US3640270A - Electric contactor with venturi-suction means for organic tissue - Google Patents

Electric contactor with venturi-suction means for organic tissue Download PDF

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Publication number
US3640270A
US3640270A US3640270DA US3640270A US 3640270 A US3640270 A US 3640270A US 3640270D A US3640270D A US 3640270DA US 3640270 A US3640270 A US 3640270A
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Prior art keywords
housing
electrode
means
tube
contactor
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Heiner Hoffmann
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NIESS ELEKTROMED INGEBORG
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NIESS ELEKTROMED INGEBORG
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/0404Electrodes for external use
    • A61N1/0408Use-related aspects
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/04Detecting, measuring or recording bioelectric signals of the body or parts thereof
    • A61B5/0402Electrocardiography, i.e. ECG
    • A61B5/0408Electrodes specially adapted therefor
    • A61B5/04082Electrodes specially adapted therefor attached by means of suction
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/0404Electrodes for external use
    • A61N1/0472Structure-related aspects
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/20Applying electric currents by contact electrodes continuous direct currents
    • A61N1/26Electromedical brushes; Electromedical massage devices ; Combs

Abstract

A contactor for diagnostic or therapeutic use on human or animal tissue comprises a suction cup of elastomeric material containing an electrolyte-impregnated sponge near the mouth of the cup supported on an electrode plate from which a conductor extends insulatedly outwardly inside a tube leading to a source of air under pressure. This tube, traversing the cup inwardly of the electrode plate, forms a Venturi nozzle for aspirating air from the interior of the cup and terminates in an outlet which opens into the atmosphere for dispersing entrained liquid.

Description

Umted States Patent [151 3,640,270 Hoffmann 51 Feb. 8, 1972 [541 ELECTRIC CONTACTOR WITH 3,534,733 10/1970 Phipps ..l28/2.1 E VENTURLSUCTION MEANS FOR 3,505,993 4/1970 Lewes etal..... .....l28/2.06 E ORGANIC TISSUE 2,660,175 11/1953 Thrasher et al ..l28/404 3,170,459 2/1965 Phipps et al ..l28/2.06 E [72] Inventor: Heiner Hoflmann, Herrlingen, Germany [731 Assignee: Ingeborg um, Elektromedizinische, WWW-William Kamm Hen-Huge, Germany Attorney-Karl F. Ross [2]] 3 A contactor for diagnostic or therapeutic use on human or animal tissue comprises a suction cup of elastomeric material [30] Foreign Application Priority Data containing an electrolyte-impregnated sponge near the mouth of the cup supported on an electrode plate from which a con- 1969 Germany 19 39 ductor extends insulatedly outwardly inside a tube leading to a L "1 2. 28 1 la 4 7 source of air under pressure. This tube, traversing the cup in- 28/ l I418 5 0 wardly of the electrode plate, forms a Venturi nozzle for 58 Field of Search ..128l2.06 E, 2.06 R, 2.1 E, pirating the interim the cuP and eminates an 128/21 R, 404 410 411, 417, 418, mg 4 outlet which opens into the atmosphere for dispersing entrained liquid. [56] References Cited 7 Cl 3 M Figures UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,568,663 3/ 1971 Phipps 9 ll 7 A ff ELECTRIC CONTACTOR WITH VENTURI-SUCTION MEANS FOR ORGANIC TISSUE The present invention relates to a contactor for establishing electric communication with organic tissue, such as the skin of a human or animal body, for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. More particularly, it relates to acontactor utilizing a partial vacuum for holding an electrode onto the skin or other body tissue, in the presence of .a liquid electrolyte to facilitate the transition of ionsbetween the electrode and the tissue.

In simple cases a contactor of this type can be equipped with a hand pump, such as a rubber ball, to create the necessa- -ry pressure differential. In view of an unavoidable leakage between the tissue and the rim of the cup-shaped electrode housing, however, such a partial vacuum cannot be long maintained so that the contact time between the electrode and the tissue is limited. For prolonged contact, therefore, a suction pump must be used thereby the pressure differential can be maintained indefinitely.

