US3643658A - Implants of titanium or a titanium alloy for the surgical treatment of bones - Google Patents

Implants of titanium or a titanium alloy for the surgical treatment of bones Download PDF

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Publication number
US3643658A
US3643658A US3643658DA US3643658A US 3643658 A US3643658 A US 3643658A US 3643658D A US3643658D A US 3643658DA US 3643658 A US3643658 A US 3643658A
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implant
titanium
layer
surface
implants
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Samuel Steinemenan
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Synthes GmbH
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Synthes GmbH
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S606/00Surgery
    • Y10S606/907Composed of particular material or coated

Abstract

A titanium or titanium implant with the novel feature of the surface layer formed as an oxide, nitride, carbide and carbonitride. The surface layer is applied to prevent abrasion and corrosion of the implant and to prevent fretting between contacting implants as well as to improve the appearance thereof.

Description

United States Patent Steinemenan 1 Feb. 22, 1972 [54] IMPLANTS OF TITANIUM OR A 3,268,372 9/1966 Brotherton et al..... 148/20 TITANIUM ALLOY FOR THE 3,338,805 9/1967 Pochily et al. 204/56 U I L REA E OF BQNES 3,346,469 10/1967 Weigel .204/56 3,408,236 10/1968 l-lartesve1dt.... ...148/6.3 [721 lnvenmrl Samuel Steinemmn, hem! swltlefland 3,409,469 11/1968 Kuntz ..117/231 73] Assignee; Institute Relnhard Su-aumann, 3,442,720 5/1969 Bradley et al ..l48/6.3 Waldenburg, Switzerland 3,466,669 9/ 1969 Flatt ..3/ l

, 4 Filed: g 1969 3,508 95 4/1970 Wh1te et al I 17/ 106 Appl' 869428 Primary ExaminerRichard A. Gaudet Assistant Examiner-=1. Yasko [30] Foreign Application Priority Data Attorney-McGlew and Toren Sept. 3, 1968 Switzerland ..13217/68 [57] ABSTRACT [52] US. Cl. ..128/92 D, 117/106 C, 148/63 [51] Int. Cl. ..A61t 5/04 A htahlum 0T hmhlum Implant with the novel feature of the [58] Field of Search ..12s/92 A-92 E; Surface layer formed as an i e, i i carbide and 3/1; 1 17/ 106 C, 106 R, 127; 148/63, 6.11; 204/56 bonitride. The surface layer is applied to prevent abrasion and corrosion of the implant and to prevent fretting between con- [56] References Cited tacting implants as well as to improve the appearance thereof.

UNlTED STATES PATENTS 2 Claims, No Drawings IMPLANTS OF TITANIUM OR A TITANIUM ALLOY FOR THE SURGICAL TREATMENT OF BONES BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to an implant of titanium or an alloy based on titanium for the surgical treatment of bones. An alloy based on titanium is understood to be an alloy which has either a titanium content of more than 50 percent or in which at least the alloying component of the largest percentage is titanium. I

Such implants are already known per se and in use. Inter alia bone plates and screws are manufactured from technically pure titanium and titanium alloys. In modern methods of surgical treatment of bones, the bone fragments are subjected to pressure when set by means of implant plates and screws and these elements are strongly dimensioned, so that the fracture does not have to be immobilized for long. Furthermore, specially shaped longitudinal slots may be provided in the plates for tensioning. Thus, when the screws are inserted into the plate and when the treated operated bones are subjected to loads, large forces occur which cause a high degree of friction between the parts and fretting of the rubbing parts. The fretting corrosion at the point of metallic contact and the whole surface of the implant effects a considerably increased amount of metal destruction with its damaging consequences.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION According to the present invention there is provided an implant of titanium or an alloy based on titanium for the surgical treatment of bones comprising a surface layer from the group which includes an oxide, nitride, carbide and carbonitrite. Preferably, the layer is applied to the implant by anodic treatment. Alternatively, the layer may be formed at an elevated temperature either by reaction with gases or in a salt bath. The implant surface to which the layer is applied may be polished or matt and the layer when formed may, advantageously be colored by interference.

- DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The aforegoing and further features of the invention will be described with particular emphasis given to the advantages which may be attained.

The invention provides for an implant to be coated with a surface layer thereby ensuring that the surface coated implant possesses a greater resistance to abrasion than an implant LII without a surface layer.

This feature of the novel implant is particularly important for those implants of titanium or titanium alloy which rub against implants which likewise consist of this metal as is the case when a screw is inserted in a compression plate. The surface coating, especially when its thickness is greater than about 0.1 um, prevents the emergence of abrasion and also of mutual fretting because the oxides, nitrides, carbides and carbonitrides have great hardness.

