claim, 1 Drawing Figure 3,041,707 7/1962 Perri 161/403 FIRE RETARDANT CARPET BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION When carpeting is manufactured, the fibers or pile are tufted on an interwoven primary backing which may be manufactured from any suitable materials such as jute or a manmade fiber. The non-wear side of the backing is then coated with a bonding material of any suitable type such as latex. The latex serves to satisfactorily hold the fibers in place so that they cannot be pulled free from the primary backing and also to bond the primary backing to the secondary backing. In the past, clay has been added to the latex as a filler so as to reduce the cost of the bonding compound.

it has long been thought desirable to apply only enough of the compound to the primary backing to hold the fibers in place and bond the secondary backing to the primary backing while preventing the compound from passing through either of the backings. If excessive bonding material penetrates the primary backing, an unacceptable visual effect is thought to be evident and the finished product is unusually hard to the touch. Excessive permeation of the bonding material through the secondary backing causes displacement of the bonding material from between the primary and secondary backings and this, in turn, may result in poor adhesion of the secondary backing to the carpet.

An interwoven secondary backing, which may also be jute or artificial fiber, is then placed in contact with the bonding compound. The secondary backing strengthens the carpet and ensures that the compound does not come into contact with the floor upon which the carpet is laid, since the latex would otherwise tend to wear and the carpet would deteriorate.

Unfortunately, carpeting formed in this manner produces an acceptable product insofar as comfort and visual efiects are concerned but it is highly inflammable and possesses neither fire resistant nor fire retardant properties.

In view of many disastrous fires in which carpeting has been found to have caused death through burning and/or asphyxiation, investigations have been undertaken to produce carpeting which is either non-inflammable or fire retardant.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a fire retardant carpeting which significantly reduces the amount of combustion which the carpet will undergo when heat or flame is applied thereto.

ln carpets formed in accordance with the present invention, the bonding compound which is utilized to hold the fibers and secondary backing includes latex and a hydrate filler. The hydrate serves not only to reduce the cost of the bonding material by acting as a filler, but also provides the carpeting with fire retardant properties which significantly reduce the inflammability of the carpet.

When a bonding compound employing an aluminum hydrate is utilized, it has been found that a ratio of approximately 1 part of latex to 3.75 parts of the aluminum hydrate, by weight, will produce highly satisfactory fire retardant characteristics in the carpeting.

It has also been discovered that it is highly desirable to have the bonding compound permeate and at least slightly penetrate the primary backing so as to prevent flames and heat from reaching the backing without first contacting the compound. lt has been found that the slight penetration of the bonding compound does not alter the visible effect substantially and the texture or feel" of the carpet is unchanged.

ln order to ensure that the compound permeates the primary backing, it may be applied thereto by means of pressure rollers which force it through the openings in the backing weave. Alternatively, a wetting or dispersion agent may be intermixed in the compound in order to decrease the surface tension of the compound so that it will flow through the holes in the backing at a predetermined rate. Further, the compound is applied in sufficient quantities so that when the secondary backing is pressed thereagainst, no air pockets are formed between the backings.

If an aluminum hydrate is used, it may be added, in powder form, to a liquid form of latex and mixed therewith in any suitable manner. Although a weight ratio of approximately 1 to 3.75 of latex to aluminum hydrate has been found desirable, other ratios may be employed, depending upon the adhesion capability of the latex, the degree of fire retardance necessary, usage of other hydrates, economic factors, etc. For example, it is possible that ratios within the range of l to 2 to l to 4.5 may prove to be suitable, depending upon the selection of the above enumerated factors.

When both backings are in place, the carpeting may be passed through an oven which may be set at a predetermined temperature, so that the bonding compound may be cured to prevent separation of the portions of the carpet. If the heat applied to the carpeting is less than the temperature than which the hydrate breaks down, no reaction will be experienced by the bonding material other than curing of the latex. When the carpet reaches a temperature equal to that of the hydrate breakdown temperature due to the application of flame or heat thereto, the hydrate will prevent the rapid spreading of fire since it is an inert material and since the breakdown thereof will release the molecular water contained therein. The water will cool the primary and secondary backings and prevent a rapid burning thereof.

Other advantages, objects, modes and embodiments of this invention will become obvious to those skilled in the art by reference to the Detailed Description and accompanying drawing which illustrate what is presently considered to be a preferred embodiment of the best mode contemplated for utilizing the novel principles of the invention as set forth in the claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING The FIGURE illustrates a partial cross section of a carpet utilizing the bonding filler of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring now to the drawing in greater detail, there is shown an interwoven primary backing 11 which may be formed from jute or other material such as a man-made fiber. The backing comprises a first series of parallel fibers which are interwoven with a second series of parallel fibers, the two series extending at right angles to one another. Carpet pile fibers 13 extend through the. primary backing l l on the wearside of the carpet and are held in place by being tufted through the backing.

A secondary backing 15 is suitably attached to the primary backing 11 by a bonding compound 17 which also serves to hold the threaded portions of the fibers 13 in fixed positions relative to the primary backing.

The compound 17 may be formed of a suitable mixture of latex and a hydrate material and is of sufficient quantity to satisfactorily bond the backing 11 to the backing 15. Further, the compound permeates the primary backing in an amount dependent upon the fiber material, the quality of the carpet, and the degree of flame retardance desired. Any suitable means such as a pressure roller application of the compound to the backing or the use of a suitable wetting agent, which decreases the surface tension of the binder, will cause it to flow through the holes between the two series of fibers.