The application of such suction to the interior of the cup tends to extract some of the electrolyte present therein with formation of housing, bridges between the electrode and the normally grounded pump housing these bridges shunting the usually high-ohmic input independence of a voltage source connected between that electrode and ground. Such shunts are particularly objectionable in the case of diagnostic instruments whose readings may be falsified by the resulting leakage current. The use of liquid separators or traps in the suction line, in order to break up these electrolytic bridges, is cumbersome and expensive, especially where a single pump serves several 'contactors of the aforedescn'bed type which must remain electrically insulated not only from the pump housing but also from one another. The maintenance of a specified pressure differential with the aid of a suction pump operating through interposed liquid separators is also difficult.

It is, therefore, the object of my present invention to provide a contactor of the general character referred to, serving as an attachmentfor. therapeutic or diagnostic apparatus including a source of electric current, in which the aforestated drawbacks are avoided.

The object is realized, pursuant to the invention, by the substitution of a source of high-pressure gas for the conventional suction pump, the gas traversing a conduit with a Venturi-type nozzle to create an underpressure communicated to the interior of the suction cup via a branch from that conduit. Any liquid aspirated through that branch and entrained by the gas passing through the main conduit is dispersed into the open air through an outlet discharging freely into the atmosphere, thereby positively preventing the formation of any electrolyte bridge.

Advantageously, according to a more specific feature of my invention, the conduit is a preferably metallic tube rigid with the cup-shaped housing. In this case a branch leading from the Venturi nozzle to the interior of the cup may be a short passage formed by a hole in an electrode plate within a housing and an adjoining hole in the tube wall. The metallic tube, together with a metallic nipple extending outwardly therefrom for connection to an air hose, may then form part of an external power supply, this conductor advantageously including a wire extending from the nipple toward the power supply within the gas line itself.

Since the only medium traveling between the pump and the suction cup is air or some other dry and nonconductive gas, the insertion of liquid separators in that path becomes unnecessary.

The invention will be described in greater detail hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawing in which:

FIG. 1 is a sectional side view of a contactor embodying the invention;

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line lI-Il of FIG. I; and

FIG. 3 is a top view partly in section on the line lIl-III of FIG. I.

The device shown in the drawing, attached to a diagnostic or therapeutic apparatus not further illustrated,.comprises a housing 1 of rubber or other elastomeric material formed with a mouth 3 which is bounded by an elastically deformable rim 2. The lower part of this housing as viewed in FIGS. 1 and 2 has the shape of an inverted cup whose bottom includes an electrode plate Sembedded in the elastomeric material. Also embedded in that material, but projecting downwardly toward the mouth 3, is a sponge 4 permeated by liquid electrolyte; upon firm application of the rim 2 to the skin of a human or animal body, the sponge 4 contacts the skin and establishes an ionic path between the latter and the electrode 5 upon which it bears. This electrode, in turn, is in contact with a metal tube 6 overlying same, tube 6 having a bore 8 with an outlet 7 opening into the atmosphere from the body of elastomeric material in which it is embedded. A constriction 9 near the opposite end of the tube receives a nozzle-shaped tip of a restrictive insert 10 held in place by a metallic nipple l1 threadedat'17 (FIG. 3) into the inlet end of the tube. The Venturi effect created at the junction of nozzle 10 with the restricted bore portion 9 of tube 6 generates suction which is communicated to the interior of the housingabove mouth 3 by way of a passage including a lateral hole 16 in tube 6, a hole 15 in'plate 5 aligned therewith and a corresponding hole in the layer of elastomeric material underlying the electrode plate. The length of the wider part of bore 8 is designed to attenuate the noise of the gas rushing through the tube 6. A wire 12, bearing insulation 13, extends from the free end of nipple 11 to a source of operating voltage, not shown, by way of a microammeter or equivalent means for testing the bioelectric resistance of the body if the apparatus is to be used for diag nostic purposes. A preferably flexible and electrically nonconductive hose 14 is fitted onto nipple ll (omitted in FIG. 3) and extends to the discharge part of a compressor, storage tank or other source of gas (e.g., air) under a sufficient pressure to generate (e.g., desired suction within the cup-shaped lower part of housing 1. The gas pressure may be adjusted to a desired level'by conventional regulating means likewise not illustrated.