The novel implant also possesses greater resistance to corrosion by tissue fluids, because the applied surface layers have a very low electrical conductivity not only on the parts pos sessing a large surface but, more important, the comparatively small depressions and apertures such as screw holes, screw slits, which are of particular sensitivity to corrosive attacks. in particular the fretting corrosion is suppressed or reduced.

The thickness of the surface layer of the novel implant may be chosen such that interference colors appear, the thickness for the first series of the colors gold, purple and blue being up to about 0.08 pm and repeating in a second series up to about 0.l5 pm. In this case, it is possible to obtain a very exact control over the corrosion behavior in the tissues since corrosive attacks can be particularly well observed in such a layer. even if only traces are concerned.

It is possible to coat the implant with a layer which has a color similar to that of the tissues, such a colored implant. which frequently lies closely under the skin and may glisten through it, will no longer appear offensive, in contrast to the previously used implants having a silver or nickel color. which because of their color are often so easily visible, that they disturb the wearer.

Whereas, implants without a layer often show spots, which occur when the implant is handled, and which are yet intensified on sterilizing so that frequently such implants have the appearance as if the surface treatment had not been carried out properly. These disadvantages, too, are not shown by implants in accordance with this invention.

We claim:

1. A ductile plate implant for the external fixation of bones and having means to facilitate the fastening of said plate to the bone and being formed of titanium or an alloy based on titanium for use in the surgical treatment of bones, comprising a surface layer formed on the implant from one of the group consisting of an oxide, nitride, carbide and carbonitride.

2. An implant as defined in claim I, wherein said surface layer having a thickness greater than 0.] pt.

Claims (1)

  1. 2. An implant as defined in claim 1, wherein said surface layer having a thickness greater than 0.1 Mu .
US3643658A 1968-09-03 1969-08-27 Implants of titanium or a titanium alloy for the surgical treatment of bones Expired - Lifetime US3643658A (en)

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CH1321768 1968-09-03

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US3643658A true US3643658A (en) 1972-02-22

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US3643658A Expired - Lifetime US3643658A (en) 1968-09-03 1969-08-27 Implants of titanium or a titanium alloy for the surgical treatment of bones

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US (1) US3643658A (en)
JP (1) JPS4924429B1 (en)
BE (1) BE738346A (en)
DE (1) DE6933926U (en)
FR (1) FR2017247A1 (en)
GB (1) GB1267551A (en)