Although it is possible that any suitable hydrate may be used with the latex in the bonding compound, it has been found that an aluminum hydrate will produce the desired effect in a very satisfactory manner if proper material ratios are utilized. For example, it has been determined that if either aluminum hydroxide, Al(Ol-I) or hydrated aluminum oxide, Al O 3l-I O, are used, a binding compound having a latex-hydrate weight ratio of l to 3.75 will produce a fire retardant carpet. As previously stated, this ratio may be varied within a predetermined range such as 1:2 to 1:4.5, not only for this selection of binder compound materials, but also for other binders, the degree of fire retardance desired, the bonding capacity of the latex, economic factors, quality and hardness of carpet, etc.

The carpeting is then passed through an oven at a temperature below the breakdown temperature of the hydrate so that the latex may be cured and hardened to prevent the fibers and/or secondary backing from being separated from the primary backing. For example, if aluminum hydrate is used as the tiller, the oven may be set at 275 F to cure the latex without breaking down the hydrate.

lf flame or heat is applied to the carpet, when the temperature thereof is sufficient to ignite the carpet, the aluminum hydrate will break down and retard the spreading of the flame through the carpet since it is an inert material and since a small amount of water will be formed by the release of molecules of water from the hydrate. The water will cool the backing, as well as a portion of the fibers, to a temperature below the combustion temperatures thereof.

With this invention, the applicant has provided a disclosure of an embodiment of a new and improved concept in the carpet art which yields a true advance in that art due to an increase in safety without changing the physical appearances or other characteristics of the carpet. Many modifications and alterations of the described embodiment will be obvious to those skilled in the art, without exceeding the purview of the invention as set forth in the following claims.

What is claimed is:

1. In a carpet having a relatively pliable primary backing through which pile fibers are tufted, the improvement comprising a bonding substance comprising a latex material and a hydrate material selected from the group consisting of aluminum hydroxide and hydrated aluminum oxide, the ratio by weight of said hydrate to said latex material being within the range of 1:2 to 1:4.5, and said hydrate having a breakdown temperature which is higher than the curing temperature of said latex material, wherein said bonding material extends to both sides of a plane which includes said primary backing and surrounds the bases of the fiber tufts at the locations from which they extend toward the carpet wear surface.

i l l l 1

US3663345A 1970-03-02 1970-03-02 Fire retardant carpet Expired - Lifetime US3663345A (en)

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3816229A (en) * 1972-01-14 1974-06-11 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Plural coated pile fabric
US3985926A (en) * 1975-08-27 1976-10-12 Allied Chemical Corporation Flame-retardant carpet
US4061810A (en) * 1976-09-27 1977-12-06 Allied Chemical Corporation Flame-retardant carpet and composition for preparing the same
US4064298A (en) * 1976-09-22 1977-12-20 Allied Chemical Corporation Flame-retardant polyamide fiber for use in carpets
US4076878A (en) * 1975-09-09 1978-02-28 West Point-Pepperell, Inc. Flame-retardant flocked fabric
US4097630A (en) * 1976-09-07 1978-06-27 Allied Chemical Corporation Flame retardant carpet
US4181762A (en) * 1976-03-10 1980-01-01 Brunswick Corporation Fibers, yarns and fabrics of low modulus polymer
USRE34951E (en) * 1986-08-29 1995-05-23 Interface, Inc. Flame retardant tufted carpet tile and method of preparing same
US6162855A (en) * 1999-02-18 2000-12-19 Reynolds Metals Company Bauxite filler for carpet backings

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3041707A (en) * 1958-11-13 1962-07-03 Du Pont Pile fabrics and process for treating same
US3189513A (en) * 1960-11-14 1965-06-15 Westinghouse Electric Corp Track resistant self-extinguishing composition
US3462339A (en) * 1966-03-15 1969-08-19 Koppers Co Inc Fire-retardant panel construction

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3041707A (en) * 1958-11-13 1962-07-03 Du Pont Pile fabrics and process for treating same
US3189513A (en) * 1960-11-14 1965-06-15 Westinghouse Electric Corp Track resistant self-extinguishing composition
US3462339A (en) * 1966-03-15 1969-08-19 Koppers Co Inc Fire-retardant panel construction

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3816229A (en) * 1972-01-14 1974-06-11 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Plural coated pile fabric
US3985926A (en) * 1975-08-27 1976-10-12 Allied Chemical Corporation Flame-retardant carpet
US4076878A (en) * 1975-09-09 1978-02-28 West Point-Pepperell, Inc. Flame-retardant flocked fabric
US4181762A (en) * 1976-03-10 1980-01-01 Brunswick Corporation Fibers, yarns and fabrics of low modulus polymer
US4097630A (en) * 1976-09-07 1978-06-27 Allied Chemical Corporation Flame retardant carpet
US4064298A (en) * 1976-09-22 1977-12-20 Allied Chemical Corporation Flame-retardant polyamide fiber for use in carpets
US4061810A (en) * 1976-09-27 1977-12-06 Allied Chemical Corporation Flame-retardant carpet and composition for preparing the same
USRE34951E (en) * 1986-08-29 1995-05-23 Interface, Inc. Flame retardant tufted carpet tile and method of preparing same
US6162855A (en) * 1999-02-18 2000-12-19 Reynolds Metals Company Bauxite filler for carpet backings

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