Once the necessary suction has been created and the rim 2 of the cup is firmly seated on the skin of the body under test, the volume of air traversing the passage I5, 16 will be just sufficient to balance leakage losses. A small amount of electrolyte entrained with this air by the main flow through the tube 6 will be dispersed into the atmosphere at outlet 7 without creating any low-resistance current bridges between ground and the conductive housing part represented by electrode 5.

In practice, the rate of gas flow through the Venturi nozzle 9, 10 needed to maintain the desired subatmospheric pressure will be quite low. The orifice of insert 10 may have a diameter of about 0.25 mm.

It will be appreciated that parts of housing 1, other than electrode plate 5, could also be made of metal or other conductive material and that the sponge 4 is merely representa tive of a variety of means (such as, for example, reservoirs with restricted outlets) for storing a liquid electrolyte within the cup housing to provide the desired ionic contact.

Iclaim:

l. A contactor for establishing electric communication with organic tissue, comprising a generally cup-shaped housing consisting at least partly of conductive material, said housing having a mouth bounded by a tissue-engaging rim; storage means in said housing accessible through said mouth for maintaining a supply of liquid electrolyte in contact with the conductive part of said housing; conduit means leadin from a source of high-pressure gas to the atmosphere, said conduit means forming a Venturi nozzle and being provided with a branch leading from said nozzle to the interior of said housing for creating in the latter a partial vacuum to hold said rim in contact with tissue engaged thereby while dispersing entrained liquid from said storage means into the open air, and conductor means extending outwardly from said conductive part for connection to an external circuit.

2. A contactor as defined in claim 1 wherein said conduit means comprises a tube rigid with said housing.

3. A contactor as defined in claim 2 wherein said conductive part comprises an electrode plate in said housing spaced inwardly from said rim, said plate having a hole forming part of said branch.

4. A contactor as defined in claim 3 wherein said tube is metallic and contacts said electrode plate on the side thereof opposite said mouth.

5. A contactor as defined in claim 4 wherein said conduit means includes a metallic nipple integral with said tube and

Claims (7)

1. A contactor for establishing electric communication with organic tissue, comprising a generally cup-shaped housing consisting at least partly of conductive material, said housing having a mouth bounded by a tissue-engaging rim; storage means in said housing accessible through said mouth for maintaining a supply of liquid electrolyte in contact with the conductive part of said housing; conduit means leading from a source of highpressure gas to the atmosphere, said conduit means forming a Venturi nozzle and being provided with a branch leading from said nozzle to the interior of said housing for creating in the latter a partial vacuum to hold said rim in contact with tissue engaged thereby while dispersing entrained liquid from said storage means into the open air, and conductor means extending outwardly from said conductive part for connection to an external circuit.
2. A contactor as defined in claim 1 wherein said conduit means comprises a tube rigid with said housing.
3. A contactor as defined in claim 2 wherein said conductive part comprises an electrode plate in said housing spaced inwardly from said rim, said plate having a hole forming part of said branch.
4. A contactor as defined in claim 3 wherein said tube is metallic and contacts said electrode plate on the side thereof opposite said mouth.
5. A contactor as defined in claim 4 wherein said conduit means includes a metallic nipple integral with said tube and said conductor means comprises a lead tied to said nipple, said conduit means further including a hose fitted around said nipple and enveloping at least part of said lead.
6. A contactor as defined in claim 4 wherein said housing comprises an elastomeric shell surrounding said electrode plate and said tube.
7. A contactor as defined in claim 3 wherein said storage means comprises a sponge carried on a surface of said electrode plate confronting said rim.
US3640270A 1969-08-02 1970-07-29 Electric contactor with venturi-suction means for organic tissue Expired - Lifetime US3640270A (en)