Cited By (82)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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US3786806A (en) * 1972-11-22 1974-01-22 A Johnson Thermoconstrictive surgical appliance
US3811425A (en) * 1970-08-03 1974-05-21 G Widdifield Method and apparatus for mounting hair
WO1980000533A1 (en) * 1978-09-04 1980-04-03 Schwarzkopf Dev Co Medullary nail and process for the production thereof
US4261063A (en) * 1978-06-29 1981-04-14 Ceraver Titanium or titanium alloy pin to be fixed in long bones
US4336617A (en) * 1980-01-21 1982-06-29 Shin-Etsu Chemical Company Limited Prosthetic substituted member for living body and a method for the surgical treatment by use thereof
US4405319A (en) * 1980-04-08 1983-09-20 Renal Systems, Inc. Porous titanium coating for blood access device
US4417888A (en) * 1982-03-15 1983-11-29 Renal Systems, Inc. Percutaneous implant
US4547910A (en) * 1981-05-18 1985-10-22 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Low friction bearing surfaces and structures particularly for artificial prosthetic joints
US4687487A (en) * 1978-07-21 1987-08-18 Association Suisse Pour La Recherches Horlogere Joint implant
US4746532A (en) * 1985-08-08 1988-05-24 Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited Method for the production of endosseous implants
US4790851A (en) * 1986-03-12 1988-12-13 France Implant Method for manufacturing surgical implants at least partially coated with a layer of a metal compound, and implants manufactured according to said method
US4818559A (en) * 1985-08-08 1989-04-04 Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited Method for producing endosseous implants
DE9002676U1 (en) * 1990-03-07 1991-07-11 Thull, Roger, Prof. Dr.-Ing., 8700 Wuerzburg, De
US5037438A (en) * 1989-07-25 1991-08-06 Richards Medical Company Zirconium oxide coated prosthesis for wear and corrosion resistance
US5080671A (en) * 1987-11-25 1992-01-14 Uri Oron Method of treating a metal prosthetic device prior to surgical implantation to enhance bone growth relative thereto following implantation
US5152794A (en) * 1989-07-25 1992-10-06 Smith & Nephew Richards Inc. Zirconium oxide and nitride coated prothesis for reduced microfretting
US5180394A (en) * 1989-07-25 1993-01-19 Davidson James A Zirconium oxide and nitride coated prosthesis for wear and corrosion resistance
US5192323A (en) * 1990-11-05 1993-03-09 Zimmer, Inc. Method of surface hardening orthopedic implant devices
US5211663A (en) * 1991-06-24 1993-05-18 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Passivation methods for metallic medical implants
US5258022A (en) * 1989-07-25 1993-11-02 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Zirconium oxide and nitride coated cardiovascular implants
US5282850A (en) * 1989-07-25 1994-02-01 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Artificial heart components with wear resistant coatings of reduced thrombogenicity
US5320686A (en) * 1990-03-21 1994-06-14 Tisurf International Ab Method of producing integral, hard nitride layer on titanium/titanium alloy
US5326376A (en) * 1993-08-23 1994-07-05 Zimmer, Inc. Femoral stem prosthesis
US5326362A (en) * 1990-11-05 1994-07-05 Zimmer, Inc. Method of surface hardening orthopedic implant devices
US5370694A (en) * 1989-07-25 1994-12-06 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Zirconium oxide and nitride coated endoprostheses for tissue protection
US5372660A (en) * 1993-08-26 1994-12-13 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Surface and near surface hardened medical implants
US5415704A (en) * 1992-02-07 1995-05-16 Smith & Nephew Richards Inc. Surface hardened biocompatible metallic medical implants
US5496359A (en) * 1989-07-25 1996-03-05 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Zirconium oxide and zirconium nitride coated biocompatible leads
US5509933A (en) * 1989-12-21 1996-04-23 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Medical implants of hot worked, high strength, biocompatible, low modulus titanium alloys
US5562730A (en) * 1989-12-21 1996-10-08 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Total artificial heart device of enhanced hemocompatibility
US5571191A (en) * 1995-03-16 1996-11-05 Fitz; William R. Artificial facet joint
US5573401A (en) * 1989-12-21 1996-11-12 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Biocompatible, low modulus dental devices
US5588443A (en) * 1989-07-25 1996-12-31 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Zirconium oxide and zirconium nitride coated guide wires
US5593452A (en) * 1994-02-01 1997-01-14 Howmedica Inc. Coated femoral stem prosthesis
US5628790A (en) * 1989-07-25 1997-05-13 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Zirconium oxide zirconium nitride coated valvular annuloplasty rings
US5674280A (en) * 1989-12-21 1997-10-07 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Valvular annuloplasty rings of a biocompatible low elastic modulus titanium-niobium-zirconium alloy
US5683442A (en) * 1989-12-21 1997-11-04 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Cardiovascular implants of enhanced biocompatibility
US5702448A (en) * 1990-09-17 1997-12-30 Buechel; Frederick F. Prosthesis with biologically inert wear resistant surface
US5811194A (en) * 1991-11-27 1998-09-22 Electro Chemical Engineering Gmbh Method of producing oxide ceramic layers on barrier layer-forming metals and articles produced by the method
US5814048A (en) * 1996-05-03 1998-09-29 Sofamor Danek Properties, Inc. Cranioplasty plates and method of installation
US5820707A (en) * 1995-03-17 1998-10-13 Teledyne Industries, Inc. Composite article, alloy and method
US5868879A (en) * 1994-03-17 1999-02-09 Teledyne Industries, Inc. Composite article, alloy and method
US5954724A (en) * 1997-03-27 1999-09-21 Davidson; James A. Titanium molybdenum hafnium alloys for medical implants and devices
US6110204A (en) * 1995-02-22 2000-08-29 Huber & Schussler Implant
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EP1228775A2 (en) * 2001-02-03 2002-08-07 Stryker Trauma GmbH Osteosynthetic device of steel, cobalt and/or titanium alloy
US20040101807A1 (en) * 2002-11-13 2004-05-27 Porter Stephan S. Dental implant system
US20050010293A1 (en) * 2003-05-22 2005-01-13 Zucherman James F. Distractible interspinous process implant and method of implantation
US20050123745A1 (en) * 2002-10-15 2005-06-09 Takehiro Takahashi Titanium material having coating layer at its surface laminated glass including the same and process for producing them