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Cited By (39)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3844276A (en) * 1973-07-19 1974-10-29 J Mcdougall Probe and method for detecting estrus in animals
US4217908A (en) * 1978-10-16 1980-08-19 Bernard B. Staver Vector lead apparatus and methods of constructing and utilizing same
US4248243A (en) * 1978-08-25 1981-02-03 Fa. Ingeborg Niess Elektromedizinische Apparate Suspension arm for E.K.G. suction electrodes
JPS59137033A (en) * 1983-01-12 1984-08-06 Niess Ingeborg Electrode apparatus for voltage falling of electrophysiological voltage
JPS6158634A (en) * 1984-08-29 1986-03-25 Fukuda Denshi Kk Suction type induction electrode for living body
JPS6158633A (en) * 1984-08-29 1986-03-25 Fukuda Denshi Kk Suction type induction electrode for living body
JPS6158635A (en) * 1984-08-29 1986-03-25 Fukuda Denshi Kk Suction type induction electrode for living body induction electrode for living
JPS6158631A (en) * 1984-08-29 1986-03-25 Fukuda Denshi Kk Electrode sucking apparatus for living body
US4646747A (en) * 1983-10-28 1987-03-03 Astra-Tech Aktiebolag Electrode for electrocardiographic examinations
WO1987004062A1 (en) * 1986-01-10 1987-07-16 Andreas Ladislaus Strauss Apparatus for simultaneous determination of ophthalmic artery blood pressure and flow
US4736749A (en) * 1985-04-26 1988-04-12 Astra-Tech Aktiebolag Holder for medical use fixed by vacuum
WO1993016633A1 (en) * 1992-02-20 1993-09-02 Humanteknik Ab A device for securing an object to a surface by vacuum
US5472438A (en) * 1993-07-22 1995-12-05 Case Western Reserve University Laproscopic vacuum delivery apparatus for a diaphragm daper
US5741270A (en) * 1997-02-28 1998-04-21 Lumend, Inc. Manual actuator for a catheter system for treating a vascular occlusion
US5924985A (en) * 1997-07-29 1999-07-20 Ohmeda Inc. Patient probe disconnect alarm
US5968064A (en) * 1997-02-28 1999-10-19 Lumend, Inc. Catheter system for treating a vascular occlusion
US6010449A (en) * 1997-02-28 2000-01-04 Lumend, Inc. Intravascular catheter system for treating a vascular occlusion
US6081738A (en) * 1998-01-15 2000-06-27 Lumend, Inc. Method and apparatus for the guided bypass of coronary occlusions
US6120516A (en) * 1997-02-28 2000-09-19 Lumend, Inc. Method for treating vascular occlusion
US20010000041A1 (en) * 1997-12-19 2001-03-15 Selmon Matthew R. Methods and apparatus for crossing vascular occlusions
US6217549B1 (en) 1997-02-28 2001-04-17 Lumend, Inc. Methods and apparatus for treating vascular occlusions
US6259946B1 (en) * 1997-02-26 2001-07-10 Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Iontophoresis device structure
US6266550B1 (en) 1998-01-16 2001-07-24 Lumend, Inc. Catheter apparatus for treating arterial occlusions
US6345192B1 (en) 1998-09-08 2002-02-05 Venturi Medical Systems, Llc Electrode structure for electric contactor
US20020058961A1 (en) * 2000-10-16 2002-05-16 Aguilar Amiel R. Catheter
US6398798B2 (en) 1998-02-28 2002-06-04 Lumend, Inc. Catheter system for treating a vascular occlusion
US20020103459A1 (en) * 2000-12-05 2002-08-01 Sparks Kurt D. Catheter system for vascular re-entry from a sub-intimal space
US20020143358A1 (en) * 2001-02-13 2002-10-03 Domingo Nicanor A. Method and apparatus for micro-dissection of vascular occlusions
US6508825B1 (en) 1997-02-28 2003-01-21 Lumend, Inc. Apparatus for treating vascular occlusions
US6594522B1 (en) * 1999-02-25 2003-07-15 Tetsuya Korenaga Therapeutic device for generating low-or middle-frequency electromagnetic waves
US20030139645A1 (en) * 2002-01-23 2003-07-24 Adelman Thomas G. Rotational freedom for a body organ
US20030195408A1 (en) * 2002-04-16 2003-10-16 Hastings Mark J. Venturi ECG electrode system
US6663622B1 (en) 2000-02-11 2003-12-16 Iotek, Inc. Surgical devices and methods for use in tissue ablation procedures
US6773418B1 (en) 1999-08-18 2004-08-10 Iotek, Inc. Device and method for delivery of agents to the female reproductive tract
US20050021002A1 (en) * 2003-06-10 2005-01-27 Deckman Robert K. Catheter systems and methods for crossing vascular occlusions
US20090163905A1 (en) * 2007-12-21 2009-06-25 Winkler Matthew J Ablation device with internally cooled electrodes
US20090299364A1 (en) * 2008-04-21 2009-12-03 Medtronic, Inc. Suction Force Ablation Device
US8998892B2 (en) 2007-12-21 2015-04-07 Atricure, Inc. Ablation device with cooled electrodes and methods of use
US20170209097A1 (en) * 2016-01-21 2017-07-27 King's Metal Fiber Technologies Co., Ltd. Suction-attachment structure

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DE2610140C3 (en) * 1976-03-11 1981-06-19 Draegerwerk Ag, 2400 Luebeck, De
DE8706666U1 (en) * 1987-05-08 1988-09-15 Siemens Ag, 1000 Berlin Und 8000 Muenchen, De
EP0289905B1 (en) * 1987-05-08 1993-03-10 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Suction electrode
DE8809707U1 (en) * 1988-07-29 1989-11-23 Siemens Ag, 1000 Berlin Und 8000 Muenchen, De

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US3505993A (en) * 1964-12-23 1970-04-14 Nat Res Dev Electrocardiograph electrodes with surface convexities
US3534733A (en) * 1968-01-10 1970-10-20 Us Navy Spring-loaded suction cup-type biomedical instrumentation electrode
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US2660175A (en) * 1951-08-10 1953-11-24 Clyde E Thrasher Electrocardiograph electrode
US3170459A (en) * 1962-03-20 1965-02-23 Clifford G Phipps Bio-medical instrumentation electrode
US3505993A (en) * 1964-12-23 1970-04-14 Nat Res Dev Electrocardiograph electrodes with surface convexities
US3534733A (en) * 1968-01-10 1970-10-20 Us Navy Spring-loaded suction cup-type biomedical instrumentation electrode
US3568663A (en) * 1968-12-23 1971-03-09 Us Navy Physiological data acquisition system