US20050143738A1 (en) * 1997-01-02 2005-06-30 St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc. Laterally insertable interspinous process implant
US20050240182A1 (en) * 1997-01-02 2005-10-27 St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc. Supplemental spine fixation device and method
US20050245929A1 (en) * 2004-04-28 2005-11-03 St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc. System and method for an interspinous process implant as a supplement to a spine stabilization implant
US20060036258A1 (en) * 2004-06-08 2006-02-16 St. Francis Medical Technologies, Inc. Sizing distractor and method for implanting an interspinous implant between adjacent spinous processes
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US20060106391A1 (en) * 2004-11-12 2006-05-18 Huebner Randall J Wire systems for fixing bones
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Cited By (144)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3811425A (en) * 1970-08-03 1974-05-21 G Widdifield Method and apparatus for mounting hair
US3786806A (en) * 1972-11-22 1974-01-22 A Johnson Thermoconstrictive surgical appliance
US4261063A (en) * 1978-06-29 1981-04-14 Ceraver Titanium or titanium alloy pin to be fixed in long bones
US4687487A (en) * 1978-07-21 1987-08-18 Association Suisse Pour La Recherches Horlogere Joint implant
WO1980000533A1 (en) * 1978-09-04 1980-04-03 Schwarzkopf Dev Co Medullary nail and process for the production thereof
US4446857A (en) * 1978-09-04 1984-05-08 Schwarzkopf Development Corporation Medullary nail and process for the production thereof
US4336617A (en) * 1980-01-21 1982-06-29 Shin-Etsu Chemical Company Limited Prosthetic substituted member for living body and a method for the surgical treatment by use thereof
US4405319A (en) * 1980-04-08 1983-09-20 Renal Systems, Inc. Porous titanium coating for blood access device
US4547910A (en) * 1981-05-18 1985-10-22 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Low friction bearing surfaces and structures particularly for artificial prosthetic joints
US4417888A (en) * 1982-03-15 1983-11-29 Renal Systems, Inc. Percutaneous implant
US4746532A (en) * 1985-08-08 1988-05-24 Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited Method for the production of endosseous implants
US4818559A (en) * 1985-08-08 1989-04-04 Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited Method for producing endosseous implants
US4790851A (en) * 1986-03-12 1988-12-13 France Implant Method for manufacturing surgical implants at least partially coated with a layer of a metal compound, and implants manufactured according to said method
US5080671A (en) * 1987-11-25 1992-01-14 Uri Oron Method of treating a metal prosthetic device prior to surgical implantation to enhance bone growth relative thereto following implantation
US5370694A (en) * 1989-07-25 1994-12-06 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Zirconium oxide and nitride coated endoprostheses for tissue protection
US5647858A (en) * 1989-07-25 1997-07-15 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Zirconium oxide and zirconium nitride coated catheters
US5632779A (en) * 1989-07-25 1997-05-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Zirconium oxide and zirconium nitride coated vascular grafts
US5628790A (en) * 1989-07-25 1997-05-13 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Zirconium oxide zirconium nitride coated valvular annuloplasty rings
US5037438A (en) * 1989-07-25 1991-08-06 Richards Medical Company Zirconium oxide coated prosthesis for wear and corrosion resistance
US5180394A (en) * 1989-07-25 1993-01-19 Davidson James A Zirconium oxide and nitride coated prosthesis for wear and corrosion resistance
US5611347A (en) * 1989-07-25 1997-03-18 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Zirconium oxide and zirconium nitride coated percutaneous devices
US5588443A (en) * 1989-07-25 1996-12-31 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Zirconium oxide and zirconium nitride coated guide wires
US5258022A (en) * 1989-07-25 1993-11-02 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Zirconium oxide and nitride coated cardiovascular implants
US5282850A (en) * 1989-07-25 1994-02-01 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Artificial heart components with wear resistant coatings of reduced thrombogenicity
US5152794A (en) * 1989-07-25 1992-10-06 Smith & Nephew Richards Inc. Zirconium oxide and nitride coated prothesis for reduced microfretting
US5496359A (en) * 1989-07-25 1996-03-05 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Zirconium oxide and zirconium nitride coated biocompatible leads
US5649951A (en) * 1989-07-25 1997-07-22 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Zirconium oxide and zirconium nitride coated stents
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US5782910A (en) * 1989-12-21 1998-07-21 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Cardiovascular implants of enhanced biocompatibility
US5716400A (en) * 1989-12-21 1998-02-10 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Cardiovascular implants of enhanced biocompatibility
US5676632A (en) * 1989-12-21 1997-10-14 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Ventricular assist devices of enhanced hemocompatibility
US5713947A (en) * 1989-12-21 1998-02-03 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Cardiovascular implants of enhanced biocompatibility
US5683442A (en) * 1989-12-21 1997-11-04 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Cardiovascular implants of enhanced biocompatibility
US5509933A (en) * 1989-12-21 1996-04-23 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Medical implants of hot worked, high strength, biocompatible, low modulus titanium alloys
US5562730A (en) * 1989-12-21 1996-10-08 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Total artificial heart device of enhanced hemocompatibility
US5674280A (en) * 1989-12-21 1997-10-07 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Valvular annuloplasty rings of a biocompatible low elastic modulus titanium-niobium-zirconium alloy
US5573401A (en) * 1989-12-21 1996-11-12 Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc. Biocompatible, low modulus dental devices
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FR2017247A1 (en) 1970-05-22 application
GB1267551A (en) 1972-03-22 application
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DE6933926U (en) 1970-01-02 grant

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