Cited By (64)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3844276A (en) * 1973-07-19 1974-10-29 J Mcdougall Probe and method for detecting estrus in animals
US4248243A (en) * 1978-08-25 1981-02-03 Fa. Ingeborg Niess Elektromedizinische Apparate Suspension arm for E.K.G. suction electrodes
US4217908A (en) * 1978-10-16 1980-08-19 Bernard B. Staver Vector lead apparatus and methods of constructing and utilizing same
JPS59137033A (en) * 1983-01-12 1984-08-06 Niess Ingeborg Electrode apparatus for voltage falling of electrophysiological voltage
US4556065A (en) * 1983-01-12 1985-12-03 Ingeborg Niess Elektromedizinischee Apparate Electrode structure for electric contactor
JPH0230250B2 (en) * 1983-01-12 1990-07-05 Niess Ingeborg
US4646747A (en) * 1983-10-28 1987-03-03 Astra-Tech Aktiebolag Electrode for electrocardiographic examinations
JPS6158635A (en) * 1984-08-29 1986-03-25 Fukuda Denshi Kk Suction type induction electrode for living body induction electrode for living
JPS6158633A (en) * 1984-08-29 1986-03-25 Fukuda Denshi Kk Suction type induction electrode for living body
JPS6158634A (en) * 1984-08-29 1986-03-25 Fukuda Denshi Kk Suction type induction electrode for living body
JPH0470012B2 (en) * 1984-08-29 1992-11-09 Fukuda Denshi Kk
JPH0244217B2 (en) * 1984-08-29 1990-10-03 Fukuda Denshi Kk
JPS6158631A (en) * 1984-08-29 1986-03-25 Fukuda Denshi Kk Electrode sucking apparatus for living body
JPH0244216B2 (en) * 1984-08-29 1990-10-03 Fukuda Denshi Kk
US4736749A (en) * 1985-04-26 1988-04-12 Astra-Tech Aktiebolag Holder for medical use fixed by vacuum
US4907595A (en) * 1986-01-10 1990-03-13 Strauss Andreas L Apparatus for simultaneous determination of ophthalmic artery blood pressure and flow
FR2592784A1 (en) * 1986-01-10 1987-07-17 Strauss Andreas apparatus for measuring blood pressure, especially in the ophthalmic artery
WO1987004062A1 (en) * 1986-01-10 1987-07-16 Andreas Ladislaus Strauss Apparatus for simultaneous determination of ophthalmic artery blood pressure and flow
WO1993016633A1 (en) * 1992-02-20 1993-09-02 Humanteknik Ab A device for securing an object to a surface by vacuum
US5553612A (en) * 1992-02-20 1996-09-10 Humanteknik Ab Device for securing an object to a surface by vacuum
US5732699A (en) * 1992-02-20 1998-03-31 Humanteknik Ab Device for securing an object to a surface by vacuum
US5732700A (en) * 1992-02-20 1998-03-31 Humanteknik Ab Device for securing an object to a surface by vacuum
US5842985A (en) * 1992-02-20 1998-12-01 Humanteknik Ab Device for securing an object to a surface by vacuum
US5472438A (en) * 1993-07-22 1995-12-05 Case Western Reserve University Laproscopic vacuum delivery apparatus for a diaphragm daper
US6259946B1 (en) * 1997-02-26 2001-07-10 Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Iontophoresis device structure
US6638247B1 (en) 1997-02-28 2003-10-28 Lumend, Inc. Method and apparatus for treating vascular occlusions
US5968064A (en) * 1997-02-28 1999-10-19 Lumend, Inc. Catheter system for treating a vascular occlusion
US6010449A (en) * 1997-02-28 2000-01-04 Lumend, Inc. Intravascular catheter system for treating a vascular occlusion
US6800085B2 (en) 1997-02-28 2004-10-05 Lumend, Inc. Methods and apparatus for treating vascular occlusions
US6120516A (en) * 1997-02-28 2000-09-19 Lumend, Inc. Method for treating vascular occlusion
US6746462B1 (en) 1997-02-28 2004-06-08 Lumend, Inc. Methods and apparatus for treating vascular occlusions
US6599304B1 (en) 1997-02-28 2003-07-29 Lumend, Inc. Methods and apparatus for treating vascular occlusions
US5741270A (en) * 1997-02-28 1998-04-21 Lumend, Inc. Manual actuator for a catheter system for treating a vascular occlusion
US6508825B1 (en) 1997-02-28 2003-01-21 Lumend, Inc. Apparatus for treating vascular occlusions
US6217549B1 (en) 1997-02-28 2001-04-17 Lumend, Inc. Methods and apparatus for treating vascular occlusions
US5924985A (en) * 1997-07-29 1999-07-20 Ohmeda Inc. Patient probe disconnect alarm
US20010000041A1 (en) * 1997-12-19 2001-03-15 Selmon Matthew R. Methods and apparatus for crossing vascular occlusions
US6514217B1 (en) 1998-01-13 2003-02-04 Lumend, Inc. Methods and apparatus for treating vascular occlusions
US6241667B1 (en) 1998-01-15 2001-06-05 Lumend, Inc. Catheter apparatus for guided transvascular treatment of arterial occlusions
US6157852A (en) * 1998-01-15 2000-12-05 Lumend, Inc. Catheter apparatus for treating arterial occlusions
US6081738A (en) * 1998-01-15 2000-06-27 Lumend, Inc. Method and apparatus for the guided bypass of coronary occlusions
US6266550B1 (en) 1998-01-16 2001-07-24 Lumend, Inc. Catheter apparatus for treating arterial occlusions
US6398798B2 (en) 1998-02-28 2002-06-04 Lumend, Inc. Catheter system for treating a vascular occlusion
US6345192B1 (en) 1998-09-08 2002-02-05 Venturi Medical Systems, Llc Electrode structure for electric contactor
US6594522B1 (en) * 1999-02-25 2003-07-15 Tetsuya Korenaga Therapeutic device for generating low-or middle-frequency electromagnetic waves
US6773418B1 (en) 1999-08-18 2004-08-10 Iotek, Inc. Device and method for delivery of agents to the female reproductive tract
US6663622B1 (en) 2000-02-11 2003-12-16 Iotek, Inc. Surgical devices and methods for use in tissue ablation procedures
US20040073206A1 (en) * 2000-02-11 2004-04-15 Iotek, Inc. Surgical devices and methods for use in tissue ablation procedures
US20020058961A1 (en) * 2000-10-16 2002-05-16 Aguilar Amiel R. Catheter
US20020103459A1 (en) * 2000-12-05 2002-08-01 Sparks Kurt D. Catheter system for vascular re-entry from a sub-intimal space
US7004173B2 (en) 2000-12-05 2006-02-28 Lumend, Inc. Catheter system for vascular re-entry from a sub-intimal space
US20020143358A1 (en) * 2001-02-13 2002-10-03 Domingo Nicanor A. Method and apparatus for micro-dissection of vascular occlusions
US20030139645A1 (en) * 2002-01-23 2003-07-24 Adelman Thomas G. Rotational freedom for a body organ
US20030195408A1 (en) * 2002-04-16 2003-10-16 Hastings Mark J. Venturi ECG electrode system
US20060161068A1 (en) * 2002-04-16 2006-07-20 Hastings Mark J Venturi ECG electrode system
US7054677B2 (en) 2002-04-16 2006-05-30 Venturi Medical Systems Venturi ECG electrode system
US20050021002A1 (en) * 2003-06-10 2005-01-27 Deckman Robert K. Catheter systems and methods for crossing vascular occlusions
US8702679B2 (en) 2003-06-10 2014-04-22 Cordis Corporation Catheter systems and methods for crossing vascular occlusions
US20090163905A1 (en) * 2007-12-21 2009-06-25 Winkler Matthew J Ablation device with internally cooled electrodes
US8353907B2 (en) 2007-12-21 2013-01-15 Atricure, Inc. Ablation device with internally cooled electrodes
US8915878B2 (en) 2007-12-21 2014-12-23 Atricure, Inc. Ablation device with internally cooled electrodes
US8998892B2 (en) 2007-12-21 2015-04-07 Atricure, Inc. Ablation device with cooled electrodes and methods of use
US20090299364A1 (en) * 2008-04-21 2009-12-03 Medtronic, Inc. Suction Force Ablation Device
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